4B vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
moksha
"Liberation"
Infanticide
Murdering an infant
OPEC
multinational organization established in 1960 by oil producing states
Humanists
Renaissance scholars interested in moral philosophy, history, and literature, drawing inspiration from classical texts.
Napoleon III
Original Napoleon's nephew; consolidated conservative government and the ideals of nationalism.
SEATO
Southeast Asian counterpart of NATO.
oligarchy
Political regime where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
Boers/Afrikaners
Indians trained to be British soldiers.
Acapulco
mexican Pacific costal city, American terminus of the Manila Galleons
Escorial
Royal Palace and monastery designed and built in the 16th century by the Spanish king Phillip II. Representative of Spain's leadership in the Christian world at the time.
Maximilian
the Austrian archduke that Napoleon III supported and sent to Mexico to take over and eventually aid the South in the American civil war, (major cotton suppliers to France); became emperor of Mexico, and struggled to rule in an enlightened manner, but lack of popular support undermined him, N3 abandoned him, withdrawing his 34k troops, and he was captured and executed y firing squad in the summer of 1867
new spain
spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs
karl marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
Spanish Armada
Phillip 2nd of Spainpulled together 130 spanish ships for an invasion of England to wipe out Protestant Religion (1588); a devastating storm (Protestant Wind) destroyed Spanish navy and marked the beginning of the decline of Spanish Empire
Hellenism
shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria
Balkan Peninsula
geographic name used to describe southern Europe, as it was surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean...seas from southwest , south and southeast
Spanish Inquisition
Institution organized in 1478 by Fernando and Isabel of Spain to hunt out heretical or contrary opinions; subjects of persecution included Protestants, Jews, Muslims, and witches.
Belgian Revolution
Revolution of 1830; produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a liberal constitutional monarchy
Versailles
became a fixed institution used to preserve royal power and the center of French Absolutism. The court of Versailles was a device to undermine the power of the aristocracy by separating power from status. A centralized state administered by a professional class taken from the bourgeoisie was formed.
Iberian Peninsula
Iberia; located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes modern-day states Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar and a very small area of France
Chevalier-Cobden Treaty
the 1860 free-trade agreement between Britain and France; a landmark in overseas policy and a commitment to liberal economic policies
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Slave Religion
Although they were Christianized in the 2nd great awakening they mixed their christianity beliefs with African elements such as "responsorial" style of preaching and dances.
Chinchona tree
tree the produces quinine which controlled attacks of malaria which until the 1800s had decimated Europeans attempting to colonize in mosquito infested land. The discovery of quinine was a major advancement that was crucial to European imperialism and expansion.
William II
fired Bismarck, creates social welfare program that helped the poor, wanted to build oversee empire for germany in Africa and Asia, created cheap transportation
Ali'i nui
hereditary chiefly or noble rank (class, caste) in traditional Hawaiian society. The aliʻi class consisted of the high and lesser chiefs of the various realms in the islands
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
imperialism
16. A policy of extending a nation's powers through diplomacy or military practice
Cycle of Revolution
calls for change from monarchy followed by moderate government followed by radical government followed by moderate government followed by monarchy
Peasants' Revolt, 1381
probably the largest single uprising of the middle ages, so because the black death killed so many people so the serfs thought they should be paid more because there were so many less of them, tax on all adult males, and people in guilds unable to climb higher rioted as well, Richard the second promised then false promises then killed them to stop the revolt
Financial instruments
Because of rapid trading and copper coin shortage, 'flying cash" was invented. It allowed merchants to deposit goods at one location and draw the equivalent cash somewhere else in China.Promissionary notes, promising to pay at a later date, and checks were also used.
Articles of Confederation
Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789
dominion status
nation allowed to govern own domestic affairs. Americans wanted this.
"Republic of Virtue"
Same values as Rousseau's "Social Contract." Renamed streets, republican dress, no wigs, suppression of literature, attack against aris. crimes, upholding public over private good. General will > individual will. Embodied by Robespierre.
Brown, John
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
What ruler helped expand the Songhay dynasty in 1464?
Sunni Ali
muhammad ali
Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
In the late 14thC what Turkish ruler did all of the following, weakened golden hoard, sacked deli, launched campaigns in south west Asia and Anatolia?
Timur/Tamerlane
Sufi
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
textile mills
a factory for making textiles, one of the 1st major industries during the IR
Green Movement
see above - basically term given to environmental movement
Tang Foreign Relations
the land and people surrounding China recoginzed China as their "overlords". Created trade, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic contacts.
Middle Kingdom- China was the Middle kingdom in the foreign relations. This means china
Boss Tweed
Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Internal Slave Trade
The slave trade conducted from within the US, but did not include importation or exportation of slaves from or to foreign countries.
The Opium War
though they were losing, the Chinese wouldn't allow opium to be traded.; British armada, led by the Nemesis advanced up the Yangzi River
Result: Chinese sued for peace.
Cahokia Mound
big mound at Cahokia near East St. Louis, Illinois, built by Iroquois people for ceremonies or ritual performance
Massachusetts Bay Colony
first British colony in New England - went on to be Massachusetts - started as joint-stock company
Philip II of Macedon
king of ancient Macedonia and father of Alexander the Great (382-336 BC)
Committee of Public Safety
est. April 1793 by Convention. Carry out extensive duty of government to eliminate enemies (republicans). Thought they were protecting the government. Worked with the Sans-culottes.
universal suffrage
the right of all adults to vote for their representatives
Sixteenth-century Catholic attempt to cure internal ills and confront Protestantism; it was inspired by the reforms of the Council of Trent and the actions of the Jesuits.
Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind.
what powers did nobles have?
depending on any one Nobles' wealth, and stature; nobles had purchasing power, political power and a social stigma that held them above all other citizens (couldn't be seen doing physical work)
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
What was the role of the rural population in classical societies?
Were avoided by infanticide, high death reates, and selling children into slavery
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