Amphibians Flashcards

amphibians
Terms Definitions
mudpuppy
ectothermic
cold-blooded
Spring peeper
order Caudata
salamanders
order urodela
salamanders
Salamanders
Order Urodela (Caudata)
water reproduction
larval stage
HOW MANY ATRIA
TWO
Anura
frogs and toads
Monotreme
Bird like
Reptilian features
lays eggs
teeth on upper jaw
maxillary
metamorphosis
transformation;change in appearance, character, condition, or function
reproduction
oviparous with external fertilization
Amphibia respiration
lungs, internal nostrils
amplexus
the copulatory embrace of amphibians
three
amphibians have a ______-chambered heart
do frogs chew their food?
no
pulmonary respiration
breathing through the lungs
tadpole feeding
filter feeder and herbivores
Saurischians, Therapods
Velociraptor, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Spinosaurus, Allosaurus
salamander
small, lizard-like amphibian lacking scales and breathing through gills during the larval stage.
Order and Scientific Name?Squirrel Treefrog
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1538/flashcards/544858/jpg/squirrel-treefrog.jpg
Invertebrate
an animal with no back bone
Water
Amphibians are mostly found in _____
Nictitating Membrane
transparent membrane within regular eyelid; protects eye
releases waste and reproductive cells
cloacal opening
caecilian
legless amphibian that resmbles a snake
partially divided heart
blood to two halves
Caecilians
limbless amphibians are in the order
Ileum
-middle, coiled part of small intestines
Vent
Where waste material exit the body.
winter time
amphibians hibernate during this time
eyes
large eyes and can close them
Lizard
Can live in the driest environment
Habitat- specific environment where an animal lives
Tree Frogs
Small, Arboreal, Suction pads on fingers and toes
Toads
These amphibians have rough, dry skin and short legs
lepospondyls
small aphibians that live in damp/wet habitats as adults.
olfactory lobe
the centers of sense and smell
tissues kept alive by oxidation of food stored in liver and fat bodies
hibernation
axolotl
a salamander that remains in its larval stage throughout its enitre life
lateral line
sense organs of fish and amphibians
Amphibian body parts
heat, liver, stomach, small/large intestine, bladder, lungs, gull bladder
GLOTTIS
THE OPENING TO THE LUNGS.LOCATED IN THE BACK OF THE MOUTH
orders of Amphibia
Caecilians, Salamanders, Frogs & Toads
Amphibians and Reptiles
Organisms that are cold-blooded (ectothermic)
Class Amphibia
2nd largest phylum in Animal Kingdom. Includes frogs, toads, newts, salamanders and caecilians
Dehydration
loss of water from the body; dangerous when exchanging an aquatic habitat for a terrestrial one
what do they have special
large eyes;can close them
2
the number of loops in the circulatory system of amphibians
Atria
are upper chambers of the heart that receive incoming blood
Septum
Its a dividing wall that separates the amphibian atrium in to right and left halves
Caecilian sensory
small eyes or blind, sensory tentacle on head
How many ventricle are there in the heart?
One
poison-arrow frogs
the choco indians use poison secreted by____to tip the points of their arrows.
external fertilization
the process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them in the water.
amphibian reproduction and fertilization
eggs are surrounded by jelly: non-amniotic. Most, but not all, species return to water to reproduce
tied to the water
larvae are aquatic with gills
adults live on land
Faster blood flow
A double loop circulatory results in ____ _____ ____
Order- Anura Family- HylidaeScientific Name- Pseudacris ocularis
Order and Scientific Name?Dwarf Salamander
operculum
a hard flap serving as a cover for (a) the gill slits in fishes or (b) the opening of the shell in certain gastropods when the body is retracted
double-loop circulation
blood travels to the lungs then to the body after returning to the heart
Amphibians are animals with...
wet moist skin, webbed feet and cold blooded.
Gila Monster and Mexican Beaded Lizard
Only poisonous lizards in the world
What are some traits that make these animals good for research?
location on phylogenetic tree, many species, possess systems that are specialized or absent or easily accessible, short lifespans so quick generations, easy to house
hearing
tympanum
class
amphibia
wood frog
cerebellum
muscular coordination
nostrils
nose opening
Plethodon variolatus
(SC slimy)
AMPHIBIANS development
complete metamorphosis
Urinary Bladder
Water-storage organ
amphibian
cold-blooded vertebrate typically living on land but breeding in water
family Dendrobatidae
poison dart frogs
Amphibians
Frogs, Toads,Salemanders, Mud Puppies
excrete____in form of____
nitrogen
urine
redback salamander
fam Plethodontidae; woodland salamander; rusty red color with stripe down back; saltpepper color on belly
dependency on water
to avoid dessication
atrium
upper chamber of the heart
Can they close their eyes?
Yes
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1538/flashcards/544858/jpg/gopher-frog.jpg
Order- Anura Family- RanidaeScientific Name- Rana capito
Mammels
• Fur
• Endothermic
• Vertebrates
• Macroscopic
• Give birth to live young
• They feed their young with their own milk
• Are warm blooded
Permian
The period when amphibians left marshlands for dry upland
Gills
tadpoles, salamander larvae, and a number of adult salamanders breathe with these
teeth in roof of mouth
vomerine teeth
optic lobes
process info thru the eyes
Tympanic
membranes, which are capable of receiving sound waves
tadpole number of chambers in heart
two
Are environmental poisons dangerous to them?
Yes
60 to 70
salamanders prefer temperatures around____degrees F.
Cause of Amphian Crisis
habitat destruction, pollution, climatic changes, UVB radiation, introduced predators, overexploitation and the Chytrid fungus
Homologous Structures
Shared characteristics due to common ancestry
anura eating habits
carnivores with a sticky tongue
family Hylidae
tree frogs; rough skin/toepads; spring peeper, chorus frog, gray tree frog, cricket frog
pharyngeal puches
paired structures in the throut region
cloaca
the_____ is a muscular cavity that stores feces until they are eliminated through the anus
Characteristics of Vertebrates
closed circular system
complex nervous system
bilateral system
have spine
teeth
impale struggling prey, but do not physically digest them
ventricle
1- pumps blood out into the body
What is special about their eggs?
no shells
True Frogs
Aquatic, Large hind legs, Very large tympanic membranes
vocal cords
sound=proudcing bands of tissue in the throat
heart has _ atria and _ ventricle
2; 1
Osteichthyes
a class of fish having a skeleton composed of bone in addition to cartilage
Liver
The _______ is the organ that produces bile, which breaks down fat into small, digestible globules
lungs charac.
presence of alveoli- where o2/ co2 exchanged in tiny sac. A capillary associated with each alveolus
systemic circulation
movement of blood between heart and all parts of body except lungs
Order- Caudata Family- AmbystomatidaeScientific Name- Ambystoma talpoideum
Order and Scientific Name?E. Narrowmouth Toad
Siren intermedia
(Lesser Siren): 4 Toes, no hind limbs, 31-35 costal grooves
pulmonary vein
carries blood from heart to lungs and back again
vocal sac openings
small slits on both sides of glottis
Left Atrium
Blood from the lungs enters the ___ ___ in the heart
Main groups of amphibians today
Salamanders, Frogs and Toads, and Caecilians
transition from water to land
water content of body, oxygen concentration, density and support, climatic fluctuation
5 similar characteristics to all caudata
elongated bodies, long tail, moist skin, 4 limbs, carnivores
what three things can poisons do
weaken adults kill eggs tadpoles can become deformed
why eggs are laid in water
eggs have no shell and water prevents drying
reptiliomorph
...
gymnophiona
worm-like.
tiger salamander
how many ventricle
one
tibia fibula
shin bone
E.
Amphibians in Danger
Apoda
order of legless caecilians
Medulla Oblongata
- heart/respiration rate
external
internal or external gills?
Mammals and Birds
Endothermic organisms
thyroxine
the hormone that induces metamorphosis
urodela
order of salamanders (visible tail)
Amphibians chambered hearts
3 chambered hearts
skin
absorbs and loses water through_____
Birds
• Feathers
• Endothermic
• Vertebrates
• Macroscopic
• Lay eggs
• Are warm blooded
double-loop
Amphibians have a ____ circulatory system
Desmognathus marmoratus
(Shovelnose): head flattened and wedge-shaped
carries blood to the lungs
pulmonary artery
neoteny
when reproductive adults retian larval characteristics
agnathan
eel-shaped vertebrate without jaws or paired appendages including the cyclostomes and some extinct forms
Amphibia structure
vertibrate , ectothermic(spends early life in water)four limbs, skeletal frame
toad
any of various tailless stout-bodied amphibians with long hind limbs for leaping
tadpole
larva of a frog or toad
pancreas
the________ secretes enzymes into the small intestine that further breaks down food.
true
lungless salamanders do not have lungs
Necturus punctatus
(Dwarf Waterdog): 4 developed limbs, external gills
how amphibian avoids mixing oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
rhythmic beating
What does the word amphbian mean?
double life
family Cryptobranchidae
"hidden gills;" hellbenders; large in size; aquatic; wrinkled texture
Organs in the circulatory system
heart, lung, kidney
habitat
the specific enviormen in which the animal lives
Ribs
The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs. Frogs do not have them.
bile
a substance that helps break down fat into tiny globs that can be further digested or absorbed
American toad
fam Bufonidae1-2 warts in each dark spot; call: long, high pitched trill
ESOPHAGUS
THE FOOD TUBE LEADING FROM MOUTH TO STOMACH
lungs
in the lungs oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide is released into the air
Permian Period
245 million years ago; when most of the early amphibian groups became extinct
double loop circulation
heart > lungs > heart > body
Live birth (ovoviviparous) and laying eggs (oviparous)
How reptiles produce young
In order to live on land...
Sturdy skeleton, esp. vertebral column, Lungs, Internal fertilization, Protection against dehydration, Hearing apparatus, Limbs are needed.
Four options to correct for problems with animal models?
pleurospecies approach, match metabolic patterns, control confounders, proper experimental design
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
English author who wrote "The Lost World" as well as the Sherlock Holmes books
Special characteristcs amphibians have for responce
leteral line systems that detect water movement
What is unique about lamprey that make them good to study?
one giant axon that regenerates
What are the 4 main characteristics shared by nearly all EARLY amphibians?
- 4 strong limbs
- Breathe air via lungs
- Have sense organs (scent + sound on land)
- Mainly aquatic-know this because fossils had really sharp teeth that are specialized for eating fish and some had gills
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