anatomical kinesiology Flashcards

Deltoid muscle
Terms Definitions
Flexion
Elevation/Upward Rotation
Pronation
Palms down
Types of Bones
LongShortFlatIrregularSesamoid
Three main axis
Transverse
Anteroposterior
Longitudial
soleus (actions)
plantar flexion
Condyloid
MCP Joint (Metacarpal-Phalangeal)

Concave and Convex bone articulation

Planes of Motion:
- Sagittal = flex/exten
- Frontal = Ab/Aduction

Motion:
Ab/Adduction
Flex/Exten
Circumduction
joint classification by structure
FibrousCartilaginoussynovial
I-SO Fibers
Slow twitch fibers
tibialis anterior (actions)
dorsiflexion, inversion
Antagonist
Opposite to agonist

Opposite concentric forces

Relaxes to allow movement of agonist
Distal
Away from the midline
Macrostructure of the Muscle
Muscle belly-
Epimysium-
Perimysium-
Fasciculus-
Endomysium-
Single Muscle Fiber-
Sarcoplasm-
Sarcolemma-
Myofibril
Tendon
Continuation of connective tissue
surrounding muscle
Gradual increase in stiffness from muscle
to bone
cornea, iris, retina, sclera. Everything seen outside of central vision is ambient or peripheral vision
Vision
peroneus brevis (actions)
plantar flexion, eversion
Basal Ganglia
2nd highest control

Controlls:
- Posture and Equillibrium
- Learned movements (habitual)
- balance and rhythmic activities
- Complex learned activites (habits)
Muscle only _____ to Bones
PULL

PULL

PULL!!!!!
Isokinetic
Muscle shortens or lengthens at
same speed throughout activity
Antagonist Muscle
Muscle that lengthens during the
action, could be active or passive
Axial Skeleton
Skull, Vertabrea, and Ribs
71 bones
Muscles used for Horizontal ADDuction(Flexion)
Pec Major(ALL)
Coracobrachialis
Deltoid(ANT)
Bicep Brachii
-perception of individual body parts or the whole body-sense organs in vestibular system located in inner ear determine ability to perceive orientation and rotary acceleration, allows us to maintain balance
Proprioception
Multipennate Muscle
Several tendons

Fibers run diagonal between them

e.g. deltoid muscle group
Stability
Resistance to:
- change in body's acceleration
- disturbance in body's equilibrium
Ball & Socket (Enarthrodial)
Multiaxial/Triaxial joint

Bony convex/fits into concave

Motions:
- Flex/exten
- Ab/Adduction
- Diagonal Ab/Adduction
- Rotation
- Circumduction
Sacomeres arranged in series means
they are arranged:
end to end
Influences of Gravity
Horizontal movement NOT affected by gravity.
Lifting against gravity is a CONCENTRIC CONTRACTION
Slower lowering with gravity is an ECENTRIC CONTRACTION
Muscles used for External Rotation (Outward)
Teres Minor
Infraspinatous
is when activation of muscle results in increased joint angle
Extension
the cell membrane that surrounds each muscle cell
Sarcolemma
Reciprocal Inhibition
Antagonist muscle groups must RELAX while agonist contracts concentrically or eccentrically
Passively Insufficiency
When opposing muscle becomes stretched to the point where it can no longer lengthen and allow movement
Qualitative vs. Quantitative
methods of study, what are the differences?
Quantitative is labratory based
 
Qualitative is more real world based, such as in a gym.
consists of bone structures and is divided into sections called the axial and appendicular skeletons
Skeletal System
names of the arches
medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch, transverse arch,
Strap Muscle (and function)
More uniform in diameter

Fibers arranged in long parallel manner

Function:
Focus power on to small bony targets

e.g. sartorius
Name the 6 Synovial Joints
1. Ball & Socket2. Condyloid/Elliptical3. Gliding Joint4. Hinge Joint5. Pivot Joint6. Saddle Joint
Proprioception
Idea that we know where we are in relation
to joint positioning
gives framework to body, provides area of attachment for muscles, produces movement using muscle torques, provides protection for vital organs in body, production units of red blood cells which transport oxygen throughout the body
Purpose of the Skeleton
name the joints in the forefoot?
distal interphalangeal joints, proximal interphalangeal joint, metatarsophalangeal joint
Lever
A rigid bar that turns about and axis of rotation (fulcrum)

Move by force (muscle tnesion)
Flat Muscle (and function)
Thin and Broad

Originates from broad, sheet-like aponeurosis

Function: allows forces to be spread over broad area

e.g. abdominals
Elbow Extension (and plane)
Return from elbow flexion in anatomical position

Sagittal Plane
Twitch summation implies that....
Over time stimulation of the muscle will
"plateau" or reach a point known
as "fused" tetanus
name the ligaments on the lateral side of the ankle?
anterior tibiofubular ligament, posterior tibiofubualr ligament, interosseus ligament, interosseus membrane
Motion & Plane Relationship
Motion is always parallel to a plane
Typical Boney Features
pt. 2
Cortex: Dense bone forming walls of Diaphysis
Periosteum: Fiberous membrane covering Diaphysis
Endosteum: Lines inside of Cortex
Medullary: Marrow cavity
Synovial Planes of Motion
Possible in one or more planes of motion
Extension
Depression/Donward Rotation
Sagittal Plane
Frontal Axes
Flexibility
Range of Motion
pronation
dorsiflexion, eversion, abduction
Joint
Axis of movements
Shoulder Joint ABduction
upward rotation
peroneus tertius (actions)
dorsiflexion, eversion
Wrist Dorsal Flexion
(=) Extension
Anatomical Position
Standing Upright

Facing Forward

Palms Facing Forward
Interoceptors
React to internal enviromental conditions
Muscles used for Horizontal ABduction(Extension)
Deltoid(M)(P)
Tricep(LH)
sensory receptors that receive stimuli that provide a description of environment
Exteroceptors
peroneus longus (actions)
plantar flexion, eversion
Concentric Contractions
Tension in muscle

While shortening

Overcomes Gravity or Resistance

"Positive Contraction"
3 Types of Pennate Muscle
Unipennate

Bipennate

Multipennate
name the cartilaginous joints
Synchondroses - amphiarthrodialSymphyses - amphiarthrodial
Force Modifiers
Length (relative to resting length)
Velocity of shortening/lengthening
Activation level
Muscle Spindles
determine muscle length and stretch
Neutralizer Muscle
Acts to prevent undesired
muscle movement at a joint
Muscles used in ABduction
Pec major(C)
Deltoid(ALL)
this articulation minimizes movement, amphiarthrodial articulation allows some movement between bones contained in joints
Synarthrodial articulation
Stabilizers
Surround joint or body part

Contract to fixate or stablize limb or segment of body moving
Angular Motion
Rotary Motion

Rotation around an axis

In the Body:
- Axis of rotation provided by joints
Movement
Action

Actual change in position of bones relative to each other

When the angle between bones change

Motion between articular joint motions
Saddle Joint (Sellar)
Unique Triaxial

2 reciprocal concave/convex art surfaces

Only example: Thumb

Motions:
- Flex/exten
- Ab/Adduction
- Circumduction
- Slight rotation
Disadvantage of Pennation
Limited distance of muscle travel
Body Segments
Trunk: Head, Neck Thorax Abdomen
Upper Extremeties: Arm, Forearm, Hand
 
Lower Extremeties
Thigh, Leg, and Feet
4 Points of the Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis
Muscle bundles grouped together to form entire muscle and surrounded by connective tissue, connective tissue is tapered at ends of muscle to form tendons
Muscle Groupings
the study of cell biology and structure
Cytology
responding for sending and returning messages throughout our nervous system. Language of neural messages is a simple binary off-on codeWhen an action potential reaches the end of the axon it meets a synapse which is a junction between two neu
Neural Impulses
Neural Control of Muscle Actions
Cerebral Cortext

Basal Ganglia

Cerebellum

Brain Stem

Spinal Cord
Goniometer
Measures amount of movement in a joint

Measure joint angles
Typical Boney Featurespt. 1
Diaphysis: ShaftEpiphysis: Ends of long bonesCancelleous:Spongey trabecularEpiphyseal Plate: Growth plate, thin cartilage seperating Diaphysis & Epiphysis
Isometric Muscle Contraction
Muscle tries to shorten but
external load equals force
so no shortening action
or contraction occurs
have capacity for relatively high aerobic capacity and a high resistance to fatigue, and better equipped to shuttle nutrients and elements from the blood to the muscle cells
slow twitch fibers
Synovial Joints (Diarthrodial)
1. Freely Movable
2. Composed of sleevelike Joint Capsule
3. Secretes Synovial Fluid to lubricate Joint Cavity
4. Capsule thickenings form nonelastic ligament to provide additional support
5. Articular/Hyaline Cartilage
- Covers articular surfaces
- Absorbs shock
- Protects bone
- Absorbs/Secretes synovial fluid during weight bearing exercises

(note: some have fibrocartilage disks)
All-or-None Principle
Regardless of number, muscle fibers or a given motor unit will:
- Fire and contract Maximally
- Or not at all
Composed of brain and spinal cord,
Central Nervous System (CNS)
name the bones of the foot?
Phalanges, metatarsals, cuneiform, navicular, calcaneus, talus, cuboid
Diagonal Planes of Motion
Human beings functional planes of motion

High = Throwing a ball
Low = Kicking a bal
Also = Swinging a club
Sagittal Axis
(Orientation, Runs, Movement)
Orientates with Frontal Plane of Motion

Runs: Anterior/Posterior

Movement: Abduction, Adduction
Do more sacromeres=more force?
No, it depends more on their arrangement
Ground Reaction Force
Force of the surface reacting to the force we place on it
Frontal Plane of Motion (Lateral)
Motion
Divides the body into Anterior and Posterior halves

Motion: Abduction/Adduction

e.g. jumping jacks
Physiological Movement
Flex

Exten

AB

AD

Rotation
Proprioceptors
Monitor musculoskeletal status
External Rotation
ADDuction (Retraction)
supination
plantarflexion, inversion, adduction
Superficial
Near the surface
Ruffini Endings
Constant Pressure Levels
Shoulder Joint ADDuction
Downward Rotation
Inverters
tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorium longus, flexor hallucis longus
Wrist Palmar Flexion
(=) Flexion
Inner Ear (labyrinthine)
Balance, Position, and Acceleration
 
Central Nervous System
Core, axial skeleton
Dorsiflexors
tibialis anterior, peroneus tertius, extensor digitorium longus, extensor hallucis longus
Eversion
Turning sole of foot outward/Laterally
Accessory Motion
Roll

Spin

Glide

Neccessary for for Physiological movement
Lateral
On or to the side
Joint Classifications by movement
Synarthrodial: No MovementAmphiarthrodial: Slightly MoveableDiarthrodial: Versatile
Flexor Reflex
Withdraw Reflex
Upper & Lower Extremities
Withdraw limb from source of pain
Agonist Muscle
Muscle that shortens during activity.Could be passive or active shortening
all other bones in the extremities
Appendicular
Ventral
Relating to the belly or abdomen
Symphysis Joint
Joint separated by Fibrocartilage

Very slight movement
Synergist
Assist agonist, though not prime movers

Refined movement

"secondary movers"
ABduction
Lateral movement away from the midline

Frontal Plane
Sliding Fillament Theory
Muscle contraction causes cross bridges to
grab and pull/rotate on the Actin. This pulls
Z lines closer together exerting
muscular force.
Name the 3 types of muscle
Smooth
Cardiac
Skeletal
Muscles used for ADDuction
Pec Major(S)
Lats Dorsi
Teres Major
Triceps(LH)
body into front and back side
Frontal Plane
the junction between two bones the type of this junction dictates type of joint that exists in an anatomical unit
Articulation
gastrocnemius (actions)
plantar flexion, flexion of the knee
Radial Deviation
ABduction of hand towards the thumb
Hip Extension (and plane)
Bringing posterior thigh backwards

Sagittal Plane
name the fibrous joints
Suture - synarthrodialSyniesmosis - amphiarthrodialGomphosis - synarthrodial
Typical Boney Features
pt. 1
Diaphysis: Shaft
Epiphysis: Ends of long bones
Cancelleous:Spongey trabecular
Epiphyseal Plate: Growth plate, thin cartilage seperating Diaphysis & Epiphysis
has white matter and grey matter. White area contains myelinated fibersWhich are surrounded by a myelin sheath. Carries info to and from the brain. Grey area contraines myelinated nerve fibers
Spinal Cord
extensor hallucis longus (actions)
dorsiflexion, inversion, extension of the great toe
Resistance Arm (and length)
Distance from axis to resistance
Active Insufficiency
When muscles are shortened to the point that it cannot generate or maintain tension
Pennate Muscle (and function)
Have short fibers

Arranged obliquely in a manner close to feathers

Increases cross sections of fibers
- increases power

Fits more fibers onto central tendon
Wrist Extension (and plane)
In anatomical position

Extension of wrist with dorsal/posterior side of hand moving towards the posterior of the forearm

Sagittal Plane
Line of Action
Effect of force occurs here.
Must be offset from joint center
force is equally distributed at both ends
fibers that have limited capacity for aerobic metabolism and are easily fatigued
fast twitch fibers
Syndesmosis Joint
Two bones joined together by a strong ligament or Interosseus Membrane

Minimal movement
Typical Boney Featurespt. 2
Cortex: Dense bone forming walls of DiaphysisPeriosteum: Fiberous membrane covering DiaphysisEndosteum: Lines inside of CortexMedullary: Marrow cavity
Functions of the Skeletal System
Support, Protection, and an intracate system of levers
 
How to Absorb Force
Absorb with larger aspects of the body

- stronger and healthier tissue better suited
Sagittal Plane of Motion (AnteroPosterior)
Motion
Divides the body into Right and Left

Motion:
Flexion and Extension
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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