Greek History Flashcards

Terms Definitions
priam
arete
Piraeus
Piraeus
Philippics
g
Sicilian Expedition
413
satrap
leaders of satrapies
Philip as hegemon
g
protagorus
who believed in MITMOAT
Dionysus I of Syracuse
g
Kakoi
the evil poor people
polychrome
having or exhibiting many colors
~1100-800 BCE
Dark Age (for Greece)
Crete
the largest island in Greece
Cleisthenes
"Father of Athenian Democracy." Reformed constitution of Athens, increased power of democracy and broke up power of nobility.
Pictographic writing, Syllabic writing
you know
Darius
Persian king who managed the government to work better; split Persia into 20 satrapies
heraia
an Olympic festival celebrated for woman
grove at hacademia
what was platos school
Peisistratus
(tyrant)seized power from Solon and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. He also distributed those nobles' land to poor farmers in need.546 to 528 BC
archaic, classical, and hellenistic
types of sculptures
Alexandria's claim to fame
Lighthouse of Alexandria
Archimedes
estimated distance of world and invented pulley and lever system
Homer
Ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Thales
Greek philosopher, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece.
"first philosopher in the Greek tradition"
Attempted to explain nature without reference to mythology.
Begins a scientific revolution.
Also very far along in geometry.
Who does Pericles say the Athenians "put their trust in?"
themselves
theseus
who was the legendary founder of athenian democracy
Solon
set up the first "congress", council of 400
Dorians (Dark Ages)
Cities abandoned, focused on agriculture; Trojan War; Illyad & Odyssey
Acropolis:
fort standing on top of a hill
Hippias
Son of Peisistratus.
Was a much more harsh ruler.
He is driven out of Athens after his brother, Hipparchus, hits on another dude.
Barbaroi
Word for foreigner in Greek.Anyone who does not speak greek/doesn't know greek lifestyle is considered a barbarian, but not a term of disrespect.
Hetaerae
These are the social and intellectual women. They are foreign women from the Asiatic. First emancipated women in history, they do not marry and instead choose their own lovers. Similar to japanese geishas. Best known is Aspasia who is highly respected as the mistress of Pericles, she inspired him and opened a school of lecture.
daedalus
an Athenian architect who built the labyrinth for Minos and made wings for himself and his son Icarus to escape from Crete.
Battle of Cyzicus
Naval battle during the Peloponnesian War.
Athenians were commanded by Alcibiades, Thrasybulus and Theramenes.
Completely destroyed the Spartan fleet.
Sparta made a peace offer after this, which the Athenians rejected.
"Well let me die..in some great clash of arms that even men to come will hear of down the years."
glory
the apology
what chapter written by plato talks about socrates death
Cyrus the Great
defeats croseus, creats large persian empire
Iliad
Written by Homer- a blind poet. Epic Poem. Written in ca. 750 BC. Set in Troy, Turkey on the Dardanells ca. 1200 BC.
Draconian laws were names after who?
Draco (no duh)
perioikoi
The name given by Spartains to the conquered Laconians.
Second class citizens
Never had any political rights in Sparta
Myceneans and Minoan ideas
Greek mythology comes from these
"Delian League” formed
Year: 477
 
-a new alliance was declare “Delian League”-Formed in Delos
-Alliance of 31 Greek City states to drive out Xerxes Mostly Asian minor coast and island states Goal of league was vengeance against the Persians for their destruction and deprecation, terrorAnother Goal: protection against a Persian return-The Persian empire was driven out of Greece but was NOT destroyed, still the most powerful largest empire in the world. 
red figure style
natural clay color for figures and glazed background
bankrupt exhausted demoralized
what is greece after the peloponnesian war
direct democracy
a system in which all people vote directly on an issue
Acronym
Taking the first letter of a series of words in a phrase or title to create a word
cyclops
a member of a family of giants having a single round eye in the middle of the forehead.
monarchy oligarchy tyrant democracy
what were the governments the city states tried
Why could the spartans not starve the athenians out?
The athens navy
philip of macedonia
who takes over Greece at the end of the classical period
What was Hector's young son afraid of?
"the flashing bronze, the horsehair crest, the great ridge of the helmet nodding, bristling terror"
Why is pottery a primary dating tool for scholars?
sherds of pottery survive at almost every level and are readily datable
What was the annual custom of the Athenians in the time of Pericles?
an public funeral for the first to die in war
hercules
kakaos
Pythagoras
Mathematician
Isocrates
g
~1400-1200 BCE
Myceneaens
Protagarus
Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
Creates the role of the professional sophist or teacher of virtue.
Stated that "man is the measure of all things"
Greatest greek poet:
Homer
First great Greek city?
Mycenae.
Persia
theconventional European designation of the country now know as Iran
Aristotle
Legendary athenian philosipher, executed
Which Greek scientist applied priniciples of physics to make practical inventions? He is credited with the quote, "Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand on, and I will move the world."
Archimedes
490-479 BCE
Persian Wars (Athens/Greek Victory)
Peloponnesus
a peninsula in southern Greece
Athens
the location of the acropolis
Anaximander
Philosipher, "the boundless" contained all things
stoa
long colonnaded building used as market, magistrates' headquarters, museum, store-room
barbarians
what does athens think of sparta
Lycurgus
legendary ruler of Sparta; tradition credits him with the constitution that changed Sparta into a military state.
who said the sentence??
Dr. Robert schneider
Contrapposto
Greek for positioned against, creating an s-carve with the body where the weight of the body is shifted to one leg and that leg is bent at the knee
Late Bronze Age/Late Minoan/Mycenean Age
1600-1100 B.C.
Pentathlon
An athletic contest consisting of five different events
trireme warfare
Naval battles in the ancient world.
Long boat that would ram into enemy ships to try to sink them.
Hector cried aloud, "My time has come."
fate
joie de vivre
what is joy of life
Persian War
Greeks vs. Persians; Greek victory; Battle at Marathon, Thermopylae
Who over threw the aristocracies and established government in Athens?
Cleisthenes
Ventris
First able to transcribe the tablets of the Mycenaeans.
Realized it was an early form of Greek.
Realized that for the most part, Homer's interpretation of the Mycenaean period was from Homer's time. Very different.
Perioki
Spartan craftsman who lived freely but had no political power.
Metics
Resident aliens in Athens.Made up of half of free Athenian population. Athenians encouraged them to settle.They were attracted to the trade in the city. During Golden Age of Athens, they did fairly well, not permitted to own land, or participate in government but in all other regards, they had equal rights. All occupations were open to them and they could participate in intellectual/social activities.
linear b
an ancient system of writing representing a very early form of Greek, deciphered by Michael Ventris chiefly from clay tablets found at Knossos on Crete and at Pylos.
Philip II
Gains the throne after Perdiccas III is killed in battle, and he kicks Amyntas off the throne.
Reorganizes the Macedonian army in the style of Epaminondas.
He unites upper and lower Macedonia.
He is eventually killed by one of his body guards, possibly on the command of Alexander.
Much of the information we get about the Trojan War comes from which Greek poet?
Homer
100 years
how long did the athenian democracy last
plunder
steal goods from a person or persons by force usually during war
Salamis
an island in eastern Greece in the Gulf of Saronikos; a strait not too far from Athens. The Greeks had smaller, faster ships, which made it easier to steer big ships. The Greeks won victoriously, however, THe Persians fought on, but when the Persians reached Athens, the Greeks already left.
In athens, what was highly valued
literacy and education
hazarapatis
The name of a Persian military leader of a group of 1,000.
Sacred Wars
siege of the treasury of Delphi- prompted Thebes to invite Philip to protect Delphi and be the arbitrator. The War was fought between the forces of the Delphic Amphictyonic League, principally represented by Thebes, and latterly by Philip II of Macedon, and the Phocians. The war was caused by a large fine imposed in 357 BC on the Phocians by the Amphictyonic League (dominated at that moment by Thebes), for the offence of cultivating sacred land; refusing to pay, the Phocians instead seized the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, and used the accumulated treasures to fund large mercenary armies. Thus, although the Phocians suffered several major defeats, they were able to continue the war for many years, until eventually all parties were nearing exhaustion. Philip II used the distraction of the other states to increase his power in northern Greece, in the process becoming ruler of Thessaly. In the end, Philip's growing power, and the exhaustion of the other states, allowed him to impose a peaceful settlement of the war, marking a major step in the rise of Macedon to pre-eminence in Ancient.
• Aristocracy
Power shifted to a class of noble landowners, who were also the military defenders of the city-states because only they could afford bronze weapons and chariots. At first these nobles defended the king. In time they won power for themselves. The result was an aristocracy, or rule by landholding elite.
How do the Athenians behave toward their neighbors?
free and tolerant
During what era were the Greeks culturally thriving?
The Hellenistic Era.
The ten tribes that Cleisthenes established each sent 50 representatives to what?
The council of 500
Theodosius I
Who banned the pagan festivals in ca A.D. 395?
hector
the eldest son of Priam and husband of Andromache: the greatest Trojan hero in the Trojan War, killed by Achilles.
running water, water collection, waste elimination
what was in the palace
The threat of persian attack ended with:
the death of xerxes
small autonomous independent of each other
what were the greek city states
What is the "glor" of women?
Not to be talked about by men
What is the origin of the Doric order?
northeast Peloponnese in the 7th c. BC
Why did Andromache say that Hector is now her father, mother and brother, too?
She had lost all her family at the hands of Achilles
Olynthus
g
Alexander Mosaic
g
polis
Greek city states
Macedonia
home of Alexander
Socrates
Wil mensen laten nadenken
What was Knossos
a palace
Greek Rivalries and Warfare
delian league
what does athens form
sack of Miletos
sack of Miletos
Hoplites fought in ______ formation
Phalanxes
(Vulgar) Latin
French which affects English
Pindar
Lyric Poet, wrote about Athletics
Lysander
Spartan General that was successful against Athens in the battle of Notium.
After the final battle, Aegospotomae, he formed a blockade around Athens until they ran out of food.
Athenians are forced to surrender, and an oligarchy is imposed.
Becomes one of the architects of the newly conquered Spartan Empire, installing narrow oligarchies of 10 (30 in Athens).
korai
Female votive offering with an extended hand; clothed upright statues of women, often of goddesses (generally the Archaic period)
know thyself
what was socrates famous statement
Orestia
written by Aeschylus tragic drama about Aggamemnon's return home from the trojan war
After darius, who lead the persians?
Xerxes
Phonecians
An older civilization that Greeks borrowed ideas from.
Greeks got their alphabet from these people.
They also brought iron into Greece.
Aegean Sea
a sea east of the Mediterrean
Cleopatra
Seventh wife of Philip II.
Mother of Caranus.
Macedonian.
Despite their love of beauty and learning, the Athenians are not
soft
Greek plays usually had a (blank) ending.
quick
hellenic
relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization
Athena
Daughter of Zeus. Threatens Zeus that if he intervenes to help Hector, "None of the deathless gods will ever praise you."
Mycaneans lived on:
The Pelopenesus (southern mainland area of greece)
Thasos
An Island which joined the Delian League, but revolted due to differences.
Athenians defeated them by sea, and ordered them to destroy their walls and pay indemnity.
1450-1400 B.C.
a catastrophe or invasion destroyed the Minoan civilzation during this time
Thucydides was exiled when, as a admiral, he could prevent the seizure of?
Amphipolus
Aeschylus
One of the three famous Athenian play writes.
Known as the father of Tragedy.
His play, the Persians, is a primary source of info about the Persian invasion of Greece.
Gods were still an important role in his plays.
Which Greek writer is known as the "Father of History?" He wrote *The Persian Wars*.
Herodotus
Themistocles
an Athenian general who thought of a plan against the Persians
Define direct democracy:
All citizens participate in decision making
Naxos
Decided they no longer wanted to be part of the Delian League.
Instead of letting them resign, Athens attacks them.
They are forced to pay tribute to Athens, and eventually everyone in the Delian League is subjugated by the Athenians.
Protagoras
Famous Sophist. "Man is the measure of all things." Everything is decided by man. Truth is relative and different for each individual. It is pointless to look for absolute truths. You should find ways to survive, use your knowledge to navigate through life successfully. This is alarming for conservative ppl, but sophists argue that they do not support anarchy.
What way of life did Greek architecture serve?
public, communal, outside
democracy
govenment by the people or rule of the many
Philip of Macedon
(Father of Alexander the Great). An ambitious king of Macedonia who was gradually bringing Greece under his control.
Issus
The Battle of Issus (333 BC) was a decisive Macedonian victory and it marked the beginning of the end of Persian power. It was the first time the Persian army had been defeated with the King (Darius III at the time) present. Also was beneficial in that it was the first time Alexander could pay his troops with the funds within the war chest.
light well
a shaft going from the top floor to the bottom floor that lets in light
marathon, salamis, thermopylae
the 3 important battles in the persian war
Knossos on Crete and Pylos
Linear B tablets were found here
Alexander the Great: Persian Campaign?
Well planned and swiftly went all through Turkey and northeast to Pakistan and down to Egypt. Mixed Greek and Persian cultures.
evidence of a women being the head
what was unusal about the palace
What is the origin of the word "alphabet?"
first two Greek letters: Alpha and Beta
Priam says that it's fine and noble if a young man goes down in war. What does he say is "the cruelest sight in all our wretched lives?"
when an old man is killed and "the dogs go at the gray head."
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