Greek Theatre Flashcards

Terms Definitions
euripedies
men
Antigone
written first
thespis
1st actor
Tragikon
works of tragedy
Oedipus Rex
written second
aristophones
wrote old comedy
Polis
Greek word for city-state
Jocasta
Oedipus' wife (and mother)
eccyclema
used to create effects
Catharsis
(psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions
Phrynichus
credited to adding females characters
Theatron
seeing place where audience sat
masks
what did the actors/chorus wear?
Theatres>>>>
-Masks-megaphones in them to project
-Costumes
-Props - Symbolism
-Specialized tools to Theatre
*Ekkyklema-No violence on stage and it would bring characters out
*God Machine
Pathos
a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow)
chorus
started with amateurs. Adds energy sets the mood of the story. As they got more involved they got more dialogue
Dialogue
credited to Thespis. An exchange between the chorus and a hypokrites.
Minoans
a bronze age highly advanced civilization on the island of Crete. They built 3 story palaces and had a sewer system. They had "Theatral areas" whose purpose is unknown
Periaktoi
triangular prisms with a different scene painted on each side.
Aulos
ancient Greek reed instrument, usually played in pairs; single or double reed; cult of god Dionysus flute or clarinet modern equivalent
The Oresteia
the only surviving greek trilogy.
Agamemnon, The Libation Bearers, The Eumenides written by Aeschylus; only extant trilogy
Stasima
The poems/odes recited by the chorus.
Prologue
information about what has occurred before the play starts
Place
one scene throughout the entire play
Limitations
• Continuous presence of the chorus
• No intermissions continuous flow of action and choral odes
• No lighting or curtains
dionysus
god of wine, fertility, vegetation, illusion, and ecstacy, spring, vintage
Athens
the center of intellectual, artistic, and architectural achievement
Deus ex Machina
"An unrealistic or unexpected intervention to rescue the protagonists or resolve the conflict. The term means ""The god out of the machine"" and refers to stage machinery."
Odyssey
a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
Old Comidies
the plays written by Aristophanes during the war with Sparta
Mycenaeans
Helladic culture who fought the famous war with Troy. The culture declined after that, but there indirect influence supplied material for Homers Odyssey.
archon eponymos
The principle civil magistrate of Athens
Oedipus
stems from the irony of the prophesy
Dithyramb
hymn sung in honor of the gods
• Goodness
o Likeable person; seemingly GOOD person
o Only characters who are good can arouse pity
parados
what is the entrance of the chorus?
Aeschylus
who was considered the "Creator of Tragedy"?
Ritual and Theatre
-Agrarian and Fertility Rites
-Rituals became less important for ensuring food
-Entertainment for Greeks is secondary
Dramatic Irony
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
Cyclops
written by Euripides as a Satyr play that is the only example that survived.Based on an episode from the odyssey. Where he had to escape from a cyclops.
Happy Idea
plays organized around a ruling theme, that embody far fetched ideas such as a sex strike to bring the end of war.
Thymele
altar of dionysus that sits in the center of orchestra
• Tragic Realization
o Accepts responsibility for the outcome
o Perceived before the fall how he/she has contributed to his/her destruction
Messenger
• Tells news happening away from the scene
• Reports acts of violence not allowed to be seen
episode
what is the counterpart of the modern act or scene?
skene
wooden structure at the back of the theatron which served as a dressing room; outside used as a façade
strophe
one section of a lyric poem or choral ode in classical Greek drama
The Persians
is an Athenian tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus, First produced in 472 BCE, oldest surviving play in the history of theater the play is also notable for being the only extant Greek tragedy that is based on contemporary events
Mechane
A crane used in Greek theatre how or why is unknown but we know they had it
Apollo
God of the Sun, Oracle of Apollo is consulted about the fate of Oedipus
proscenion
level area in front of the scene where the action took place (a stage)
Rural Dionysia
The festival in the fall in honor of Dionysus.
Function of the Muses
• Inspire the creation of literature and the arts
• Invocation ( to a muse)- when a character/author implores one of the muses for help in a given situation, for both inspiration and support
stasimon
what is the choral ode at the end of each episode?
Orchestra
The stage
Action
simple plot
When started
2500
Pratinas
introduced Satyr plays.
Time
a single day
menade
wrote new comedy
Silenus
leader of the satyrs
Oedipus at Colonus
written third
Komoidia
Greek name for a comedy.
Thebes
City that Oedipus reigns over
elaborate
what were the costumes like?
atmosphere
what did the chorus set?
dancing place
center of the stage
Pericles
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Choerilus
made innovations with costumes and masks
Komos
is happily-ever-after moment; is just a moment of pure happiness and resolution the final scene
Plato
Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society also, wrote about the festivals and how they were held on different days so people could see what other cities were doing.
Merope
from Corinth, the woman Oedipus believes is his mother
purgation
the act of clearing yourself (or another) from some stigma or charge
Zeus
the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology
Peisistratus
Greek tyrant who seized power and divided estates among landless farmers
City Dionysia
spring festival in honor of dionysus,competitions were held among the playwrights
Hypokrites
the lead actor exact meaning is interpreter or answerer
Didaskalos
in ancient Greece, a playwright who staged the plays he wrote, instructing the performers and advising the designers and technicians. Exact translation means teacher
Music and Dance
• Musical accompaniment
• Dance was primarily expressive rhythmical movement
enthusiasm
dionysus was the symbol of...? (the god within us)
diazoma
upper and lower decks of the theatron
main actors
were heroic beings separated from mortals, stayed in acting space
parados/exodus
entry and exit way for chorus-also the first song sung in the play
Hamartia
the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall
New comedy
Greek comedy developed around 300 BC stressing romance, wit and unexpected plot twists
Costumes & Masks
• Long flowing robes
o Colored
• High boots, often with raised soles
• Larger than life masks
o Made of linen, wood, and/or cork
o Exaggerated features
tetralogy
what did the 3 playwrights that were invited to the dionysia present?
Arion of Corinth
the person who gave Dithyramb its first literary form
Laius
the father of Oedipus ( who he killed unknowingly on his way to Thebus)
Prometheus bond
a play that specifies it is set in mountains, argued on how it is actually staged. Story about punishment assigned by Zeus to the god who gave humans fire.
Function of the Chorus
• Sets the overall mood
• Adds beauty (theatrical effectiveness) through song dance
• Gives background information
• Divides action and offer reflections on events
• Questions, advises, expresses opinions-usually through chorus leader
divide into episodes
what did the chorus do to the action?
Primitive
Hillside
aristophanes
comedies
katharsis
cleaning/puring
opsis
spectacle
Hubris
Excessive pride.
polytheistic
many gods
properties
indicate roles
 Paraskenia
wings
Tragedy
534 B.C.E._Thespis
annihilation
complete destruction
Middle Comedy
Transitional Form
exodus
exit of chorus
Prologos
establishes dramatic situation
Father of Drama
Thespis
Ekklesia
assembly for grievances
Parracide
Killing of one's father.
epode
end of the antistrophe
stichomythia
rapid back and forth
cothurnos
thick soled raised boot
Patricide
killing of a father
Tragic Action
-Arete, Aristeia
-Hubris
-Hamartia
-Peripeteia
-Anagnorisis
-Catharsis
-Excellence
-Arrogance
-Fatal mistake
-Reversal of fortune
-Understanding
-Release from tension
501 B.C.E
3T and IS
comprehensive
including all or everything
Oracle
Housed at Delphi, gives advise.
Chiton
Short tunic worn in comedy
sophocles
introduced third actor; very conservative, pro-gods; divine will must be worked out by the individual's suffering
ekkyklema
wheeled cart for dead bodies
unity of action
only one storyline/plot
Tragic Structure:
-Prologos
-Parados
-Episode/Stasimon
-Paean
-Exodos
-Expode
-Introductory scene
-Entry of chorus
-4-5 alternating scenes and choral odes, including the Paenan
-A hymn of praise to the gods
-Final scene
-Final ode
Writer
Aristophanes: old and middle comedy
nemesis
fate that cannot be escpaped
Hymations
Long cloak worn over right shoulder
choregoi
wealthy citizens who financed the production of plays. One of these was appointed for each dramatist.
Creon
Oedipus uncle and brother in law
Anthropomorphism
giving human qualities to the gods
peripeteia
sudden reversal of fortune; happens when some unknown piece of information is revealed
shaman
spiritual leader in community, bridge between man and gods
mathema
perception arising from observance of agon
• Proagon
preliminary presentation to provide advertisements for upcoming plays. Think of an opening Olympic ceremonies. There were sponsors for the poor so they could get in (paraclees)
Proskenion
The ground level portion immediately in front of the skene was used as an acting area
Writers
Aechsylus: added 2nd. actor, wrote trilogies (The Oresteia:458 B.C.E), size of chorus was 12
barbarian
person lacking literary culture or refinement
Greco/Roman Age
Orchestra no longer in full circle
Proscenium
what separates the audience from the stage. It is the frame around the stage that makes it look like the action is taking place in a picture frame
tritagonist
a third character which allowed more complex interactions of dialogue (Sophocles)
nietzsche
"the birth of tragedy" apol vs dio
pinakes
(26) painted panels similar to modern flats
kommos
lyric or chant duet between actor(s) and chorus = highly mornful/ emotional
Euripides Treated Gods with ___ of awe
Lack
parades
offstage, where the actors enter and exit
Dionysia
major festival held each spring in honor of Dionysus
comedy
song of kamos- protagonist reaches a goal
ode
a long, lyrical poem, usually serious or meditative in nature
Persona
A mask that the actors used. Showed emotion and who the actor's character was.
Classic Greek Theatre
-Theatron - seeing place where audience sat
-Orchestra- circular dancing place where actors and chorus performed
-Thymele- Altar to Dionysus, center of orchestra
satyr play
The characters in these wild plays, the satyrs (half human, half bestial creatures), were disciples of the god Dionysus. People trying to look like them for festivities and performances dressed in full body suits with pieces of wool attached to their bodies. It is not known how many people were in the chorus in these plays. However, we do know that it was conducted by an older satyr called the Papposilenos. Despite our lack of knowledge in this area, because no satyr plays have survived, we do know that the genre's blend of crude humor and lively action made it a crowd favorite.
three unities
One Day, One Setting, One Plot (Aristotle)
elements of Greek tragedy
plot, character, diction, music, spectacle, and thought
Definition (Aristotelean Defnition): A _________ of an ___________ that is __________ and ___________ and of certain magnitude
limitation action whole complete
Golden Mean
Greek Doctrine of moderation in all things; taking nothing to excess; find balance between Apollo & Dionysus
Ekkykelemia
cart rolled out to show bids of warriors killed in battle
tragic flaw
one of Aristotle's five rules of tragedy; something in the hero's character or a failure in his judgment that brings disaster
situational
Type of irony: a contrast between what is expected and what occurs
• Choregus
: paid for everything. Sponsors for each playwright
Spinz
Oedipus had to solve his riddle in order to be king
who are the three major playwrites?
aeschylus, euripides, sophocles
Theatres
Theatre of Dionysus ( where plays of 5th presented)
Epidaurus( best preserved)
Thorikos (earliest theatre in Greece)
Phaistos: earliest performance space
Orchestra / Orkestra
circle (almost) in front of skene
~this is where the chorus (group of actors that narrate) sings and dances
~thymeli - altar for the gods
Greek Unities
Plays take place during ONE day, with ONE plot, in ONE place.
Euripides
He is said to have written 92 plays, of which 17 tragedies have survived.
Situational Irony
what appears likely to happen is not what actually happen
• Sophocles
• Oedipus Rex (basis for the perfect play). Plot construction was considered the best around
satyr
a comedy play that pokes fun at the three plays that went before it
The chorus acts as a group _____ who expresses opinions, gives advice, and sometimes threatens to interfere in the action
Character
serious; suffering; tragic flaw; hubris; pity; fear; should; will; defeat; enlightenment; catharsis
Requirements of a tragedy, according to Aristotle:
1) It must have a ____ subject (although there may be moments of comedic relief). Raises questions about the meaning of man's existence, his moral nature, and his social and psychological relationships.
2) The protagonist must be a figure of heroic proportions who is capable of great ____. He must have a _____ ____, called hamartia. Usually this is ____, or excessive pride. He is a person we can understand and who can arouse our sympathy and admiration.
3) The emotions of ____ and ____ must be aroused.
4) What _____ happen, ___ happen - no chance or coincidence, and no rescues.
5) The tragic hero must meet ____, but out of that must come _______ (a recognition of his responsibility in the defeat), and a ________, or purging of emotion. No happy ending, basically.
What is the Greek theatre?
main form of entertainment
all social classes
3-5 days, open air
highest form of poetry
one of Aristotle's five rules of tragedy; the style in which the play must be written (this is really obscure...sorry)
Aristotle's Tragic Hero
1. ____(by virtue of birth)
2. _____(translated as tragic flaw)
3. Reversal of fortune (_____) brought about because of the hero's tragic error
4. The discovery or recognition that the reversal was brought about by the hero's own a
1. Nobleness or wisdom
2. Hamartia
3. Peripetia
4. Anagnorisis
What was a normal production?
followed the pattern of exposition, rising action, etc.
in medias res
in the middle of the action - plays often started like this, example Oedipus
How is the tragic hero a "scapegoat"?
Symbolizes: he's a man, but nonetheless, seems as a "sacrifice" of sorts
What role does the city of Athens play?
~where public festivals are held
~5 days, prestigious
Dithyramb was a _____ to Dionysus
Ode preformed by a chorus of 50 men dressed as satyrs
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Term:
Definition:
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