Chapter 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dr. Romero is using a number of tests and techniques in an attempt to identify the factors that are influencing her client’s functioning. Dr. Romero is engaging in a process more formally defined as...
...a psychological assessment.
A _____ is a procedure in which a clinician provides a formal evaluation of an individual’s cognitive, personality, and psychosocial functioning.
Psychological assessment
The _____ of a test indicates the consistency of the scores it produces.
Which of the following terms refers to how well a test measures what it is designed to measure?
Cathy is given the task of measuring the volume of water a wading pool will hold. Unfortunately, the instrument she chooses to use to accomplish this task is a thermometer. Cathy is carrying out a procedure that is NOT a _____ measure of volume.
Mr. Tate clearly specifies a test’s instructions for administration and scoring. He gives each individual in the room an hour to finish the visual-spatial task. Which of the following psychometric criterion has Mr. Tate used?
A good psychological test is one that follows standardized procedures for scoring and...
...instructions for administration. (?)
Jonathan, a clinician, unintentionally makes generic and vague statements about his client Amy that do not specifically characterize her. The statements describe Amy as a strong person but also suggest that she could display fragility under difficult circumstances. This can be true for most people. Which of the following is Jonathan’s interpretation characteristic of?
"Barnum Effect"
Deciding which methods of assessment are appropriate for different types of clients in different types of situations is an aspect of:
Evidence-based Assessment (?)
A series of questions that clinicians administer in a face-to-face interaction with the client that enables the clinicians to make observations of their clients is known as...
...clinical interview
What type of interview relies on a set of open-ended questions designed to assess the client’s reasons for being in treatment, symptoms, health status, family background, and life history?
Unstructured interview
Dr. Sebastian is trying to determine Ralph’s reason for seeking treatment by asking him a series of open-ended questions. He wants to determine Ralph’s family background and life history. What type of assessment technique is Dr. Sebastian employing?
Unstructured interview
The _____ interview is a standardized series of assessment questions, with a predetermined wording and order.
Structured interview
In addition to noting the answers to questions in an unstructured interview, the clinician also observes the client’s _____.
Body language.
A clinician watches a client through a one-way mirror and records the number of times he engages in self-injurious behavior. This assessment method is commonly referred to as a...
...mental status examination (?)
When using the _____ interview, the clinician pursues specific lines of questioning based on the client’s answers to predetermined questions.
(SCID) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (?)
Which of the following statement is true with regard to Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID)?
Clinicians who administer the SCID modify the wording and order of questions to accommodate the particular individual whom they are examining.
Despite their names, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders are actually which type of interviews?
Clinical Interview (?)
Which of the following is an advantage that the structured interview has over the unstructured interview?
The structured interview is a systematic approach that is less subject to variations from clinician to clinician than an unstructured interview. Also, anyone with proper training can administer the SCID. A SCID-based diagnosis of a mood disorder means the same thing regardless of who conducted the study.
A mental status examination ...
...assesses a client's current state of mind.
Which of the following is a structured tool that clinicians use as a brief screening device to assess dementia?
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
Which of the following areas assessed during a mental status exam is primarily relevant in terms of understanding a client’s receptivity to treatment?
Outcome = description of how the client looks, thinks, feels, and behaves. (?)
A(n) _____ is a method of objectively assessing a client’s behavior and functioning in a number of spheres, with particular attention to the symptoms associated with psychological disturbance.
Mental Status Examination
Mrs. Jones is 79 years old. She often forgets where she is and thinks she is a teenager. Doctors have diagnosed her condition as dementia. Which of the following structured tools will be used to assess her condition?
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
Which of the following is NOT one of the areas of functioning assessed by the mental status examination?
Features Assessed:
Appearance, attitudes, behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought processes, content of thought, perception, cognition, insight, and judgment.
Rachael’s therapist is trying to determine her current functioning by examining her behavior, thought process, mood and affect, insight, and judgment. The therapist is actually conducting a...
Mental status examination.
What kind of psychological test yields information about cognitive evaluation?
Blooms: Understand...
IQ tests.
Through intelligence testing, clinicians can obtain standardized scores that...
...allow them to evaluate the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of their clients.
Who developed the first IQ test?
Alfred Binet
_____ is an index of intelligence derived from comparing the individual’s score on an intelligence test with the mean score for that individual’s reference group.
Deviation Intelligence (IQ)
The IQ score that is obtained by converting the client’s actual test score to a value that is a comparison of this score with other scores from individuals of a similar age and gender is referred to as the _____ IQ.
Deviation Intelligence
Which of the following IQ scores indicates average intelligence?
100 with a standard deviation of 15.
Which of the following tests provides an IQ score as well as measurements of other factors such as fluid reasoning, knowledge, and working memory?
SB5 (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test)
Which of the following aspects of the Stanford-Binet 5 (SB5) indicate the ability to solve novel problems?
Fluid Reasoning
Jim was asked to assemble a three-dimensional puzzle while taking the SB5 Test. Which type of ability is assessed by SB5 in this situation?
Visual-Spatial Reasoning
The Stanford-Binet is to _____ as the WAIS-R is to _____.
Alfred Binet / David Wechsler (?)
Originally the Wechsler IQ test had two categories, verbal and...
_____ measures visual-spatial and fluid reasoning
SB5 (Stanford-Binet 5)
Harvey is asked to recall a series of digits in forward order and backward order. Which of the following scales is being tested in Harvey’s case?
Working Memory
Which index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV includes symbol search tests and coding tests?
Processing Speed
Which of the following is the main form of personality tests?
Self-Report and Projective Tests
A psychological test with standardized questions having fixed response categories that the test-taker completes independently is referred to as a
Self-report clinical inventory
Amelia takes a psychological test with standardized questions having fixed response category as “true” or “false.” She completes the test independently on the computer and reports the extent to which the responses are accurate characterizations. This test is objective in the sense that the scoring does not involve any form of subjective judgment on the part of the examiner. Which form of personality test did Amelia undertake?
Self-Report Test
Which of the following is the most commonly administered self-report inventory?
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) current version: MMPI-2
Recent efforts to revamp the MMPI-2 have involved the development of...
...restructured clinical scales (RC's) (?)
Which of the following self-report clinical inventories yields scores on ten “clinical” and three “validity” scales?
Which of the following makes it possible to determine whether or not a person is lying on the MMPI-2?
L. Lie scale
Which of the following clinical scales of the MMPI-2 is designed to measure antisocial tendencies and moral attitudes?
4. Psychopathic deviat
The extent to which an individual ascribes to stereotypic sex-role behaviors and attitudes is measured by which scale of the MMPI-2?
5. Masculinity-feminity
Samantha has persistent delusions that the CIA is trying to kill her. Based on this information, on which subscale of the MMPI-2 would she be likely to score highly?
6. Paranoia (?)
A person who tends to worry too much and has unreasonable fears would probably score high on which scale of the MMPI-2?
7. Psychasthenia
Information about the test-taker’s defensiveness, misrepresentation of self, or confusion while taking the MMPI-2 can be gleaned from which scale scores?
8. Schizophrenia
Joshua is overactive and aggressive most of the times. He has an unrealistic sense of superiority and his behavior lacks substantial forethought. Which clinical scale of the MMPI-2-RF indicates Joshua's condition?
9. Hypomania
Which of the following is an advantage that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has over the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)?
One advantage of the PAI is that clinicians can use it with clients who may not have the language or reading skills to complete the MMPI-2.
Which of the following is an advantage of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)?
Unlike the MMPI, one calculates the validity scale independently of any of the content scales.
Which of the following indicates an advantage of SCL-90-R?
It focuses on the client's current status rather than asking about symptoms over a previous period of time.
Scott has just taken a self-report inventory that will indicate his scores on the five personality dimensions, or sets of traits.. The scales are designed so the test-taker can complete them as well as individuals who know the test-taker, such as spouses, partners, or relatives. Scott has just taken the...
NEO Personality Inventory (Revised)
The _____ technique requires the test-taker to comment on what he or she sees when presented with an ambiguous stimulus.
Why are,clients less guarded about their responses on projective tests?
Because they don't know how the assessor will interpret their answers.
Which of the following is the most famous projective technique?
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Which projective test consists of stimuli that are a series of black-and-white ink drawings and photographs portraying people in a variety of ambiguous contexts?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Pablo’s therapist is telling him to look at black-and-white drawings that portray people in a variety of ambiguous situations. Pablo’s task is to tell a story about what is happening in each scene, focusing on such details as what the characters in the picture are thinking and feeling. Pablo’s therapist is administering the...
...Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A person taking the TAT is asked to...
...tell a story about what is happening in each scene, focusing on such details as what the characters in the picture are thinking and feeling.
Measurement techniques based on objective recordings of an individual’s actions are referred to as...
...behavioral assessment.
Behaviors of interest or concern that the client and clinician wish to change are called... behavior.
Which of the following records actions rather than responses to rating scales or questions?
Behavioral assessments
Process involving the recording of behavior in its natural context, such as the classroom or the home is known as _____ observation.
In vivo [observation]
Dr. Donahue is observing a hyperactive boy’s aggressive behavior on the playground. Dr. Donahue is engaging in... vivo observation.
_____ take place in a setting or context such as a clinician’s office or a laboratory specifically designed for observing the target behavior.
Analog observations
Since some natural settings do not lend themselves to unobtrusive observation, many clinicians utilize the technique of...
...analog observations. (?)
Which method of behavioral assessment requires that the client provide information about the frequency of particular behaviors?
Behavioral self-report.
A behavioral self-reporting technique in which the client keeps a record of the frequency of specified behaviors is known as _____.
Dr. Schwartz is requesting that his client keep a tally of the number of times per hour he says negative things to his wife. Which assessment technique is Dr. Schwartz employing?
_____ is an assessment process in which clinicians ask questions about the target behavior’s frequency, antecedents, and consequences.
Behavioral interviewing
Dr. Winger questions her client about his drinking problem, focusing on events that precede and follow a drinking binge. This specific technique is called...
Behavioral interviewing.
An assessment process in which clinicians take into account the person’s cultural, ethnic, and racial background is known as _____.
Multicultural assessment.
Lian, a Chinese American, was asked by her clinician if she could speak English fluently. The clinician took into account Lian’s cultural, ethnic, and racial background. Which of the following was performed by Lian’s clinician?
Multicultural assessment.
The process of gathering information about a client’s brain functioning on the basis of performance on psychological tests is referred to as _____ assessment.
Neuropsychological [assessment].
Which of the following is true about neuropsychological assessment?
Clinicians use neuropsychological assessment measures to attempt to determine the functional correlates of brain damage by comparing a client's performance on a particular test with normative data from individuals who are known to have certain types of injuries or disorders. (?)
According to the clinicians, which of the following refers to the ability to formulate goals, make plans, carry out those plans, and then complete the plans in an effective way??
"Executive function"
A Trail Making Test...
...evaluates frontal lobe functioning, and focuses on attention, scanning of visual stimuli, and number sequencing.
Which of the following measures visuospatial ability?
Clock Drawing Test & Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
Which of the following is a test of executive functioning?
A test that evaluates frontal lobe functioning, and focuses on attention, scanning of visual stimuli, and number sequencing. (?)
Which of the following is assessed by the Boston Naming Test (BNT)?
Language capacity.
Alan, a child with learning disabilities, was assessed by a neuropsychologist. The test contained 60 line drawings of objects ranging in familiarity. Alan was supposed to choose from among four choices to correctly identify the object. Simple items were those that had high frequency. Which of the following tests was used by the neuropsychologist to assess Alan’s condition?
Boston Naming Test (BNT)
Which of the following tests is used to assess adults who suffer from brain injury and dementia?
Boston Naming Test (BNT)
Which of the following is assessed by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test?
Auditory information processing speed, flexibility, and calculation ability.
The tasks on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test require that the client...
...responds before hearing the next digit to score the response correctly.
Which of the following is used by clinicians to extensively assess the functioning of individuals with multiple sclerosis?
Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)
Which neuropsychological test investigates a variety of memory functions that includes tests of working and long-term memory for visual and verbal stimuli?
Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV)
Testing in which the client’s responses to earlier questions determine the subsequent questions presented to them is known as _____ testing.
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB) consists of 22 subtests that assess...
...visual memory, working memory, executive function and planning, attention, verbal memory, and decision making and response control.
Which of the following describes the Glascow Coma Scale (GCS)?
A common test that clinicians use in cases of possible traumatic brain injury.
An assessment method that provides a picture of the brain’s structures or level of activity and therefore is a useful tool for “looking” at the brain is known as _____.
Which of the following is a measure of changes in the electrical activity of the brain?
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
_____ activity reflects the extent to which an individual is alert, resting, sleeping, or dreaming.
Clinicians use EEGs to evaluate clients for conditions such as...
...epilepsy, sleep disorders, and brain tumors.
The _____ consists of a series of X-rays taken from various angles around the body that are integrated by a computer to product a composite picture.
Computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)
Which imaging method provides an image of a cross-sectional slice of the brain from any angle or level?
CAT / CT scan
A computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan)...
...provide an image of the fluid-filled areas of the brain, the ventricles.
The use of radiowaves rather than X-rays to construct a picture of the living brain based on the water content of various tissues is known as _____.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Which of the following produces static images and cannot monitor brain activity?
CAT and *MRI* scans
_____ is a measure of brain activity in which a small amount of radioactive sugar is injected into an individual’s bloodstream, following which a computer measures the varying levels of radiation in different parts of the brain and yields a multicolored image.
PET & SPECT scans
Which of the following is a variant of the PET scan that permits a longer and more detailed imaging analysis?
_____ is a scanning method that measures metabolic activity of neurons, and therefore may indicate areas of brain damage.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
The brain imaging technique which constructs a picture of actual activity in the brain is the...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
The fMRI allows researchers to see... people react to stimuli virtually in real time. (?)
Which of the following is a major advantage of the fMRI?
It does not require injection of radioactive materials like the PET or SPECT scans.
Which of the following is a limitation of the fMRI?
Because fMRI uses magnetism to detect brain activity, people with artificial limbs made from metals such as titanium cannot use this testing method.
Researchers examining brain abnormalities using fMRIs can conclude all of the following EXCEPT...
Brain scans can produce evidence of specific areas of damage, but they do not necessarily correspond to a specific loss of behavioral functioning. (?)
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