Greek Drama Flashcards

Terms Definitions
anagnoresis
recognition
stasimon
"standstill"
Thespis
Tragedy
interpret
to explain
Aeschylus
The Oresteia
protagonist
main character
proskenion
back drop
oikos
the family unit
Dionysus
god of wine
sophocles
oedipus the king
catastrophe
"change of fortune"
number of actors
evolved
Choregus
Financial backers (money)
who added 2nd actor
Aeschylus
Hubris
arrogance or excessive pride
Oedipal Complex
Son likes mom
Agon
In general, "competition"; specifically, the debate or conflict of ideas and values in a drama
greek drama genre 3
satire
Hypokrit
Greek term for an actor
strophe
the first movement, chorus turning
chorus
singers, "conscience of the play"
nemesis
fate which cannot be escaped
Parados
the first scene, chorus performs
anagnorisis
the protagonist's "recognition" or insight of something preciously not known in the play. (Wishing to go back on killing princess & feelings of guilt over having to kill children in Medea)
Dionyssos
god of fertility and wine
Masks
made from a paper product
summarize
to restate briefly in other words
Thespis (6th Century BC)
Father of Drama.
Choregos
Wealthy patrons who supervised and financed the plays. Tragedies were usually more expensive for these people.
polis
the ancient Greek word for "city-state"; the primary political organization
Paradox
Two competing ideas that go together
-Blind= sight in truth
-Tiresias= blind prophet
in medias res
middle of the action
skene
"tent", backdrop for orchestra, used for changing and hiding stage props
Poetics
written by Aristotle; the original source of the characteristics of tragedy
Hamartia
"missing the mark"; leads to downfall of tragic hero
orchestra
the stage, dancing space, altar to Dionysus
simile
figure of speech that makes a comparison between 2 seemingly unlike things using like or as
Mekane
"machine", a boom that allowed actors playing gods to be lowered to and raised from the stage.
convention
a customary feature of a literary work.
props
theatre slang( a shortened form of properties) for objects and elements of the scenery of a stage, play or movie set
Recognition (Anagnoresis)
A change for ignorance to awareness
Tragedy
"goat song;" verse drama written in elevated language in which a noble protagonist falls to ruin during a struggle cuased by a flaw in his character or an error in his rulings or judgements.
Pisistratus
Tyrant who probably founded the tragic festical during the 6th century BCE.
proagon
a ceremony before the tragic festival; the playwright and actors would stand in costume before an assembly in the Odeion and announce the subjects of his plays
present action
up to a 24 hour period
foreshadowing
chorus trys to provide vague advance indications of later actions to come
Oracle
Place wherer gods are consulted to find the truth or learn of the future
dramatic irony
contrasting example between what the character knows/doesn't know and what the audience knows, audience knows something that character does not
costumes
food high shoes, masks with speaking trumpets, long flowing robes, to be seen and heard, identify age and emotion, differentiate between characters
Epidaurus
a theater (that sits 15,000 people) and has perfect acoustics. its where the greatest of greek trajedies were performed
Proscenium
Open-air structure in which plays were performed
catharsis
a purging of emotions by arounsing pity and fear in viewer
Antistrophe
Movement of chorus, while chanting, to teh right
paraskenia
platform areas to the right and left of the proskenion
the unities
one day,one setting, one central plot, made for unity of plot and mood
tone
the attitude a writer takes toward the reader, a subject or a character
peripeteia
a moment in which the tragic figure's fortunes reversed
theme
the idea of a literary work abstracted from its details of language, character, and action, and cast in the form of a generalization.
No
Is fighting or violence allowed on the stage?
Messenger Speech
A lengthy report of off-stage actions, usually delivered by a character of low social status.
Pathos
makes the audience feel bad for the character
incentive moment
the beginning that must start the cause and effect chain but not be dependent on anything outside the compass of the play
art of the chorus
speaks in poems and dances
Satyr Plays
short comic play in between trilogies (satire= goat man)
Costumes and Masks
long flowing robes, high boots so actors could be seen, large masks made of linen, wood, and cork that identified age, gender, and emotion
soliloquy
a long speech spoken by a character in a dramatic work, who is typically alone onstage. this speech reveals the privst thoughts and emotion of a character
only men
Who could act in the ancient Greek plays?
Parabasis
in Old Comedy, a pause in the action during whith the choryphaeus comes forward and adresses a series of speeches to the audience directly in the poet's name while the chorus intersperses a series of comic songs on themes relevant to their character in the play. Usually occurs near the mid-point in the action, prior to the institution of the hero's comic scheme.
Purpose of masks
-actors were able to play multiple roles, male & female
-Helped audience determine sex, age, race, and social rank
-actors could change into a new role w/o destroying illusion of play
tragic hero
character who has a error of judgement or fatal flaw
sophocles' works
7 plays complete, 130 under his name. used imagery, irony, and trageic world view
cosmic irony
occurs when God, fate or larger force seems to be intentionally deceiving characters into believing they can escape their fate
reason v. emotion
reason = logic & control; emotion = feeling & uncontrolled; Each characeter takes a different approach to a similar storyline
position in society
alter and add lines, idols, any social status
what was the audience like?
almost entire male population of the city, noisy, intelligent, stopped bad plays
Characteristics of a tragic hero
-a protagonist of high social& moral standing
-some who posseses god like qualities& is elevated above others
-he/she must suffer a great misfortune("fall") as a result of their tragic flaws, makes them human
Origin of Tradgedy
Why was it held?
why= religious festivals in honor of Dionysus
Menander
new comedy
creon
Jocasta's brother
euripides
bacchae, iphigenia
Choragos
Chorus Leader
ode
choral song
Melopemene
muse of tragedy
cadmus
founder of thebes
arete
pursuit of excellence
Thymele
alter to Dionysus
professionals
ability to improvise
repitition
the act of repeating
thalia
the must of comedy
Who wrote Oepdipus trilogy?
Sophocles
choragus
leader of the chorus
complete plot
order of incidents
Cassandra
Trojan prophetess who nobody believed
how were women usually portrayed
bold
Apollo
intellect w/out emotion. Reason thinking restraint
Areté
A hero's pursuit of excellence
prologue
opening scene of an exposition
Exodos
Final action, climax, all exits
apotheosis
ascension to god like status
Furies
renamed Eumenides by Athena, chase Orestes for committing matricide
motive
some inner drive, impulse, intention that causes a person to do something or act in a certain way
Unities of Greek Drama
Time, Place, Action
theatron
literally means "Seeing place", back then it meant the hill with a flattened section at the foot where the orchestra and chorus stood
Agamemnon
Achaean fighter of the Trojan war, famous death cry, resists Clytemnestra at first out of pride
imagery
language that appeals to the senses and paints a picture with words
Delphi Olympia
where the largest festivals were held
tiring house
where performers dressed and made entrances and exits
Hybris
Great pride; often the character flaw of a protagonist because it placed too much emphasis on individual will and downplayed the will of the state. Since pride makes people unwilling to accept advice, they act rashly and make bad decisions.
Tritagonist
third actor, usually assumed to have portrayed messangers, servants, etc.
dithyrambs
choral lyrics sang around a public altar with a sacrificed goat
choryphaeus
chorus leader; steps forward to speak with protagonists
parodos
walkways where chrous can come in; also ode sung by chrous as they entered
Prohedria
the stone seats reserved for upper class. everyone else sat on the hill or on wooden benches.
tragedy/tragic hero
not villain or perfection, basically good and decent, has a flaw and/or made a mistake, does not need to die, but undergo change
King Laius
King of Thebes; Oedipus' biological father
Sisyphus
What is the missing satyr play that makes up the teratology with Troades?
drama was an attempt to beautify and enrich __________
religion
Cothurni
Boots worn by Greek actors to increase their height and, thus, visibility to theater audiences. Singular: cothurnus
Aristotle's Three Unities
unity of action, time, and place
Stichomythia
a quick form of back and forth dialogue
dithyramb
a song sung by a chorus, originally in honor of Dionysus or Bacchus, usually wild in character
act
a major division of a play; acts can contain one or more scenes
mechane
a crane used to lift actors above the acting area; usually actors playing gods here, hence the phrase deux ex machina
tragic flaw
the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall
verbal irony
what is said is the opposite of what is meant
simple v. complex
simple plots have only a "change of fortune" while complex plots have both "revresal of intention" and "recognition" connected with the catastrophe
in a tragedy...
the good quality is what brings the hero down
When did all three write their books?
5th century BC
(deux ex machina)
according to Aristotle what causes the fall in greek tragedy?
some error or frailty in the protagonist, not a vice or depravity
ate
ruin, delusion
Dance
expressive rhythmical movement
hero is
high ranked
playwright
person who writes plays
parallel scene
extra-dramatic final scene
religious
religious odes to dyanisis
thespian
from Thespis ("first actor")
-separated himself from chorus and made dialogue possible
Pratinas
creator of the satyr play
theatai
audience or where people sat
origin of tragedy
tragoidia or tragos
audience
riot, throws fruit, faints, hisses
Orestes
Agamemnon's son who commits matricide at the request of Apollo in order to avenge his father's death
allusion
reference to a statement, person, place, event, or thing that is known from literature, history, religion, myth, politics, sports, science or the arts
iophon
who tried to test sophocles' brilliance
Emmelia
Type of dance accompanying some odes.
Oracle of Delphi
prophetess/ priestess of Apollo
allegory
representation of abstract ideas or principles by characters, figures, or events
nature of submissions
3 tragedies, 1 satire
Polybus
King of Corinth; Oedipus' adoptive father
Pyramid Texts
main source of the Egyptian ritual
figurative
language not meant to be interpreted on a literal level
Aeschylus (525-426 BC)
Wrote trilogies on unified themes.
Aside
a character expresses to the audience his thoughts in a short speech inaudible to the other characters on stage
antagonist
a character or force against which another character struggles.
Machine
Crane-like device in an ancient Greek theater that could lower a "god" onto the stage from the "heavens."
Prolouge
spoken by a character giving a background of the play in the beginning
what did masks identified?
age, gender, emotion, change
cartharsis
refers to the sensation that would overcome either the characters in a play or an audience upon finishing watching a tragedy
satyrs
these early plays are parodies of myths where the actor(s) overact and exaggerate the parts
epic
an extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero
3 unities
unity of place, time, and action
Episode
spoken parts of Greek drama that alternates with the stasima
trilogies
3 plays about 1 family or character
epilogue
by chorus, moral that closes the play, ties up loose ends
foil
the character who sets off or enhances another by contrast
Euripides (486-406 BC)
Reduced the participation of the Chorus in the main action.
blank verse
poetry or lines of dramatic verse written in unrymed iambic pentameter; consist of an unstressed symbol followed by a stressed
Arisophanes
5th century BCE author of Old Greek Comedies, which were topical, satirical, and often featured non-human choruses who gave the plays their names, e.g., The Birds, The Clouds, and The Wasps. His best known work is probably Lysistrata, in which a sex-strike protests the Peloponnesian War.
Acropolis
"the high city"; most famous aprt of Athens; theater on its south slope
peripety/ peripeteia
the reversal of fortune of a character
moral dilemma
problem that pits one moral value against another; choices result in bad things; try to choose the lesser of two evils
aristotle's tragic hero
high-placed well known character whose fall impacts the larger community
parodoi
two points of entry and exit for the chorus
Deus ex machina
a god who resolves the entanglements of a play by supernatural intervention.
dionysia
a celebration in Athens 3 full days of theater attendance was mandatory for all citizens
Greek actors
First to use these was Thespis and later Sophecles. Only men.
First Drama Performances
Drama contests were held at festivals honoring Dionysus.
ekkyklema
a cart inside the skene which could be suddenly rolle dout to display the result of an event inside [the murder of Agamemnon]
point of attack
an author chooses the climatic form and begins his story near its conclusion after much significant action ahs already occured
paradigm
a set of forms all of which contain a particular element
Epilogue / Exodus
a speech adressed to the audience by and actor at the end of a play
ultimate redemption of long suffering heros
what were sophocles final plays about
fate v. free will
paves reason for man to believe that their lives are controlled by a higher power but man is still free to choose their course of actions and is resposible for the outcome
wealthy men by paying a tax (choregia) to help them get into politics
Who sponsored the plays? How? Why?
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