Gross Anatomy Unit I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Joint dislocation
obturator nerve
Subcostal Innervation
Intercostal Nerve
externally rotate thigh
deep radial nerve
vastus medialis
femoral nerve
Arm muscle in latin
Innermost Intercostal Innervation
Intercostal nerve
Internal Intercostal Action
elevate ribs
Pronator Teres Innervation
median nerve
Contents of oropharynx
palatoglossal fold/muscle
palatopharyngeal fold/muscle

posterior 1/3 of tongue
lingual tonsils

one median, two lateral glossoepiglottic folds
palatine tonsils
superior/inferior gemellus
externally rotate thigh
flexor carpi ulnaris
ulnar nerve
extensor indicis
posterior interosseous nerve
teres major
lower subscapular nerve
- slit, cleft, groove
Serratus Posterior Inferior Action
Depresses ribs
Coccygeus Insertion
inferior end of sacrum
Coracobrachialis Origin
Coracoid process of scapula
SCM actions
flexion of head
ipsilateral flexion
contralateral rotation alone
Latissimus dorsi
-supplied by thoracodorsal nerve-originates from spinous processes T6 and lower-inserts on floor of intertubercular groove of humerus-extend, adducts, and medially rotates arm
Function of lacrimal sac
Collect tears
vastus lateralis
extend leg at knee
fibularis brevis
pronate footplantarflexio of foot
abductor pollicis longus
posterior interosseous nerve
tibial portion of sciatic nerve
- outside ring of teeth
Elbow extension inolves
1) anconeus
2) triceps brachii
In the sympathetic nervous system, which is longer, the preganglionic or postganglionic?
Supraspinatus Action
Aids deltoid in abducting arm
Intertransversii Insertion
Transverse processes of adjacent vertebrate
Ulnar Collateral Ligament
prevents "valgus" deviation (ABduction)
Extensor Digitorum
attachment: c.e.t. to extensor expansion of digits 2-5
actions: extension of fingers at MCP, PIP, DIP
Median Nerve
*C8-T1 (in hand)
passes through carpal tunnel, lateral & deep to tendon of palmaris longus
recurrent branch C8-T1 supplies thenar mm.
muscular branches to lumbricals 1&2
superficial branches (digitals) supply skin of lateral three and one half digits and skin of lateral palm
What muscles flex the forearm?
Biceps brachiiBrachialisBrachioradialisPronator teres
Thoracolumbar fascia
-origin of latissimus dorsi-covers deep muscles of the back-attaches to spinous and transverse processes
Constituents of the vestibular apparatus
semicircular ducts
tensor fascia latae
abduct thigh at hip
rhomboid major/rhomboid minor
dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
Posterior thigh muscles
1. semimembranosus2. semitendinosus3. biceps femoris
- structure resembling veil or curtain
the ___ nerve supplies parasympathetic innervation to thorax and abdominal viscera and viscera of body, motor innervation to pharynx, larynx and palate.
Arm abduction involves
1) supraspinatus (0-15 degrees)
2) deltoid (16-90 degrees)
I. Olfactory Nerve
Sensory: Sense of Smell
Motor: NONE
Exits: Cribiform Plate
Innermost Intercostal Insertion
Superior border of ribs below
Splenius Origin
Arises from ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7-T3
Internal Intercostal Insertion
Superior border of ribs below
Rotatores Action
Stabilize vertebrae and assist with local extension and rotary movements of vertebral column
Triceps Brachii Origin
Long head-infraglenoid tubercle of humerusMedial head- posterior humerus, inferior to radial grooveLateral Head-posterior humerus, superior to radial groove
Palpable Skeletal Features
hyoid bonetransverse processes of atlasinferior border of mandiblevertebra prominens-spinous process of C7laryngeal prominence at C4cricoid cartilage at C6
sesamoid bone in tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris
lies anterior to triquetrum
provides attachment for flexor retinaculum
Dorsal ramus
Branch of the spinal nerve:-primary sensory neurons, motor neurons, postganglionic sympathetic neuronsinnervates posterior neck and back structures
What muscles extend the arm?
Latissimus dorsiDeltoidTriceps Brachii
What are the separate portions of the bony labyrinth? What fills the bony labyrinth?

semicircular canals

filled with perilymph (similar to CSF- low potassium)
What is the structure that transmit the middle ethmoid sinus?
Bulba ethmoidalis
gluteus maximus
extends thigh, raises person from seated position
flexor digiti minimi
deep branch of ulnar nerve
Gluteal Muscles
1. gluteus maximus2. gluteus medius3. gluteus minimus4. tensor fascia latae5. quadriceps femoris
Surfaces of lung
1. costal surface (ribs)2. diaphragmatic (base of lung)-diaphragm3. mediastinal-midline region of thoracic cavity
palatine rugae
- transverse folds radiating laterally from palatine raphe
gingival mucosa
- soft tissue surrounding teeth- firmly attached to teeth and alveolar bone
The ____ superior alveolar nerve is not always present.
5 spinal nerves are
8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Cocyxgeal
Serratus Posterior Superior Innervation
2 to 5th Intercostal N.
Teres Major Insertion
Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Semispinales Action
Extend head and thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column and rotate them contralaterally.
Subcostal Origin
Internal surface of lower ribs near their angles
Flexor carpi ulnaris action
flexes hand and adducts it
Subdivisions of posterior cervicle triangle
Spinal Accessory Nerve defines"Carefree" and "Careful" zones
Omohyoid defines subclavian trtiangle with subclavian artery and vein
Ulnar Nerve C8-TI
From medial cord of brachial plexus
decends medial aspect of arm
becoming superficial as it passes behind medial epicondyle ("funny bone") and enters anterior forearm
supplies flexor carpi ulnaris & one half of flexor digitorum profundus in forearm and has extensive role in hand
damage produces "claw hand"
total of 14, 2 in thumb (proximal, distal), 3 in other four digits (proximal, middle and distal)
proximal bases and distal heads
Lymphatics-Apical nodes
drains lymph from all other axillary nodes and dumps into the subclavian lymphatic trunkslocated near rib2, along axillary vein vein
What are the subdivisions of the internal structure of the larynx?
vestibule/supraepiglottic region
subglottic region
flexor digitorum superficialis
flexion of middle phalanges of fingers
Deep posterior leg muscles
1. popliteus2. tibialis posterior3. flexor digitorum longus4. flexor hallucis longus
Clinical Notes for intercostal muscles
1. thoracotomy2. flail chest
Thoracic Cavity
1. left pleural cavity and lung2. right pleural cavity and lung3. mediastinum
Which vein runs alongside the posterior interventricular artery?
Middle cardiac vein.
mucogingival junction
- line separating gingival mucosa from alveolar mucosa
The ___ is innervated by branches of the maxillary nerve entering at both the back and front of it.
Scapula dépression involves
1) Pectoralis minor
2) lower fibers of trapezius
3) subclavius (through clavicle)
4) latissimus dorsi (through humerus)
Rhomboid Major Insertion
medial border of the scapula below spine level
Pectoralis Major Insertion
Lat. Lip of the intertubercular groove or crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus.
Triceps Brachii Insertion
Proximal end of olecranon, ulna, and fascia of forearm
Psoas Major Innervation
Lumbar plexus via ventral branches of L2-4
Elbow Joint
consists of 3 joints surrounded by a capsular ligament
hinge joint: between trochlea of humerus with semilunar (trochlear) notch of ulna; uniaxial limitation resides with humeroulnar half
ball&socket joint: between capitulum of humerus & head of radius
pivot joint: between head of radius & radial notch of ulna
 Posterior dislocations are most common, follow a fall on an outstretched arm
Axillary nerve
branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexussensory, postganglionic sympathetic, motor innervation of deltoid and teres minor
Describe the course of the auricotemporal N.
carries postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion to the parotid gland
Has two roots that surround the middle meningeal A.
Structures that travel WITHIN the cavernous sinus
sympathetic carotid plexus
Function of Deep petrosal N.
Sympathetic innervation to lacrimal gland
Parasympathetic and Sympathetic ANS
1. wide distribution, interacts wit major viscera2. parasympathetic--anabolic processes, restoration, and conservation of energy3. sympathetic--deal with stressful situations4. basal rates contribute to "tones"
Function of abdominal wall muscles
1. protect viscera2. maintain positions of viscera3. change pressure of abdominal cavity4. change pressure of thoracic cavity5. indirectly move vertebral column (sit up)
Do the testes pass through the processus vaginalis or posterior to it?
Posterior to it.
lingual frenulum
- attaches anterior 2/3 of tongue to floor of mouth
Max/opthalmic = entirely sensory
Maxillary and opthalmic divisions are entirely (sensory/motor) where as the mandibular is partially so.
Serratus Posterior Inferior Innervation
Ventral rami of 9-12 thoracic spinal nerve
Flexor digitorum superficialis action
flexes middle phalnages of medial four digits; acting more strongly, it flexes proximal phalanges and hand
Lesser Occipital Nerve C2
Follows posterior border of SCM to supply scalp behind ear
Semispinalis capitis, cervicis and thoracis
-originate on upper half of spine-holds head up
What muscles make up the superficial layer of the posterior compartment of the forearm?
Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor digitorum, Extensor digiti minimi, Extensor carpi ulnaris, aconeus
What are the motor branches of CN V3

Muscles of mastication
lateral pterygoids
medial pterygoids

Tensor tympani
Tensor veli palatini
anterior belly of digastric
What does the costocervical trunk supply?
first 2 intercostal spaces
deep back
extensor digiti minimi
extend little finger at MT and IT joints
Dual Innervation of organ
1. most organs innervated by both parasymp and symp. 2. normal activity reflects parasymp and symp tones until it needs t be changed
walls of inguinal canal
1. floor: curved bottom of inguinal ligament2. anterior wall: aponeurosis of external oblique3. posterior wall: transversalis fascia4. roof: internal oblique and transverse abdominal muscle fibers
If a bulla of the lung bursts, what will happen?
Spontaneous pneumothorax
deep lingual vein
- can be seen through ventral tongue mucosa on either side of frenulum- has clinical implications especially in absorption of certain medications
infiltration, block anesthesia
____ on the palate is indicated for onlyanesthetizing 1 or 2 teeth, while ___ anasthesia is indicated when anesthetizing more than 2.
Serratus Posterior Inferior Insertion
Inferior borders of 8th to 12th ribs near their angles.
What muscles attach at the common flexor origin? (4)
Common flexor origin= medial epicondyle humerusFlexor carpi radialisFlexor carpi ulnarisFlexor digitorum superficialisPalmaris longus
For those muscles that are responsible for closin the laryngeal inlet, what is their mechanism of action?
transverse arytenoid- close rima glottis
oblique arytenoid- close rima glottis and tighten aryepiglottic fold
thryoepiglottic muscle- tighten aryepiglottic folds
Target cells of efferent nerve fibers of ANS
1. vascular smooth muscle2. non-vascular smooth muscle3. cardiac muscle cells4. secretory epithelial cels (mucous cells)5. gastrointestinal endocrine cells (cholecystokinin-secreting cells)
What birth defect is associated with Down's Syndrome?
Atrial Septal Defect, PRIMUM type.
cranial nerve XII, motor, hypoglossal foramen, intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue
the hypoglossal nerve, cranial nerve ____, is (sensory/motor/both), exits through the ____ ____ ans supplies innervation to ____ and ____ muscles of the ____.
Anterior Arm and Forearm: Fascial Compartments
Lateral and medial septa divide upper limb into anterior (flexor) and posterior (extensor) compartments
What bones make up the anterior cranial fossa?
Orbital plate of frontal bones
ethmoid bone
body and lesser wings of sphenoid bones
Match the layer of the anterior abdominal wall to the layer of spermatic cord.1. External Abdominal Oblique2. Internal abdominal oblique3. Transversus Abdominus4. Transversalis Fascia5. Parietal Peritoneum
1. Ext. Spermatic Fascia2. Cremasteric Fascia, cremaster muscle3. No involvement4. Int. Spermatic Fascia5. Tunica Vaginalis
Infraorbital nerve --> MSA, ASA
During its course through the floor of the orbit, the ____ nerve gives off branches = the _____ superior alveolar nerve and the ____ superior alveolar nerve.
Relation between the vocal cord and ligament
Ligament forms the skeleton for the cord/fold
What are the remnants of the gubernaculum in females? In males? What is the persisting remnant of the tunica vaginalis in females?
In females it's the ovarian ligament and round ligament of the uterus. In males, the epididymoscrotal ligament. The Canal of Nuck
Maxillary = porous, Mandible = non-porous, teeth = pulpal anesthesia
Prelim. Principle #2: The ____ bone is porous, while the ____ is not. When we want to make teeth numb (____ anesthesia), porous vs. non-porous makes a big difference.
Ligamentum teres. Where, what's it a remnant of?
Found in the liver, part of the Falciform ligament, remnant of the UMBILICAL VEIN.
False! you want to stay slightly lateral, you do not want to hit the medial pterygoid muscle
T/F: You want to stay slightly medial to the pterygomandibular raphe when injecting the IAN so that you hit the medial pterygoid muscle.
I (smell), II (sight), VII and IX (taste), VIII (hearing/balance)
Name the 4 cranial nerves that carry special senses and list the special sense.
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