Anatomy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pancreas
1) length, location
2) importance
3) outer layer, what happen with trauma?
4) Gland function porportions & products
5) relationship with...
1) 6-7¨long, retroperitoneal, posterior to stomach
2) vital organ, double gland
3) thin connective tissue capsule (beware with trauma, because suturing isn´t very viable)
4) Endocrine (1% of organ secretes insuline, glucadon into blood, no duct) & Exocrine (MAJORITY of organ, secretes pancreatic juice through duct system to lumen of digestive system organ
5)relationship with duodenum
Pancreatic Duct
1) Function
2) Combines with what? then those 2 turn into? and enters what, at what intersection?
1) Delivers exocrine pancreatic juice (active enzyme for all major groups).(*not insuline)
2) combines with common bile duct from liver and gallbladder and those two turn into the hepatopancreatic ampulla (widening) enters descending (part 2) duodenum at major duodenal papilla to mix with stomach content that passes through pyloric sphincter.
Components of Pancreas
1) appearance
2) 4 parts and orientation
3) tail approaches...
4) endocrine function requires...
5) addendum seen posteriorly
6) what vessels parallel pancrease? En route to where? seen where?
7) hepatic portal vein.  Seen w
1) lumpy appearance
2) head, neck (R) &  body, tail (L); obliquely oriented: body to tail ascend as they cross midline
3) tail approaches hylus of spleen
4)  blood supply
5) uncinate process
6) splenic a and v parallel pancreas in route to/from spleen, seen on posterior aspect
7) hepatic portal v. to liver, drains digestive organs and spleen within abdominal cavity, formed by splenic vein and SMV (sup mesenteric v).
Splenic flexure or L colic flexure
1) what is it?
2) where is it located (specifically!)
1) The junctional point btwn transerse colon and descending colon of large bowel. 
 
2) anterior border of spleen
glossa
the tongue.
auri
a combining form meaning "ear":
epidermis
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium.
nares
the nostrils or the nasal passages.
mandible
the bone of the lower jaw.
pollex
the innermost digit of the forelimb; thumb.
carpal
any of the bones of the wrist.
calcanei
the largest tarsal bone, forming the prominence of the heel.
umbilicus
the depression in the center of the surface of the abdomen indicating the point of attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo; navel.
jugular
of or pertaining to the throat or neck.
hallux
the first or innermost digit of the foot of humans and other primates or of the hind foot of other mammals; great toe; big toe.
pelvis
the basinlike cavity in the lower part of the trunk of many vertebrates, formed in humans by the innominate bones, sacrum, etc.
femur
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; kneecap.
tibia
the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle; the shinbone
Micro
small
MENINGO
membrane
tetra-
four
tox-
poison
tonic
stretched
 
 
Define: Coxal
 
 
Hip
Eosinophil
p. 71
deep depth
bathy
dis-
apart, away from
com, con
togther, with
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
Cranial -MedialLateralDorsalVentralProximalDistalCaudal
what's diastole?
relaxation period(pressure falls)
biliary passages
hepatic duct
gallbladder
bile duct
Antebrachial
pertaining to the forearm
excretion
removal of waste material
insula
regulation of body's homeostasis
Large bronchi
Tissue
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epi
vaginal process
inguinal structure
female
blind extension of peritoneum protrudes through the inguinal canal to a subcutaneous position outside the body wall
Most abundant NP lipid
wax esters
receives pancreatic juice and bile
duodenum
functional unit of compact bone
osteons
Composed of eight marble-sized bones
Carpus
oculo-
eye (oculomotor: movement of the eye)
Polysaccharides
polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis. Ideal storage products. They lack the sweetness of simple and double sugars.
buffers
Chemical compounds that convert strong acids or bases into weak ones. Minimize pH change.
How many facial bones are there?
14
supinator
origin: superficial part from lateral epidonyle - deep part from supinator crest of ulna
 
Insertion; lateral proximal radius
 
Innervation: radial n. (deep radial n.)
Primitive atria
trabeculated left and right atrium
SYMPHYSIS PUBIS
two pubic bones joined together
chyme
semi-fluid mixture of ingested food and digestive secretions that is found in stomach
Lumbar vertebrae
Short shaped spinous process, blocklike body, sturdiest bc lumbar has MOST STRESSchildbirth - anaesthesia between L3 and L4 or L4 and L5
which is the LARGEST vertebrae?
LUMBAR vertebrae
hypogastric region
lower, central one-third of abdomen
third ventricles
Enter your back text here.
mediastinum
The space between the lungs which houses the heart and larger blood vessels is the...
line
long, thin projection, often with a rough surface. Also known as a ridge
the major cation inside the cell is
potassium
serum
plasma minus its clotting proteins is called ________.
what's the nasopharynx?
ciliated epithelium(only air passes through) contains pharyngeal tonsil(adenoids) & opening to middle ear
synovial membrane
membrane that lines joints of body
In follicle development which day does 3 follicle (tertiary)
Day 8
Joint Typs by degree of movement
Synarthroidal/fibrous Amphiathroidal/cartilaginous Diathroidal/synovial
congenital deformity in which feet are adducted and plantar flexed with soles turned medially
clubfoot (talipes)
large veins
large vessels that transport large volumes of blood into the heart. ex. superior/inferior vena cava
Which bone articulates with the tibia to contribute to the ankle joint?
talus
Golgi apparatus
stack of flattened membraneous sacs. function is to modify and package proteins
Gastrocnemius
O: lateral and medial condyles of femur
I: calcaneus via achilles tendon
A: plantarflex foot
medial
situated in or pertaining to the middle; median; intermediate.
dynamic equilibrium
maintanence of body position in response tomovements
frontal bone
The supraorbital margin is a landmark of which of the following bones?
 
list or diagram the nuclei of the brainstem and state which cranial nerve and function is associated with each.
Palpebral Fissure
Opening in between upper & lower tarsus
Where does the thorasic duct join the blood vessels?
Cisterna
Primary function pf periarterial plexuses
Postsynaptic innervation for vasomotion of the superior rectal artery, ovarian artery, and internal iliac artery
The duodenum recevies secretions from which two glands?
liver:bile.Pancrease:Bicarbonate and proteolytic enzymes
amphiphilic
two fatty acid tails on fhte molecule are hydrophobic, but the phosphate head is hydrophilic
left colic flexure
aka splenic flexure-point where the transverse colon makes a right angle and bends towards the spleen
The type of cartilage found in the discs between your vertebrae is ______________.
fibrocartilage
Features of Albumin
Most abundant, involved in maintaining osmotic pressure, binds to certain hormones so they can not be excreted
characteristics of arteries
high pressure and flow vessels
deeper location than veins
more smooth muscle than veins
adipocyte
a cell in loose connective tissue that is specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.
Cervical spine 7 (C7) Axis
Long prominent spinous process (Vertebra prominens)Easily palpated at base of neck
Primary Functions of Skeleton
Shape and Support, Protect Internal Structure, Store calcium, etc.
dura matter 
the layer of the meninges that serves as the inner periostem of the cranial bone
Subluxation
a bone is forced out but goes back into place
What are the common suffixes of proteoglycans?
lumiCAN, keratoCAN, mimeCAN
Which male organ goes into the prostate gland?
ductus vas deferens
Where are the kidneys positioned?
Against the posterior abdominal wall
the site where the motor neuron and muscle fiber meet is the _______ ______
neuromuscular junction
Vessel Layers(arteries, veins, lymph)
-Tunica Intima: simple squamous & loose areolar lines lumen

-Tunica Media: smooth muscle & elastin for constriction & dialation of lumen

-Tunica Externa: loose areolar CT w/ vaso vanosum (blood vessels supply outer parts of big vessels)
umbilical cord
a cord connecting the embryo or fetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the fetus
Typical Rib (6-8)
 
-vertebral end of the rib
1.articulates
2. name the parts
1. posterior portion that articulates with the vertebrae
2. head, neck and tubercle located here
-superior and inferior facets located on the head.
-aticular part located on tubercle
What muscle does the abducens n (6) innervate?
Lateral rectus m
which of the following would you NOT find in normal cerebrospinal fluid
red blood cells
Chemical/Molecular Level
99% of atoms are one of 4 different elements (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen)interact to form compounds of various properties- water, protein, lipids, carbohydratesfunction related to structure (i.e. protein to collagen)
Nervous system contains (3)
CNS (brain & spinal cord)PNSNerves & Sensory Organs (eye, etc)
WHAT IS TRABECULAE'S FUNCTION?
IT PROVIDES MAXIMUM SUPPORT BUT KEEPS THE BONE LIGHTWEIGHT.
atrial natriuretic peptide
lowers blood volume if atria is over filled, released by atria cells, LOWERS BLOOD PRESSURE by promoting loss of salt and water in urine
 
Whose anatomy work and writings dominated the Medieval period?
 
Galen's work and writing dominated for 1300 years.
Muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall
3 flat muscles:External oblique (hands in pocket orientation)Internal oblique (hands on chest orientation)Transversus abdominis (basically horizontal)2 vertical muscles:Rectus abdominis ("abs")Pyramidalis (not much function)
Muscles supplied by mandibular nerve (V3)
-4 muscles of mastication-2 tensors (veli palatini and tympani)-anterior belly of digastric-Mylohyoid
what are the 2 categories of bone
1.) Axial skeleton:skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage (80)

2.)Appendicular Skeleton:shoulder, hip bones, upper and lower extremities (126)
Name the structures on the sphenoid bone:
 
What does 3 contain?
 
Since the sphenoid has a sinus what type of bone can it be called?
 
Which fossa is the sphenoid found?
 
What structures are associated with the COF?
 

 
1) Lesser wing
2) Greater wing
3) Stella tursica/hypophysial fossa
4) Crescent of foramin
5) Superior orbital fissure
6) Foramen rotundum
7) Foramen ovale
8) Foramen spinosum
9) Optic canal
 
The pituitary gland
 
Pneumatized bone
 
Crescent of foramina
 
5-9
What is the fusion of several minor calyses? and how many per kidney?
major clayx.2-4 major per kidney
the pulmonary trunk divides into what?
it divides into left and right pulmonary artieries
What is a bursa? (Ch. 8 pg. 219)
A sac filled with synovial fluid, which reduces friction at joints
on right and left cusp of aortic valve, supplies right and left coronary arteries
dense connective tissue skeleton of heart
Lymphatic drainage of testis or ovary to...Lymphatic drainage of scrotum or labia majora to...
Testis or ovary lymph drains to lumbar and pre-aortic lymph nodes.Scrotum or labia majora drain to superficial inguinal nodes.
What are the steps to muscle contraction
1) signal from neuron to synapse 2) release of neu
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Term:
Definition:
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