Anatomy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jejunum location in relation to peritoneal cavity.
intraperitoneal
dorsal
backside
phleb
vein
chole
gall
inferior
lower
Kneecap
Patellar
Skull
Cranial
Heel
Calcaneal
Sole
Plantar
Arm
Brachial
Toes
Digital
Wrist
Carpal
-itis
inflammation of
cranial
toward head
posterior
toward back
Spinal Column
Vertebral
what moves shoulders?
scapula
pyelo
pelvis of kidney
Front of elbow
Antecubital
I
Olfactory, Sensory, Smell
What does superior mean?
Above
___________ are fat cells
Adipocytes
Cardiac muscle
Heart
involuntary but striated
intrinsically self excited
VIII
 
Vestibulocochlear, sensory, inner ear
function of vertebra
protect:
spinal cord
spinal nerves
coverings of both (meninges)
 and
support for weight of body
 
__________ _____________ connective tissue also has thick bundles of collagen and relatively little room for cells and ground substance, but the collagen bundles run in random directions
dense irregular
Epithelial tissue proper- forms epidermis and internal membranes. may be simple or striated
III
Oculomotor, Motor, Moves the Eye
Oropharynx
arch-like entranceway that extends from soft palate to epiglottis
stratified squamous epithelium
2 types of tonsils: palatine tonsils (on the sides), lingual tonsils (covers back surface of tongue)
proximal
nearer the truck or attached end
lordosis
what and why?
swayback (pregnancy)
weak trunk muscles
 
 
The plasma cells then sythesize  disease fighting proteins called
antibodies
deltoid
abducts, flexes or extends, and medially or      laterally rotates humerus, depending upon     which fibers are contracting
Underlying nearly all epithelia; surrounding blood vessels, nerves, esophagus, and trachea; fascia between muscles; mesenteries; visceral layers of pericardium and pleura is the location of what tissue?
Areolar Tissue
Masseter
 
O: Temporal Fossa and Fasica
 
I: Coronoid process and ramus of mandible
 
Innervation: Trigeminal
 
Action: Closes Jaw
When tissues combine to exhibit functional unity is
Organs
what nerve innervates the diaphram
Phrenic nerve
Trachea
c-shaped cartilage rings keep airway open
carina - marks where trachea divides into two primary bronchi
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What does dorsal mean?
To the back side
iliocostalis origin and insertion
origin: ilieum (pelvic bone)
 
insertion:
1) angles of the ribs
2) transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
latissumus dorsi origin and insertion
origin: back
 
insertion: arm
__________ is a long polyssacharide composed of unsual disaccharides called amino sugars and uronic acid.
(GAG) glycosaminoglycan
__________ are large, flat cells that often appear tapered at the ends and show slender, wispy branches. They produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of the tissue.
Fibroblasts.
Major Action of Latissimus dorsi
Extends
Adducts
Rotates humerus medially
Draws humerus inferior and posterior
The labia minor are B/w the
labia mojora
What determines hair color?
different types of melanin
distal
father from teh truck or point of attachment
visceral
supplies & receives fibers to & from smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
splenius cervicis origin and insertion
origin: spinous processes T3-C7
 
insertion: transverse processes C1-C3
What is the function of adipose tissue?
Energy storage
The ground substance of fibrous connective tissue usually has a gelatinous consistency due to
1. glycosaminoglycans
2. proteoglycans
3. adhesive glycoproteins
Ground substance usually has a gelatinous to rubbery consistency resulting from three classes of large molecules 1.________ 2._________ 3.________
1. Glycosaminoglycans
2. Proteoglycans
3. Adhesive glycoproteins
Loose tissue
bind but allows movement. has too groups, areolar  adipose
The adrenal cortex produces what Hormone
Cortisone and hydrocortisone
Is the R or L ventricle thicker
The Left
what type of gland is the pancreas
99% exocrine
Where is the linea Abla
down the rectus abdominus
third degree burns
full thickness burns, entir thickness of the skin. Not painful!
Functions of the hypodermis
fat storage, loose anchor,shock absorber, insulator
What are some organs of the urinary system?
Kidney, bladder
cervical vertebrae characteristics
(all 7) have foramen in transverse processed
A little plate such as the lamellae of bone
lamella
The Autonomic nervous system has 2 components what are they
parasympathetic and sympathetic
what is produced by the seminiferous tubules
Sperm and testosterone
What causes wrinkles?
reduction in collagen & elastin fiber production leading to sagging of the dermis.
Stratum Corneum
broad zone of dead , scaly keratinized cells . Resistant to water loss
What does superficial mean?
Closer to the surface of the body
1) extrinsic
2) intrinsic
1) originate outside of region being studied
 
2) origin and instertion inside area being studied
Three examples examples of GAGs (glycosaminoglycans) are: 1.________ 2._________3.________-
1. Heparin
2. Hyaluronic acid
3. Chrondroitin sulfate
Plasma cells are rarely seen except in the walls of 1.___________ and in 2. _________ tissue
1. instestines
2. Inflamed
what is the post. rectus sheath
Internal oblique and transversus abdominus aponerosis
what branches off the R coronary AA
R marginalPost Interventricular A
When sympathetic and parasympathetic compete with each other it is called the ________.
Tone Sympathetic tone orParasympathetic tone
Describe the Stratum Granulosum layer.
last layer of non keratinized epidermis. Last layer in w/c cells are alive. nucleus & organelles are breaking down! Lamellated granules & keratinohyaline granules
What are the four types of membranes?
Plural (lung), Paracardium (heart), Paratanium (abdomen), Mesenery (small intestines)
What are some organs of the skeletal system?
Radius, Ulna, Sternum, Cranium
Describe the microscopic appearance of dense regular connective tissue
Densely packed, parallel, often wavy collagen fibers; slender fibroblast nuclei compressed between collagen bundles; scanty open space (ground substance); scarcity of blood vessels
Langerhans cells are found in two layers of the epidermis called
1. Stratum Spinosum
2. Stratum granulosum
What is the fat pad on top of the pubic symphysis called (male and female)
Mons pubis
What are some organs of the digestive system?
Stomach, small intestines, large intestines
What roles do the muscles and glands have in the role of responsiveness (excitability irritability) ?
 Muscular and glandular tissues respond to input from the nervous and endocrine systems to elicit changes in the body to counteract changes in the environment.
What do the cordae tendia connect
Papillary MM to the tricuspid and bicuspid valve
what is the fxn of the spleen
to extract old Hb from RBC
What is one disease of the Keratinocyte?
Basal cell carcinoma(cancer of the stratum basale, least malignant)
What is the function of epithelial tissue?
Serves as linings in different parts of the body. Epithelial tissue serve as membranes lining organs and helping to keep the body's organs separate, in place and protected.
Dense regular connective is named for two properties which are:
1. The collagen fibers are closely packed and leave relatively little open space
2. The fibers are parallel to each other.
What does the celiac trunk branch into
L gastric A, Common hepatic A, Spleenic A
How was the work of Galen and Vasalius the same, different?
 
Same: Empirical science  and anatomy knowledge important, both wrote and illustrated popular anatomy books
 
Different: Galen used only animals for anatomy
Vasalius used human cadavers and was able to correct Galen's mistakes
The adrenal cortex is the outer or inner portion and the adrenal medulla is the outer or inner portion
The cortes is the outer and the medulla is the inner
What is the flow of blood from the lungs to to heart
Lungs > Pulmonary VV > L atrium > Bicuspid (mitral) valve > L Ventricle > Aortic semilunar valve > Aorta > body
pelv-
basin
arthr/o
joint
bili
bile
"mouth"
oris
adenoids
adenoid
cata-
break down
cara (f.)
face
Electrons
negative charge
Vertebrae
[7] Cervical (neck)
[12]Thoracic (torso)
[5] Lumbar (waist)
sialolith
salivary gland stone
temporalis
muscle in temple
-iatrics
pertaining to a physician
A
largest, fastest conducting, myelinated nerve fibers are called type ____ fibers.
Roof of perineum
pelvic diaphragm
Syn. for neural soma
perikaryon
Gyri
elevated ridges of convolutions
Genu=knee
Genu-vessels assoc with collateral circulation of the knee will have name genu or genucular/genucucular arteries. System of arteries coming off vessel that is in the popliteal fossa

Ex. Femoral artery leads into popliteal artery
Popliteal vein- becomes femoral vein when it exits fossa
 
same vessels but NAME CHANGE

 
sciatic foramen in bird location
ischium
External iliac turns into what?
Femoral
vesicles
membrane bound organelle that packages something
SuperficialO: PubisI: Linea AsperaA: Adducts, Flexes, Med RotatesInn: Obturator n.
Pectineus
Nasal Cavity
pseudostratified ciliated columnar & lamina propria
taste pore
opening in tasteb bud
lungs
Part of the respiratory system. responsible for air movement during movements of ribs and diaphragm; include airways and alveoli
Thorocolumbar fascia
extensive fascial sheath and superficial-covers lumbar and thoracic region-very thick and strong in lumbar region and thin and somewhat transparent in thoracic area-runs from both iliac crest, 12th ribs, and attaches to the internal oblique muscles
Synovial fluid
-viscous and slippery fluid-high content of hyaluronic acid-between hyaline cartilage surfaces-reduces friction-provides nutrition to hyaline cartilage
sarcoplasm
the cytoplasm of a muscle cell


    Which of the following molecules triggers relaxation of the muscle?
ATP 
the connective tissue covering that encloses several muscle fibers is called the
perymysium
Secretion
release of substances from unicellular or multicellular glands
Basal Cell Carcinoma
most common typeleast lethal
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; found in the cell and is genetic material and replicates itself to ensure each cell as identical info
Oligodendrocytes
have cytoplasmic extensions that can wrap around axons, creating a membranous sheath of meylin.
chemical bond
forces that hold atoms together
Splenius cervicis
Spinous process of T3-T6, Transverse process of C2-C3.Inn. dorsal rami, segmentally.
small intesinte
Food absorbed into food.  Inner surface covered with villi to increase area.
gametogenesis
the germ cells also differentiate or change and mature during..
iris
anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye are separated by the _________
Hair functions
-Protection from UV radiation, & foreign particles in eyes and nostrils.
- Aid the sensation of light touch
Fibrous Joints (Synathroses)
1)Sutures: bones of skull2)Gomphoses: teeth in sockets3) syndesmoses: radius & ulna or tibia & fibula
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Large cylindrical muscle fibers/cells, multinucleated, striated, voluntary
Sartorius
Longest muscle of the body, crosses hip and kneeO- ASISI- medial portion of the tibiaA- flexes knee and hipN- Femoral
sensations that arise in the skin
cutaneous sensations
renal lobe
consists of renal pyramid, overlying area of renal cortex, adjacent tissues of the renal columns-urine produced here
the release of __ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is the signal to start contraction
calcium
Superior Oblique
Moves eye inferiorly (depresses eye) and laterally (abducts eye) CN IV
epiphyseal plate
plate between bones- growth can occur
brachial
belonging to the arm, foreleg, wing, pectoral fin, or other forelimb of a vertebrate.
cornea
the transparent anterior part of the external coat of the eye covering the iris and the pupil and continuous with the sclera
broad flat tendon
An aponeurosis is defined as a...
Retum
Where the faces is stored is stored before exiting the body.
Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve
(S2-S3)has innervatinos to the inferior portion of the scrotum-nerve of the inferior lumbosacral plexus
internal nares
the openings between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx are the _________
Temporal Bones
lies inferior to the parietal bones (by the ears)
4 regions: squamous, temporal, petrous and mastoid regions
 
Attachments, innervations, and actions of 
psoas major muscle
iliacus
quadratus lumborum
Psoas major:
Attachments: transverse processes and bodies of T12-L5 to lesser trochanter of femur
Innervation: Anterior rami of L1,L2,L3
Action: Flexes thigh (w/ iliacus), flexes vertebral column laterally, balances trunk, flexes trunk when sitting (w/ iliacus)
 
Iliacus: 
Attachments: Superior 2/3 of iliac fossa, ala of sacrum, anterior sacroiliac ligaments to lesser trochanter of femur and shaft inferior to it and to psoas major tendon
Innervation: Femoral nerve (L2-L4)
Action: Flexes thing and stabilizes hip joint
 
Quadratus lumborum:
Attachments: medial half of inferior 12th rib and tips of lumbar transverse processes to iliolumbar ligament and internal lip of iliac crest
Innervation: Anterior branches of T12 and L1-L4 nerves
Action: Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column and flexes 12th rib during inspiration
outer surface of brain and other structures and has grey matter that is unmyelinated
cortex...(grey matter)
STEPS OF BLOOD CLOT
blood vessels contract (vascular spasm), platelets become sticy and adhere to each other called a platelet plug, a fibrin net is formed (blood clotting,coagulation)
White Matter
Myelinated parts of neurons and glia. Fiber bundle made of of glia and axon.
Which of the following is NOT a neuroglial cell?a.astrocyte b.ependymal c. microglia d.anaxonic
anaxonic
Ribosomes
tiny, dark bodies made of proteins and ribosomal RNA
dermatomes used clinically for
anesthesia
pinpoint level of spinal injuries
artery
a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body
transverse plane
divides the body or an organ into superior and inferior poritons
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
has no function in protein synthesis (rather it is a site of steroid and lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detoxification)
 
Which Sutures can be seen from a superior view of the skull?
 
Coronal
Sagittal
Lamboid (depends on angle)
avian skin
thin and loose and tears easily, but since it is poorly supplied with blood vessels and nerves, wounds do not bleed as much as in mammals, and birds seem insensitive to  manipulation of their skin
What muscles does three infrahyoid muscles does C2 send motor signals to?
sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and inferior belly of the omohyoid
What are mixtures?
are substances composed of two or more componenets physically intermixed
The left ventricle recieves ____________ blood and passes blood to the _______________ through the _________.
oxygenated; right left ventricle; mitral (bicuspid valve)
planetary model
portrays atoms as a solar system in which protons and neutrons are in the center in atomic nucleus
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain
factors in varicose veins
age, obesity, standing for long periods of time, more prominent in women
what do globular proteins do?
function as antibodies, enzymes and hemoglobin
oxygen debt is
1. extra o2 needed to restore levels in muscles2. myoglobin restores atp and creatine phosphate reserves3. reconvert lactic acid to glucose
Taste for anterior 2/3 of the tongue
Chorda tympani (CN VII)
What activates the Ventral Respiratory Group?
the dorsal R group signal
floating rib
one member of the two lowest pairs of ribs, which are attached neither to the sternum nor to the cartilages of other ribs.
What is the optic axis?
Between anterior & posterior poles of the eye -> fovea lines up w object of vision
Describe the location of the retropharyngeal space and it's relation to the deep cervical fascial layers.
The retropharyngeal space is located posterior to the buccopharyngeal fascia which is a continuation of the pretracheal fascia and the alar fascia which is a separation from the prevertebral fascia.
What is the intervertebral disc between the C1 and C2 called?
There is no intervertebral disc there.
Muscles of the Vertebral Column
There are two major groupings of muscles that are responsible for movement of the vertebral column:
1.Erector spinae – maintain posture and to stand erect. Bilateral contraction extends the spinal column and unilateral contraction flexes the column laterally.
2.Transversospinalis (minor deep back muscles) – deep to the erector spinae, they connect and stabilize the vertebrae
Electrical signals going out from the CNS to increase heart rate would utilize the
sympathetic division of the autonomic NS
How are smooth muscles arranged in a hollow organ? 


A.    In two separate sheets
B.    A longitudinal sheet of cells
C.    A circular sheet of cells
epidural space b/w spinal cord meninges
Lies between the dura mater and periosteum covering the inner walls of the vertebra.
Houses areolar connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose connective tissue.
What nerves pass thru the superior orbital fissure? 4
- Oculomotor n
- Trochlear n (III)
- Abducent n (VI)
- Trigeminal n (V: 1st division=opthalmic n=V1)
what forms the medial longitudinal arch
medial column of the foot from the heel to the first through third metatarsal heads plantarly
What are the 6 classifications of bone type and an example of each? (Ch. 5 pg. 126-7 fig 13)
Long bone - femur
Flat bone - parietal
Pneumatized bone - (hollow or with numerous air pockets) ethmoid
Irregular bone- vertebra
Short bone - (boxlike) carpal
Sesamoid - (form in tendons in reaction to stresses) patella
how should intramuscular injections be given?
must be placed so as to miss the major neurovascular structures of this region, especially the sciatic nerve
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