American revolution vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Parliament
British government
Stamp Act-1765
more British debts
Depression
A long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment
Duty
a persons job or assainment
thomas paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Princeton
Americans wonAfter losing Trenton, the British attacked, but Washington snuck behind them and took control
Did fighting occur before the declaration of Independence was written?
Yes
blockade
the isolating, closing off, or surrounding of a place, as a port, harbor, or city, by hostile ships or troops to prevent entrance or exit.
george washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
Continental Congress
Group formed in 1774, established militias
French aid
Sent trained soldiers to help Americans Marquis de Lafayette, a French noble, helped
Brandywine
first real battle of the revolution actually took place here
Rochambeau
Lead 6000 troops to Newport, Rhode Island and started planning an attack on New York.
 
Thomas Jefferson
The author of the Declaration of Independence.
Conway Cabral
A plot to remove George Washington from power. Horatio Gates would take over. The plan never launched, which was a good thing, as George Washington turned out to be a great leader of the war
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
King George III
King of England, stubborn, stupid, levied taxes even though he knew colonist would hate it, poor ruler, passed Quartering Act, hated colonists, wanted to show who's in charge
Boston Tea Party
1773- Protest against Tea Act; Colonists dressed up as indians and dumped all the tea in the harbor.
Tea Act
Colonists were forced to buy British tea
Who negotiated the Treaty of Paris?
Ben Franklin
 
John Adamas
 
John Jay
 
Henery Laurens
writs of assistance
legal documents that were blanket search warrants and allowed the British to search for smugglers.
Colonists who opposed England (2 names)
Patriots and Rebels
second continental congress
met in 1776, and signed the declaration of independence
ebineezer mcintosh
called to carry out acts against stamp act, made an effigy of andrew oliver, the guy brought over to enforce the stamp act
Legislative
Judicial
Executive
Law Makers
Judges of how law breakers should be punished
enforcers
Tree Strategy
General Wolfe's plan to take over New France by going to the "roots" of the tree. New France was the tree, the forts were its branches and Quebec was the roots.
ticonderoga
a village in NE New York, on Lake Champlain: site of French fort captured by the English 1759 and by Americans under Ethan Allen 1775. 2938.
Intolerable Acts
A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British
Peace treaty of 1783
signed in Paris, September 3, 1783 formally ends the American revolution
Sons of LibertyDaughters of Liberty
Organizations of men and women designed to protest the acts passed by Parliament. They used many methods to protest, some of which were violent and destructive of property.
Who said it? "I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
Nathan Hale
What was the border of the United States according to the Treaty of Paris?
North- Canada
South- Florida
East- Atlantic Ocean
South- Mississippi River
England was in debt
Had to pay for the French and Indian War
HOW LAFAYETTE HELPED THE AMERICANS WIN THE WAR
BROUGHT HIS OWN SHIP WITH FRENCH SOLDIERS AND FOUGHT ALONGSIDE THE AMERICANS
WASHINGTON'S TWO VICTORIES AT THE END OF 1776
BATTLE OF TRENTON AND BATTLE OF PRINCETON
Rebels
Patriots
Repeal
To abolish.
boycott
refuse to buy
force
soldiers and guns
grain
corn, wheat, oats
Patriots
Americans who supported independence
Ratify
to give official approval
Believed in seperation of powers
Montesquieu
1773
Boston tea party, Tea act
April 19, 1775
Revolutionary War Begins
torie
another name for a loyalist
28.Who was John Paul Jones? ***
a
punished
hurt someone for doing something wrong
Ben Franklin
oldest member of the congress
lexington
patriots gatheredon lex. green. shots fired resulting in eight patriots dead.
Loyalists
colonists who supported the British monarch and laws
British polocies after 1763 were designed to raise ________for the cost of running the empire
revenue
Loyalist
an American colonist who supported Britain and wanted to remain a part of the British Empire
Neutral
taking neither side in a conflict
July 4, 1776
Second Continental Congress adopts Declaration of Independence (the U.S.A. is born!) Independence announced.
Explain the reasons for the American victory at Yorktown. Consider such factors as the miscalculations of the British army leaders, the role of the Americans, and the role of the French.
essay
John Hancock
President of the Continental Congress; first to sign the declaration
Inflation
A steady increase in prices over time
british advantages
1. more experienced navy
2. larger population
3. more wealth and supplies
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of Bunker Hill
-June 1775 (Before Declaration)
-William Prescott "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes"
-Brits attack up hill 3x
-Colonists run when amo is low
-400 colonists die (from retreat)
-1,054 Brits die (1/3 of force)
-BRITISH WIN
-GW takes command of Colonial force
treason
betrayal of one's country or ruler, risk of signing the Declaration of Independance
minutemen
miltia members that were ready to fight on aminutes notice <americans>
Alexander Hamilton
Supported a strong federal government. The Federalist Party was founded on his conservative ideals.
yorktown
in 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops... where the british retreated to when nathanael greene forced them to
Horatio Gates
an American general who defeated Burgoyne's troops and his plan
patriot
a person who supported the colonists during the Revolutionary War
Charles Cornwallis
Commanding general of the British forces that were defeated at Yorktown in 1781, ending the American Revolution.
Effigy
a rag doll representing an unpopular individual
John Paul Jones
American naval leader who defeated British at North Sea
Battle of Saratoga
A battle where General Burgoyne's troops suffered a terrible defeat because they were badly outnumbered by Patriots.
Pilgrim
Is a person who traveled for religious purposes
Boston Massacre
A clash between some 60 townspeople and a squad of about 10 British redcoats where the troops, acting under extreme provocation, opened fire and killed or wounded 11 citizens in 1770.
Who won the Battle of Bunker Hill?
The British
Surrendered
declared that an enemy had won and that fightting could stop.
2nd Continental Congress
Hancock was president of the Congress
Washington appointed as commander of army
Fort Laurens
Place american soldiers built. It is near Bolivar
Mercenaries
a soldier paid to fight for a country
mercenary
a person hired to fight for another country than their own
declaration of independence
document by the founding fathers stating freedom from GB
When was the Declaration of Independence formally approved by Congress?
July 4, 1776
Stamp Act
Act colonist objected to saying they had no representation in Parliament
First continental congress
A gathering of colonial leaders (except Georgia) who were deeply troubled by their relationship with Great Britain. They decided to keep boycotting British goods.
Sugar/Tea/Stamp Acts
Laws that forced colonists to pay taxes.
equality
a state of being essentially equal or equivalent
ally
a country that agrees to help or support another country
common sence
a 1776 essay by thomas paine that urged the colonies to declare independece.
Who were the loyalists?
those who opposed independence and remained loyal to the king
Samuel Adams
Cousin of John Adams, was the rebel colonist that was the leader of the Sons of Liberty and the organizer of the Boston Tea Party.
James Otis
member of stamp act congress said ''No taxation without representation''
The Declaration of Independance
Congress asks Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and many others to write it. The Declaration begins with the Preamble, their natural rights, the British Wrongs (this was the longest section), and finally their independance.
petition
a document signed by a lot of people which asks a government or other official group to do a particular thing
Taxation without Representation
Slogan of colonial grievance due to paying $ without consent
control the hills
Battle of Bunker Hill: Patriot leaders knew if they could _____, they could bring up cannons and fire them down on the British in Boston.
The Treaty of Paris
Britain recognizes independence of the U.S.; boundaries of the new nation are established; American ships are given unlimited access; The government of the U.S. agreed it would not interfere with British creditors and merchants seeking to collect debts; the U.S. would compensate loyalists whose property had been confiscated
Which act was the only real "tax"?
The Stamp Act
battle of trenton
gw needed to win before enlistments ended, plans to cross delaware christmas night and attack early morning catching hessians by suprise. Hessians are exauhsted and is a easy victory for washington
"Gentleman" Johnny Burgoyne
British general who lost at Saratoga; too much luggage with china and champagne!
Inalienable
a right or power that cannot be taken from you.
lexington and concord
marks the beginning of the war and shows britain this wont be an easy victory; leads to the 2nd continental congress
Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
Which side did Africans fight on more?
British- they promised freedom.
Ethan Allen
led the Green Mt. boys who took the cannons from Fort Ticonderoga
Define: Quartering Act
This forced colonists to house British Soldiers in their homes.
December, 1773, John Hancock, Mohawk
In ________ 16th, ____, three ships dock in Boston Harbors. The Sons of Liberty, led by Samuel Adams and ____ _______, dressed as ______ Natives and boarded the ship at midnight.This started the Boston Tea Party
Marquis de Lafayette
who was the french man who helped the americans
Dr. Samuel Prescott
Another of the 3 riders who warned of the British raid on Concord - only one who actually reached Concord.
It helped gain support to fight against the British taxes
How did propaganda influence the reputation of the Boston Massacre (or how people thought of the event)?
They were fighting at home. The British were 3,000 miles away from home and had to ship men and supplies.
Britain versus the Colonies: What advantage did the colonies have?
Three parts of the Declaration of Independence
Basic Rights, British Wrongs, and An Independent Nation
Name some things that had to be stamped by order of the Stamp Act
EVERY FORM OF PAPER including: newspapers, pamphlets, bonds, deeds, insurace policies, college diplomas, and playing cards
What was the basic idea about the Declaration of Independence with the goverment?
1) Protect basic rights
2) People can over throw goverment
Concept
Idea
Swamp Fox
Francis Marion
quarter
provide housing for someone
Continental Army
The Patriot's army.
Declare
Say in an official way.
Battle of Princeton (NJ)
campfire tactic
Redcoats
Colonists' term for British soldiers
delegate
A member of an elected assembly.
glorious revolution
revolution against james the second.
Nullification
the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress
France
gave secret aid to the Americans
Plymouth
founded by Plymouth Company (pilgrims) in Northern VA
Navigation Acts
Laws that governed trade between England and it's colonies.
Checks and balances
Constitutional system designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the other two
act
a law that has been officially accepted by parliament or congress
Trenton
The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians in the ___ on Christmas Day, 1776.
Lord Cornwallis
British general who surrendered at Yorktown.
Magna Carta
a document that protected English nobles by limiting the king's ability to tax them and guaranteeing due process (right to a trial)
boston
state capital and largest city of Massachusetts boston tea part was there
Crispus Attucks
dockworker who was part African part Natvie that was killed in the Boston Massacure
general cornwallis
was a british general who surrendered at Yorktown
General Lord Cornwallis
British general who surrendered to George Washington; Yorktown
Treaty of Paris
-(1783) was Spain, France, Britian, and America to decide US independence
-From America were John Adams, Ben Franklin, and John Jay
-Britian didn't want to but decided on US independence and boundaries
Tea Act-1773
Repealed Townshend Acts.Put a tax on tea and made East India company a giant on tea imports.
francis marion
a patriot leader who used hit-and-run attacks a.k.a guerilla
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Ordinance of 1785
This divided public lands into townships of six miles square each and the subdivided each township into one mile square lots.
privateers
ships that are privately owned but are urged to attack enemy ships during a war
Declaratory Act
Parliament announces that they are in charge of the colonies
congress
a meeting where a chosen or elected group of people discuss ideas, make decisions and make the laws
natural rights
rights that belong to all people from birth
indentured servant
a person who agreed to work for another person without pay for a certain length of time in exchange for passage to North America
When was the beginning of the Revolution?
April 19, 1775
declaration of independence 1776
the document stating the colonies independence from great britian the proclamation to the second continental congress
Treaty of Paris (1783)
This September 1783 agreement was ratified by Congress in January 1784 and it ended the Revolutionary War--granting the US its independence. It further granted the US all land east of the Mississippi River.
In 1783 Great Britian and the United States signed a __________________.
peace treaty
Mary Ludwing Hayes
know as molly pitcher after brining wather to the solidesr at the Battle of MOnmouth and taking over er wounded husbands on the cannon there
What assembled on September 5, 1774?
the First Continental Congress
motion for independence , offered to the contental congress by on june 7, 1776 called for confederation of the states
Richard Henery Lee
Robert Morris
An American merchant and a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. Significance: He played an important role in personally financing the American side in the Revolutionary War from 1781 to 1784. Hence, he came to be known as the 'Financier of the Revolution'.
harbor
an area of water next to the land where the water is calm, so that ships are safe when they are inside it
Advantage of british military
Resources and supplies for army and navy
Declaration and Resolves
This was a statement of rights the delagates adopted which had originally been enacted in Massachusetts as the Suffolk Resolves.
They declared the Intolerable Acts null and void. Recommended that colonists arm themselves and that militias be formed.
And recommended a boycott of British imports.
Sons/Daughters of Liberty
Men burned stamps, women did not dring any tea
Paul Revere
who was sent to warn the militia that the brittish were coming
Sugar, Tea, Stamp Acts
Laws that forced colonists to pay taxes on goods.
French and Indian War
This struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War.
Causes of Revolutionary War
After the French and Indian War, the British attitude towards the colonies was different. The British national debt had climbed over 100 million pounds, hundreds of thousands of which had been used to protect the British colonies in America in the French and Indian War .
Blockade of colonies
One of the British tactics to win the war/kept supplies from getting to America from other countries
The world turned upside down
Song played when British were getting surrendered.
What did Parliament pass in May 1773 to help the struggling British East India Company?
Tea Act of 1773
What strategy did British Commander in Chief Clinton hope to use when he shifted the focus of the war to the South?
to supplement his troops with backcountry southerners
What were five reasons the colonists were dissatisfied?
1. No representation in Parliament
2. They resented the power of the colonial governors
3. England wanted to control colonial legislatures
4. They opposed taxes
5. The Proclamation of 1763 hampered the westward movement
"All men created equal..." referred to
All free white men living in the colonies
what did the proclamation of 1763 do?
it prevented settlers from going west of the appliachian mountains
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."
Don't waste your ammunition until the British were close enough so you can't miss
militia
citizen army
Document
A written paper
whigs
a political party
RADICAL
PERSON FAVORS EXTREME CHANGES/REFORM
Quartering Act
March 24th 1765
Battles for Philadelphia
Germantown and Brandywine
hessians
german soldiers allied with english
Settlers v. Natives
settlers wanted western lands.
Jefferson moved natives to unoccupied lands
Colonial Advantages
Americans fighting for liberty, Americans had excellent officers, able to utilize guerrilla warfare, received financial support from france and greatly benefited from direct intervention, hoped war would convince British public that continuing war was senseless
sugar act
less taxes on foreign sugar
John Sullivan
Commanded patriotic forces that retaliated against the Iriquios and Brants for raiding white settlements. So he led several raids on Indian settlements causing a lot of them to flee to Canada.
Burgoyne
British General who was defeated at the Battle of Saratoga (turning point of the war).
Stamp Act 1765
Taxed legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, all printed materials
sybil ludington
warned colonists that the british troops were coming
When the price of tobacco skyrocketed after a bad crop in 1758, the Virginia legislature passed the A) Two-Penny Act B) Navigation Acts C) Stamp Act D) Intolerable Acts
A
Saratoga
Battle that was the major turning point of the Revolutionary War because the French said they would send troops
Friedrich von Stueben
imposter who trained Washington's troops at Valley Forge
privateer
a privately owned ship that has government permission during wartime to attack an enimies merchant ship
stratification
This social structure of the English colonies became more apparent as the seventeenth century came to a close. The influx of more affluent immigrants and the further development of the plantation economy in the South further distanced the gap between rich and the poor. The Puritans in New England viewed wealth and success as a sign that one was a member of the elect, and in the South this social structure had been carried over from the old feudal society of England.
Continental Association
created by the 1st Continental Congress; enforced the non-importation of British goods; empowered the local Committees of Vigilance to fine or arrest violators of the non-importation movement
British generals
1. General Burgoyne
2. General Howe
3. General St. Leger
Loyal Nine
political group in boston. merchants distillers master craftsmen shipowners who opposed the stamp act. made a procession in 1765 to protest it. 2-3 thousand protestors(no negroes) burned stampmasters effigy. when the loyal nine leaders left the crowd destroyed masters property. loyal nine denounced this
3/5 Compromise
3/5 of a state's slave population would count when voting.
William Howe
Major General in revolution. Took over after Thomas Gage
rebel
British slang term for an American (or Patriot) not loyal to Britain during the war
General de Grasse
the Frenchman whose ship trapped Cornwallis at Yorktown
General Charles Cornwallis
British General that surrendered to General Washington
War of 1812
War over impressment and confiscated cargo.
British attack strategy:
1. move down St. Lawrence river.
2. try and capture Washington DC
3. Move towards New Orleans
dark days
During the years 1776-1777 were called the _________ ________ of the war.
New Jersey Plan
Proposed a unicameral legislature with representation being equal among the states.
Hessian
German soldier paid to fight for Great Britain during the Revolutionary War
Daughters of Liberty
Women who protested British policies by making their own cloth/fabric.
Lemuel Hayes
One of the first African American soldiers.
Patriots advantages
homeland, wanted to fight for freedom, had a great leader George Washington
Olive Branch Petition
Still pledge loyalty to King George III but are still asking Britain to respect the rights and liberties of the colonies, repeal oppressive legislation, and British troops out of the colonies; George 3 didn't want anything to do with them and declared all colonies in a state of rebellion
Post-war Problems:
Government must be setup for new land, money was needed, hostile native Americans must be dealt with, French Canadians must be assimilated into British culture, new trade channels must be in place, colonies weren't ready for taxes or restrictions
John Rolfe
Was the Man who saved Jamestown with his tobacco plant
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Republican theorists
maintained that a free people had to practice public virtue
Where was the first major victory of Revolutionary War?
Dorchester Heights
The Constitutional Act
When all the Loyalists began moving into Canada, they didn't want to be living with some Frenchies. Guy Carleton agreed and so the Constitutional Act split Canada into Lower Canada (Lower down the St. Lawrence) which was for the French speaking peoples, and Upper Canada (up the St. Lawrence) for the English speaking peoples. Lower Canada kept its French language, law, religion and traditions while Upper Canada kept with British laws and traditions.
Native Americans
-Most native tribes fought on side of English -British guaranteed them their land if they won the war. -After British loss, American settlers took over native lands.
albany congress
to keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to britian.
Explain the Boston Massacre.
Colonists were violently resisting the Townshend Acts so Britain sent the troops to Boston. A crowd threatened the soldiers and the soldiers opened fire on the crowd.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War in which British general Charles Cornwallis surrendered to the Patriots.
Shay's Rebellion
Took place in MA: Farmers that were in debt due to British taxes raised an army to shut down courts in order to block foreclosure hearings. Farmers didn't want to lose their property but couldn't afford to pay the high taxes imposed by the British.
The war left the nation with a debt of about $__ million.
27
Benedict Arnold
was a patriot who told the britsh the patriots plans
Declaratory Act (1766)
-Passed just after the repeal of the Stamp Act
-Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases
battle of ny
gw guesses NYC next british target , asks permission from congress not to fight nyc but congress makes him do it anyway. loses
Resistance to the Stamp Act
1765, NYC. Stamp Act Congress. Created Declaration of Rights, stating that colonists couldn't be taxed because of lack of representation in Parliament. Sons of Liberty and Loyal Nine attacked tax agents.
Battle at Lexington and Concord
A Brittish attempt to seize Patriot arms which lead to the first battle of the American Revolution. Effect: 400 Minutmen were killed (8 Americans) Effect: 303 Brittish soldiers were killed and wounded.
Where did the Patriots and Loyalists come from?
All walks of life in America
To tar and feather
to smear with hot tar and roll in feathers
American and french troops laid seige to Cronwallis's army
Why was Cornwallis forced to surrender Yorktown?
Four Advantages Americans had during the American Revolution
1. Better Leadership 2. Foreign Aid 3. Knowledge of the land. 4. Motivation
What does the first section of the Declaration of Independence stress?
it stresses the idea of natural rights
Why did Washington have a hard time keeping men to fight for independence?
Many of the men were not use to taking orders from a commander. Some of the men would only fight in battles near their homes. Others would leave the army when it was time to plant or harvest crops.
Propaganda
Information,ideas,or rumors taht are spread to hurt OR help a group, a person,or an idea
treaty
a formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries
Nathaniel Greene
Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker"; significant in the Battle of Cowpens
Serapis
British warship that escorted a large fleet of merchant ships. Fought and surrendered to Bohomme River
independence
political freedom from control by the government of another country
Proclamation
An officail public statement about a law or something that is important
French Assistance
French secretly helped Americans, by signing the Treaty of Alliance(giving them money and supplies to help win the war)
General William Howe
British commander who gathered forces to battle at the southern end of New York
George Rogers Clark
A lieutenant colonel in Virginia militia, set out to end British attacks on western settlements
contnental
relating to a continent, or large mass of land
tyranny
abusive, cruel, or unfair use of power to have control over other people
traitor
a person who betrays his country by doing something to hurt its government
levy
to officially say that people must pay a tax or charge
self-evident
clearly true and needing no more proof or evidence
Which victory was accomplished with new shots?
Victory in Boston.
Britain
the name of the country that incldues England, Scotland,+ Wales
Friedrich von Steuben
Man who turned the ragged Continental Army into a more effective fighting force
Revolution
A time when pepole change a rule or political system by using force or violence
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the colonists that it was time to become independent
How long was it between writing the Declaration of Independence and the Treaty of Paris
7 years
Judith Sargeant Murray
A woman who argued that women's minds are as good as mens
Inalienable Rights
A right or power that cannot be taken from you.
Admiral de Grasse
A French admiral; had a powerful fleet in the West Indies that he offered to Washington to help in an attack on Cornwallis at Yorktown
In which battle did they have to cross the Delaware on Christmas Eve?
Battle of Trenton
1791 the bill of rights
the first 10 amendments to the u.s. constitution that declared essential personal rights of citizens
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