Anatomy - Physiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cerebellum
comparator
prostate
prostat-
steroid
ster-
glue
gli-
tuberculosis
TB
bone
-os
fibr/o
fiber
gland
aden-
Pollex
Thumb
intrauterine device
IUD
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPR
pertaining to
-tic-
centimeter
c, cm
no complaint
N/C
genital
reproductive organs
Bone cells
Osteocytes
Geniohyoid
superior to mylohyloid
Originates:inner surface of mandible
Travels:back and down
Inserts:into hyoid corpus
 
when contracts pulls hyoid up and forward
can pull mandible down if hyoid is fixed positon 
hollow bag, bladder
cyst-
autonomic nervous system
ANS
to form, produce
-genesis
PNS: Preganglion neurons
Sympathetic
T1-L2
S2-S4
triceps brachii
extends elbow
IV
motor to eye muscle
3 TYPES OF CONES
RED
GREEN
BLUE
lens of the eye
phac-
Abbreviation LLQ
Left Lower Quadrant
regulates parathyroid homrmone release
calcium
PNS: Postganglion neuron
Sympathetic
many connections
Also called renal corpuscle
Malpighian
tendon
connections of muscles to bones
 
-formed by regular dense connective tissue
 
 
 
Cartilages of Larynx
1.Cricoid Cartilage
2.Thyroid Cartilage
3.Arytenoid Cartilage
4.Corniculate Cartilage
5.Epiglottis
6.Cuneiform Cartilage
 
Brachioradialis
Muscle of lateral forearm
Origin: distal, lateral humerus; to near radial styloid process
Action: Flex elbow 
Synergistic
coagulopathy
any disorder of blood coagulation
Androgen
A hormone with testosterone-like actions.
Pineal Gland
Secretes hormone called melatonin(biological clock)
Compensatory mechanisms, including vasoconstriction, tachycardia, and increased contractility help maintain adequate ____________ _____________.
tissue perfusion
antecubital
anterior surface of the elbow
Hardest tissue in the body
Enamel
Dense Elastic Connective Tissue
Location
intervertebral discs
vocal cords
wall of aorta
 
Function
stretch without deforming
Tibialis anterior
Origin tibia
Insertion metatarsals
Action dorsiflex
During bone repair, which cells destroy excess bone?
osteoclasts
High Neutrophil Count:
indicates a bacterial infection
Rectus abdominis
Origen: pubisInsertion: superiorly to xiphoid process, chondral portion if ribs 5-7Innervation: intercostal nerves, T7-T11 Function: Flexion of vertebral column
Brusae
flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes, and is a friction-reducing structure.  it contains synovial fluid, and commonly act as "ball bearings" where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together
hematocrit
lab procedure that measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood; also used for the value determined by the procedure
lipoma
benign tumors derived from fat cells
Creatinine
The end product of creatine metabolism.
Sympathetic Collateral Ganglia
(Prevertebral Ganglia) Ganglionic Neurons that innervate tissues and organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
2 kinds of Agranulocytes
-lymphocytes (25-33%)-monocytes (3-8%)
_______ houses genetic material and controls cellular activities
nucleus
Anaphase:
- chromosomes separate at their centromeres and one copy of each travels to a separate pole.
telophase
chromosomes uncoil and resume the chromatin form, the spindle breaks down and disappears, a nuclear membrane forms around each chromatin mass and nucleoli appear in each daughter nuclei
catabolism
Under Metabolism, breaks down complex molecules and releases energy (ex. cellular respiration which breaks down carbs)
Two types of agranulocytes
1. monocytes
2. lymphocytes
angiotensin
any of three oligopeptides occurring in plasma, an inactive form
non striated
Is smooth muscle striated or non-striated? 
HYDROGEN BOND
OCCURS WHENEVER A COVALENTLY BONDED HYDROGEN IS POSSITIVE AND ATTRACTED TO A NEGATIVELY CHARGED ATOM NEARBY
what is the axon?
"conducting zone"-conducts, or propagates, the action potential-propagate = to reproduce & to spread
Digastricus Anterior
-Originates: on inner surface of mandible at symphysis -Travels medially and down -Inserts at level of hyoid where it joins posterior digastricus by way of an intermediate tendon   when contracts pullls hyoid up and forward
Impulses are transmitted via the ______ ______
OLFACTORY NERVE
element
the simplest form of matter with unique chemical properties. Oxygen, iron, gold, and other elements cannot be broken down into different substances by ordinary chemical means. All matter, living and nonliving, is composed of elements.
Renal Physiology
concerns kidney function and urine production
concentric lamellae
onion-like layers around each central canal; the bone matrix is deposited here
proprioceptor
a type of mechanoreceptor located in muscles, tendons, and joints; provides information about body position and movements
pulse
expansion & recoil of arteries caused by contraction and relaxation of the heart
Fecal matter
Material discharged from the bowel; composed of food residue, secretions, bacteria; feces.
Carotid sinus
Dilation in internal carotid arteries, the arteries that provide the major blood supply to the brain.
What do the clavicle and scapula form?
Shoulder
Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers.
Isotopes
requires both vitamin b-12 and folic acid
RBC
anterior tibial artery become the
dorsalis pedis artery
Two types of muscle functions
voluntary or involuntary
oncogene
- produces an abnormal protein that stimulates cell division. (e.g. abnormal cell division signals or receptor proteins)
- Or can produce a growth factor in excessive amounts or at the wrong time.
-A chromosomal rearrangement occurs to bring a regulator gene near a dormant _______ to activate it.
deltoid
the roundness of the shoulder caused by the underlying deltoid muscle
Dissociation/ionization
The separation of an inorganic salt, acid , or base into its ions when dissolved in water.
Anatomical Position
Anatomical reference point for standard body position:Standing straight up with head and eyes forward, and hands at sides with palms forward.
Imaginary plane passing through the body dividing it into equal right and left halves
Median Plane
cutaneous
of, pertaining to, or affecting the skin.
Large
Is the fiber diameter large or small in fast glycolytic fibers? 
cancellous/spongy bone
makes up most inner portions of bones
 
-this type of bone resembles a "honeycomb"
-made of trabeculae
-large open spaces filled with bone marrow
Which of the following hormones exerts its effects primarily upon the reproduce organs?
thyroid-stimulating hormone
Isotopes
Atoms with the same atomic numbers but different atomic weights
PROPERITES OF LACRIMAL FLUID
DILUTE SALT SOL'N (TEARS)
CONTAINS ANTIBODIES AND LYSOZYME
atomic ight
the relative weight of an atom, determined by the number of protons and neutrons together and copared with the standard carbon atom (which has a mass of 12 and an atomic weight of 12)
Tissue typing
a procedure performed before an organ from one individual is transplanted into another
axon
a process of a neuron that transmits action potentials; also called a “nerve fiber”; is usually much longer and much less branched than the dendrites
eschar
a slough produced by a burn or gangrene
bronchial tree
the bronchi and all their branches that function as passageways between the trachea and alveoli
Infundibulum
A stalk of tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus.
what region is the inguen in?
the inguinal region
Cardiovascular System Functions
-Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and other wastes away from cells.-Helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of the body fluids-Blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vessels
the azygous veins empty into the
superior vena cava
What are ions with a negative charge called?
Anions
Cholinergic receptors (two types)
a. Nicotinic receptors
b. Muscarinic receptors
Don't develop until puberty and respond to emotional stress or sexual arousal
Apocrine sweat gland
Myosin. Chp 7
A contractile protein in the sarcomeres of muscle fibers; pulls actin filamentsl.
Cardiovascular System
Heart and Blood vessels *moving air into and out of lungs
ligament
a band of tissue, usually white and fibrous, serving to connect bones, hold organs in place, etc.
Muscle fatigue
_______ is defined as the state of physiological inability to contract. 
The cells of the skin that reproduce are in the
stratum basale
Circumduction
The movement of a joint in a full circle. Usually associated with a ball & socket joint.
2 FUNCTIONS OF THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS
STATIC AND DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
The vestibule 
The space between the aditus and the false vocal folds (ventricular folds)
uterine cycle
monthly cycle of events that occur in the uterus from puberty to menopause; also called the menstrual cycle; occurs concurrently with the ovarian cycle
functional disorder
a disorder in which there are no detectable physical changes to explain the symptoms
Brush border cells
The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule that have extensive microvilli on their luminal surfaces.
What is positive feedback?
The initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances it's effects ex. distortion of the uterus leads to further distortion (labor)
an area of dead tissue caused by loss of blood supply
infarct
Translation
(anticodon)
(codon)
- the base sequence along the mRNA is used (decoded) to make a protein that has a certain sequence of amino acids (A.A.s).
- Ribosomes bond with mRNA and move along it.
- Each transfer RNA (tRNA) has a certain sequence of 3 bases exposed at one end _________, and at the other end contains a certain A.A.
- As the ribosomes move along the mRNA it helps the corresponding tRNA bond to each triplet of bases on the mRNA called _______.
The amino acid on the new tRNA forms a peptide bond with the amino acid next to it and the peptide chain grows (protein) as again a new tRNA again arrives
Choices for living things
-Adapt -Migrate (leave) -Die (become vestigial)
Describe the functions of monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides are single sugar compounds. and are the simpelest sugars. Such as Fructose and Galactose which the liver turnes into Glucose which cells then use to conduct cell respiration to produce ATP.
colon
the sign (:) used to mark a major division in a sentence, to indicate that what follows is an elaboration, summation, implication, etc., of what precedes; or to separate groups of numbers referring to different things, as hours from minutes in 5:30; or th
Stratum Basale
how many layers?
contains what?
-"basal" 1 layer of rapidly dividing epithelial cells that migrate to superficial layers
-contains melanocytes (produce melanin found in stratum spinosum) and merkel discs (touch receptors
what is inhibitory postsynaptic potential? (IPSP)
-a neurotransmitter binding to its receptor causes ion channels that allow hyperpolarization to open-membrane becomes more negative inside and is taken further away from threshold-mainly associated with chemically-gated potassium channels (w/ potassium efflux) OR chemically-gated chloride channels (w/ chloride influx).
FUNCTION OF THE OSSICLES
VIBS FROM THE EARDRUM MOVE THE MALLEUS---> ANVIL-->STIRRUP--> INNER EAR
basal metabolic rate
amount of energy that is necessary to maintain life and keep the body functioning at a minimal level
What is special physiology?
the study of the physiology of specific organs
the amount of filtrte cleared from the glomeruli of both kidneys in one minute
glomular filtration rate (GFR)
- consists of the clavicle and the scapula.
Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
Sex-linked trait. Chp 7
A genetic characteristic in which the gene is located on the X chromosome.
Where are sebaceous glands located?
everywhere except the palms of hands and soles of feet
How do Motor Units Act?
Motor Units don’t usually act in Unison, but baton pass rather like a relay race. The weakest fire first
Extracellular fluids (ECF)
All the fluids in the body, except the fluid within cells.
Name all 14 facial bones:
- Maxillary (2)- Lacrimal (2)- Nasal (2)- Zygomatic (2)- Mandible (1)- Palatine (2)- Inferior Nasal Conchae (2)- Vomer (1)
- articulates with the talus and forms the ankle prominence on the lateral side.
Fibula : Lateral malleolus
Explain the purpose of fontanels. Chapter 6 WB
Fontanels permit compression of the infant's skull during birth.
The two most inferior pairs of ribs are called
false ribs and floating ribs
The _______ are the principal veins of the head, face and neck.
internal and external jugular veins.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)
- is studded with ribosomes and acts as a site for synthesis of proteins and phospholipids. It extends from the nuclear membrane
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. ADH is
Decreased water content in the body
where is the M2 receptor located in muscarinic cholinergic receptors?
-on the heart & is inhibitory
Describe how exercise and mechanical stress affect bone tissue
A. Exercise is good because it places mechanical stress on bone. Bone reacts to this by depositing more Ca2+ and collagen fibers to strengthen stress points.
B. Also this stress ↑ calcitonin production that inhibits bone resorption, thus strengthening bone.
The function of fructose in semen is to:
provide an energy source for ATP production by sperm
what are the 6 types of neuroglia?
Found in the CNS
1. Astrocytes: Star shaped, Involved in metabolism (brain and nerves)
2. Oligodendrocytes: Synthesize myelin in the CNS
3. Microglia: Phagocytosis (immunity) in the CNS
4. Ependymal cells: Synthesize and secrete cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
b. Found in the PNS
1. Schwann cells: Synthesize myelin in the PNS
2. Satellite cells: Support the neurons and ganglia in the PNS
The Rule for the # of H's
Number of Carbons x2 +2 & -2 for every C double bond.
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