Greek Drama Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
peripeteia
reversal
prologue
introductory
stanzas
choral odes
Oedipus
swollen foot
Hubris
Excessive pride/arrogance
tragedies
'goat song'
Thalia
muse of comedy
Aeschylus
"father of tragedy"
catharsis
emotional rollercoater/cleansing experienced by audience through play
Oedipus Translation
swollen foot/heel
One day
Length of play
Episode
plot develops through action
what is time?
single day
Polis
Greek word for city-state
apotheosis
ascension to god-like status
ritual
education, influence events, glorify the deities, and entertainment were 4 _____ purposes.
was their violence on stage?
no
recognition
moment when the protagonist understands the truth about himself although too late
exodos
ending processional ode by chorus
ate
ruin, causes death or downfall
amphitheater
a semicircular theater design consisting of a playing area faced by rising tiers of seats
Comedy
"Komos"=band of revelers (party people)
Apollo
protects Orestes by justifying his murder of Clytemnestra as she killed Agamemnon
character
individual in a story, poem, play
Theatron
"viewing place". where the audience sat.
Até
ruin, delusion. The reckless behavior that causes the hero's death or downfall
masks
Most important part of actors' costumes
Orchestra
circular dancing place, where actors and chorus performed
eisoidoi
"entrances" to performance space; the opposite of exodus
Who is the "father of Drama?"
thespis
Anagnorisis
recognition or discovery by the hero
Oikos
the family unit, including its physical property; its needs are often in tension with the polis
excessive pride leads to geros downfall
hubris
antistrophe/strophe
literally turned about or opposite turning. used because of dancing movements of the chorus
who's altar stood in middle of theatre
Dionysus
Laius
King of Thebes true father of Oedipus
proskenion
a raised stage between the orchestra and skene
tithing house
where offerings were received and kept
Parados
Ode of entry, first scene, chorus performs
Eccyclema
Wheeled platform that could be rolled out of skene to portray tableaux.
satire
a literary technique in which ideas, customs, behaviors,or institutions are rediculedmfor the porpuse of improving society.
satyrs
these early plays are parodies of myths where the actor(s) overact and exaggerate the parts
Pisistratus
tyrant who founded the tragic festival during the sixth century B.C.E.
Corinth
city in Greece, Oedipus' home and supposed birthplace
action
the most important element; what is actually happening
dithyramb
hymn sung to honer the god Dionysus
hamartia
Greek term which means "missing the mark"; the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall
methods
wore masks with voice trumpets, broad grand gestures
Dionysus
greek drama began as a ritual observance in his honor
Antagonist
One that contends with or opposes another
Tragedy
imitation of an action which has serious implications, it is complete, and of a certain magnitude; it is in language embellished with ornament, it is in the form of action not narratice
Queen Jocasta
Queen of Theves; Oedipus' biological mother and wife
episodes
three to five of them, acts that intervened with stanzas
what modern art form is Greek drama most similar to ?
Opera
setting
time and place of a story or play
Skene
oblong building at the back edge of the orchestra, which served as a place for the actors and a background for the action.
Chorus
Singers and dancers in a play who present odes on the action. The earliest may have consisted of as many as 50 members but was later reduced to 12 to 15. It generally has the following roles: 1) to explain the action. 2)to interpret the action in relation to the law of the state and the law of the Olympian gods. 3) to foreshadow the future. 4) to serve as additional actor(s) in the play. 5) to sing and/or dance. 6) to give the author's views
prohedria
stone seats set into a hillside on early theatres, these were reserved for the upper classes. Everyone else sat on the hill or on wooden benches.
Greek masks
simple so they didn't distract from the play, made of linen, wood, and leather, had hair
catastrophe
The conclusion of a play in Greek terms; when the hero dies/ is brought down
apollonian v. dionysian
dichotomoy based on certain features fo ancient Greek mythology
sophocles' achievements
triptolemus won 1st prize in dramatic contest 468 BC
won 1st or 2nd 24 times
elected strategos (official who controls military)
introduce colt of Ascelpius
epilogue
final scene of play, closes, ties up loose ends tells what happens to main characters, provide moral of story or words of wisdom
stasimon
choral ode in which the chorus may comment on or react to the preceding episode
Altar to Dionysus
Greek god of wine, drama, fertility
Chorus (origin)
group of about 50 who sang and danced
scene
a subdivision of an act or play; each usually take place in a specific setting and time
Dithyrambs
Name the hymns sung to the God in Greek drama:
Dramatic Irony
Failure of a character to see or understand what is obvious to the audience. Oedipus, for example, was unaware early on of what the audience knew.
Two basic tragic situations
-case of man's miscalculation of reality that brings about the fatal sitation
-that of man between 2 conflicting principles
situational irony
when we expect something to turn out one way and it turns out differently
antistrophe
part of the ode chanted as the chorus moves back across the stage from left to right
Apollo's prophesy
Oedipus will kill his father and marry his mother
Great Dionysian Festival
A religious feast in the spring, main attraction was theater, included exultation of the soul, dancing and screaming
scene of suffering
argues that the best plots combine two (ana & per) as part of cause and effect chain and leads to this (after cata.)
Pity and fear
Tragic flaw of a hero causes one to feel this
Unity of action
no action or scene in the play should be a digression all must contribute directly to the plot
who is the leader of the chorus
Choragos or Coryphaeus - who speaks for chorus during dialogue
moira
fate
Antigone
441 BC
Exodus
final action
Phrynichus
introduces non-Dionysian themes
Oedipus Rex
430 BC
satyr
semi comic piece
seats in theater
theatron
dialogue
written conversation between characters in a literary work
Parts of the play
-prologue
-parados
-scenes
-exodus
ambiguity
information can be understood/interpreted in more than one way and is distinct from vagueness
auditorium
hearing place, 14,000 people
Isis
sister and wife of Osiris
Choregus
'Producer'; leading citizen charged with the public duty of financing the performance of the work.
place
one unchanging location or setting
classical unities
principles of dramatic structure
Dinoysus
God of wine and fertility
Ananke
"necessity"/"that which has to be"; fate is inevitable
stage directions
information about costumes, lighting, scenery, properties, setting, action, character movements, delivery of lines and the opening and closing of the play
toys
what were humans to the gods?
Dyonysus
God of drunkeness, sex, theater, crops
Thymele
Alter to Dionysius, center of orchestra
foil
a character that contrasts and parallels the main character in a work
Thespis
one actor, initiation of dialogue (FATHER OF DRAMA)
Merope
Queen of Corinth; Oedipus' adoptive mother
Jocasta
who refutes prophecy in Oedipus the King?
tragic hero
a privileged, exalted character of high repute, who, by virtue of a tragic flaw and fate, suffers a fall from glory into suffering.
Theologeion
In the Hellenistic theater, a raised structure from which the gods spoke; either above the skene roof or simply the skene roof itself.
Orchestra/Skene
round performance area, the seats were called the theatron
irony
a recognition of the difference in perception and reality
antecedent action
events that logically precede each other
3 supreme Greek tragic dramatists
Aeschylus, Euripides, Sophocles
drama
a composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving conflict or contrast of character, esp. one intended to be acted on the stage; a play.
Sophocles
famous Greek author most noted for the Oedipus Trilogy
Dionysos
the ancient Greek god of fertility and wine
Sophocles (496-406 BC)
Introduced painted scenery and made each play of the trilogy separate in nature.
monologue
a long speech or written expression of thoughts by one character in a literary work
Onkos
Headdress worn by some Greek actors to increase their height and, thus, visibility to theater audiences.
agora
the equivalent of the town square; a marketplace; first performances of drama here
choragos
The leader of the chorus, speaks on behalf of the chorus
Actors
a maximum of 3 actors; all were professional and wore masks.
when were plays performed?
religious festivals in March and January
strophe
part of the choral ode sung by the chorus
visible action
what the audience can see; without the development of an interior scene made visible to the audience
Iliad and Odyssey
Before plays were acted out, these two famous pieces of literature would be read out loud by dramatic speakers during competitions to see who could make them sound most exciting.
cause and effect
clearly reveals what may happen at any time or place
Aristotle's def. of Tragedy
-imitation of action that is serious, complete and of certain magnitude
-in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament
-form of action not narrative
-arouse PITY and FEAR to accomplish catharsis of emotions
the fate of an individual
what did sophocles make greek drama focus on?
mimetic theory of art
says art is merely an imitation of life
banks closed, people traveled long distances, and prisoners were released from jail to attend
How important was the theatre to the ancient Greeks?
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