Greece Flashcards

Terms Definitions
agora
marketplace
Polis
city-state
Hellenic Culture
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Plato
Socrates' student
monarchy
kings rule
(West) Dying Warrior
Archaic
Nike
Goddess of Victory
Athens
knowledge-seeking Greek city-state
Acropolis
athens cultural center
calvary
soldiers mounted on horseback
the largest palace was
Knosses
Macedonia
kingdom north of Greece
Alexandria
a city in Egypt
leagues
A group of allies.
the academy
school established by Plato
sparta
ruled by oligarchy goverment
10%of people were citizens other were slaves
all males over 18 were soldiers
3 branches in government
Aristotle
Greek philosopher who proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior; supported the empiricist view that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
Who were citizens?
Free adult males
Colonies
usually sovereign and self-governing these city-states were founded from a metropolis, and still had a close bond with the metropolis; they were used to establish and facilitate relations of trade with foreign countries and to further the wealth of the mother-city (in Greek, metropolis).
well rounded citizen
Athenian male goal
Phoenicia
An ancient seafaring civilization located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea
mycenaean
early civilization based off mainland greece
philosophy
the search for wisdom or knowledge
Pharos
an enormous lighthouse located in Alexandria, Egypt and is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient world
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method (Philosopher)
Hippeis
People who could afford a horse
Forum
central meeting place where people discussed politics
Troy
an ancient city in Asia Minor
influence
change, or have an effect on
Heinrich Schliemann
German archeaeologist excavated Troy and Mycenae; discovered the bronze age of Mycenaens
Phalanx
A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears, developed by Philip II of Macedon and used by Alexander the Great.
minoan civilization
elegant civilization that lived around 4000 bc on crete
Athena
daughter or Zeus; goddess of wisdom and war
Sophists
a group of philosophers who questioned peoples unexamined beliefs about justice, and other traditional values
HERODOTUS
1 OF THE 1ST HISTORIANS, SUMTIMES MIXED MYTH IN W/ HISTORY
Helen
the beautiful wife of the Spartan king, face that launched a thousand ships
Solon
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
epic
a long poem that tells a story
Myrons Diskobolos
Piece of Greek golden age art-claasical md
Barbarian
someone who is considered to be wild/uncivilized
Mecropolis
A center structure usually located on a hill.
Penelope
(Greek mythology) the wife of Odysseus and a symbol of devotion and fidelity
Kingdom
replaced the city-state as the main political unit in the Hellenistic world
Hoplite
in the early Greek military system, heavily armed foot soldiers
Democracy
A government that gives people the ruling power
Minoans
civilization that lived on the island Crete, in the Agennean sea. It was the earliest Greek civilization.
condition of being owned by someone else
slavery
myth
a story that people tell to explain the beliefs about their world
Heracletis
everything is in a state of flux. thought fire is the the basic element of universe.
oligarchy
rule by a few, usually those with wealth
Mount Olympus
a mountain peak in northeast Greece near the Aegean coast
aristocracy
wealthy ruling class - each city state formed its own way of governing, in some city-states the richest men shared authority with a king
Hellespont
the long, narrow body of water in present-day Turkey
What did Archimedes do?
Invented pulley, principle of lever...
Aristocrat
a member of a rich and powerful family
Aristarchus
estimated that the Sun was at least 300 times larger than Earth and disproved the widely held belief that the sun was smaller than Greece
Age 30
At what age were Sartan Warriors considered a citizen, were able to vote, were able to move home, and become a legal citizen.
Suitors
Live in Odysseus's house and want to marry Penelope
Peloponnesian War
war between Athens and Sparta because of rivalry
Alexander the great
Teh macedonian king who conquered Greece and made it part of his empire
Persian Wars
Series of conflicts between the Greek city-states and the Persians, Economic rivalry
oracle
place chosen by the gods to make there will known
Thermopylae
a famous battle in 480 BC, where the Persians attacked the Spartans; marginal Persian victory, Persians sack Athens
Socratic method
a method of teaching by question and answer
battle of thermopylae
300 spartans held a narrow moutain pass against the whole Persian army that lasted 2 days
Forms of Government in Ancient Greece
monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy, tyrants, democracy
Philip ll
ruler of Macedonia in 359 B.C. ; father of Alexander the Great
classical age
the age that is marked by great achievements
tyranny
the government or rule of a tyrant or absolute ruler.
Both
Who was girl's learned how to run a household by mother? Athens of Sparta? Both?
A series of wars and invasions shook the ancient world from where to where?
Anatolia to Egypt
Pericles of Athens
leader of Athens during its Golden age and wanted to protect and defend Athens from future attack
lyric poems
were songs sung to the music of a lyre. Sappho was a female lyric poet
effect of Pelop wa
All of Greece was weakened by the war.Eventually were conquered by Philip of Macedonia
What were the Olympics?
It was an ancient festival in honor of the Greek god, Zeus.
Eventually, the poor turned to the leaders of the army. The leaders helped overthrow them.
How did the OLIGARCHS eventually loose power?
What were the results of the Persian and Peloponnesian wars?
Persian - Greece wins, Delian League formed
Peloponnesian - the city-state of Athens is destroyed
Epicurus
balance
Aphrodite
Arete/Timé
Geometric Greek
zeus
the cheif god
Thales of Miletus
Hades
god of the underworld
Myron
created the Discus Thrower
Aristarorus
a mathematician and astronomer; "planets revolve around the sun"
theater
greek dramas; amphitheaters; little scenery
Tyrany
rule by 1 like a dictatorship
4 Hellenistic kingdoms
Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum, Egypt
philosopher who believed in absolute truth and taught Plato
Socrates
Who founded the school of stoicism?
Zeno
Trojan War
fought between the Trojans and Mycenaens
This war was long, went on for 10 years. It was believed to be fake but then was proved otherwise. Mycenaens won, obtaining the Troy trade network and land. By doing so, their army and defense weakened.
Hellenistic
Blend of Greek and indigenous cultures after conquests of Alexander
753 bc
date for legendary founding of rome
Protagorus
"man is the measure of all things"
Xerxes
Persian monarch after Darius died in 468 bc.
Persian Wars united these city-states
Athens and Sparta
age of pericles
when the athenians became deeply attached to their democratic system
Pericles
Took power during the golden age for Athens, the statesman. Died when plague hit Athenians during Peloponnesian War.
Persians
Ethnic group that settled in what is now Iran. They were rivals for control of Mesopotamia with the Greeks, and later the Arabs.
Syria
Captured by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
Rituals
ceremonies or rites in honor of the gods
Who was the foreign born woman who helped the leader of Athens govern?
Aspasia
Citizen
a native or resident of a town or city
Alexander TheGreat
son of the kind, Phillip II, greatest empire of his time. helped blend cultures.
Meztizo(chapter 9)
a person of mixed European and Native American heritage
Sir Arthur Evans
Discovered in 1899 the palace of Cnossus in Crete.
Was condemned for his teachings, what was his method?
Socrates, Socratic Method
catharsis (Aristotle's definition)
- purge(get rid of) the sould of "fear and pity"
What is the Parthenon?
a temple built to honor Athena located on top of the Acropolis.
themes of Greek tragedy
nature of good and evil; the rights of the individual; the nature of human beings; the nature of divine forces
What is the main difference between Greek gods and humans?
The main difference between the Greek gods and humans was that the gods were perfect in form and has awesome power.
What book did Plato write and what was it written in?
The Republic and was written in dialogue
draconic
harsh
spartan
"highly self-disciplined"
Sanskrit
Indo-Aryan language
straits
narrow water passages
disease during the war
plaque
Aristolte
tutored Aexander the Great
tribute
payment to Athens by allies
City-State
Cities and their surrounding territories
Side-by-side fighting formation of Greek foot soldiers
Phalanx
philosopher that said everything is made up of water
thales
What resulted from the dark ages?
poverty
something left after someone has gone
legacy
infantry
an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot
Thucydides
He wrote the history of the palopenisian war
the shape of the land of Greece
peninsula
epicure
one who displays a highly refined taste in eating, drinking, and other pleasure
what was the trojan war really about
trade
Philosophers
Someone who uses a reason to understand the world.
Philosophers told people how things happened.
 
 
Where was the Parthenon built?
On the Acropolis.
Direct Democracy
system of government in which citizens participate directly in the day- to- day affairs
Pheidippides
soldier who ran from marathon to alert Athenians of victory, died after delivering the message
Tyrant
A ruler that comes to power through the use of military force and the support of the lower class.
Homer
credited as author of both the Iliad and the Odyssey
ZeusWho were my mom and dad?
Rhea and Cronus
olympus
a mountain in NE Greece, on the boundary between Thessaly and Macedonia: mythical abode of the greater Grecian gods. 9730 ft. (2966 m).
values
beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something)
Mattock
A heavy hoe which was the chief tool of Greek farmers
land island
parts of land cut off from others areas by mountains
What did Alcibiades persude the Assembly to do about Segesto's request?
Send an expedition against Syracuse.
Why was the Olympics important?
it bonded the different parts of Greece.
What was the purpose of Greek art
to present images of human perfection in a balanced and orderly way. Real people and animals would not look this way
What did the Athenians do to the inhabitants of Melos?
Brutally massacred the men and sold the women and children into slavery.
443
pericles leads athens
507
beginning of the archons
Which Greek scientist applied principles of physics to make practical inventions? He is credited with the quote "Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand on, and I will move the world.
Archimedes
507-338
athenian democracy established by clesthines
Which Greek philosopher wrote The Republic in which he envisoned a perfect society? He also opened a school in Athens called the Academy.
Plato
Iliad
Fought in Trojan War for 12 years
alliance
formal agreement between two powers to defend each other in war
Which battle marked the final defeat of the Persian by the Greeks who were led by Athens?
Plataea
peninsula
An area of land almost entirely surrounded by water (p.193)
canyon
A deep narrow valley with steep sides and often with a stream flowing through it
What was the name of the philosophy that urged people to overcome desires and disappointments by accepting calmly whatever life brought?
Stoicism
harbor
A sheltered place along a coast used to protect boats and ships (p.193)
jury
a group of citizens chosen to hear evidence and make a decision in a court of law (p.206)
Which of the following was the mythical ca use of the Trojan War?
Paris kidnapped Helen
Athens Golden Age
-democracy: every male citizen 30 and over could participate-women: 2nd class citizen-boys would get education and girls wouldn't
What is the name given to the type of government where citizens take part in day-to-day affairs of the government?
Direct Democracy
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