Anatomy 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ventral
bellyside
orchio
testicle
spermato
semen
cholecyst
gallbladder
Pelvis
Pelvic
Thigh
Femoral
Ankle
Talus
Mouth
Oral
Back
Dorsal
Buttock
Gluteal
salping
fallopian tube
caudal
toward tail
distal
away body
Belly button
Umbilical
erector spinae muscles
iliocostalis
longissimus
spinalis
List Suprahyoid muscles
Stylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Mylohyoid
Digastric
back of neck
Nuchal
II
Optic, Sensory, Sight
What does syphallic mean?
Head
______________are Large phagocytic cells that wander through the connective tissues where they engulf and destroy bacteria, other foreign particles and dead or dying cells
Macrophages
5 types of tissues
Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous
Vascular
Melanoma
cancer of the melanocytes.
triceps brachii
extends forearm; adducts arm
The breaking-down processes that provide energy by breaking large molecules into their components parts is known as
Catabolism
Reticular
very delicate matrix of cells
V
Trigemial, Both, three major parts
The Nose
provides airway for respiration
moistens and warms air
filters inhaled air
resonating chamber for speech
houses olfactory receptors
What does anterior mean?
To the front
muscles move how?
 
from insertion toward origin
                         What roles do the nervous and endocrine systems have in responsiveness (excitability,irritability)? 
The nervous and endocrine systems detect changes in the environment, then integrate and interpret those changes. 
 gluteus medius
abducts and rotates femur medially
___________ is a supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix.
Cartilage
Smooth Muscle
involuntary
found in organs like intestines, stomach, blood vessels, bronchial tubes
essential
Fascia
All dense fibrous connective tissues not designated as tendons (muscles)
The testical is surrounded by
tunica albaginea
Laryngopharynx
passageway for both food and air
stratified squamous epithelium
continuous with the esophagus and larynx
What is the carpal?
The wrist to mid-palms
kyphosis
 
what and where?
 
hunchback
 
curvature of upper spine (thoracic)
 
*shorter in height
 
gluteus maximus
extends, abducts, and rotates femur laterally
A central canal and its surrounding lamellae are called a (n)________
osteon
what is scoliosis
Lateral curvature of the spine
hair structure
shaft(outside the skin) & root (embedded in the skin)
Eccrine Glands
found in palms, soles, forehead. Produce true sweat (99% water, dermicidin antibiotic, vitamin C)
Merkel cells.
cells situated in the epidermal-dermal junction. they act as touch receptors
What is anatomical position?
Standing straight, palms facing forward, arms slightly out from the body to the sides.
splenius capitis origin and insertion
 
origin: spinous processes T3-C7
 
insertion:occupital bone and mastoid process
Amid the cells and fibers in some tissue sections, there appears to be a lot of empty space. In life, this space is occupied by the featureless _________ substance
Ground
A small cavity or dpression in a tissue such as bone, cartilage, and the erectile tissues
lacuna
Egyption anatomy was learned from what practice?
Through mummification
A system is
When 2 or more organs combine
The left Testical/ovarian A dumps into
Left Renal A
Describe the dermis.
layer beneath the epidermis. flexible connective tissue, collagen, fibroblasts, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, mast cells, blood vessels, nerve cells, sweat glands.
Stratum Lucidum
After the granulosum. has flat, dead keratinocytes. Seen only in thick skin like palms, soles.
What things can alter chemical reaction speeds?
Temperature, catalyst chemicals (molecules), and the amount of the biproduct already existing.
Can you list the six important life processes of humans? 
metabolism                         responsiveness (excitability, irritability)  movement
growth  differentiation
 reproduction 
Cartilage is classified into three types:
1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage
How many pairs of external intercostal MM are there and they run from waht to what
11posterior to anterior
The adrenal gland has two parts
Adrenal Cortex andAdrenal Medulla
olfactory mucosa
respiratory mucosa
near roof of nasal cavity; houses olfactory (smell receptors)
lines nasal cavity; consists of pseudostratified columnar epithelium (with cilia); cilia moves contaminated mucus posteriorly
Characteristics of aging.
thinning or epidermis, age spots , synthesis of collagen & elastin fibers slows, melanin pdn slows, reduced sensitivity to pain and pressure & reduced temp regulation ability
What are Lamellated granules?
little packages with glycolipids that make cells water proof.
What is the pelvic region?
The area between the hip bones
terminal filum
 
what and where?
anchors spinal cord to end of medullary cone
 
from medullary cone to coccyx
List 7 funtions of the skin
  regulation of body temperature
protection
sensation
excretion
immunity
blood reservoir
synthesis of vitamin D
What is metabolism?
Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes in the body.
What does the seminal vesicle secret
it secretes 60% of semen
what branches off the L coronary AA
Ant. interventricular AL MarginalCircumflex AL post ventricular A
Describe th Stratum Spinosum
after the basale. Has spiny cells (Keratinocytes)& pre- keratin filamnts attached to each other by desmosomes.
What is an ionic bond?
A bond where one atom releases electrons and the other takes them. These atoms will separate in water (one being positively charged, the other negatively charged).
when cervicis and capitis muscles on one side contract?
head leans to that side
Describe the microscopic apperance of fibrocartilage
Parallel collagen fibers similar to those of tendon; rows of chondrocytes in lacuane bewteen collagen fibers; NEVER HAS A PERICHONDRIUM
What are the 3 layers of the spinal cord called
Dura, Arachnoid, pia
ATP -> ?Adenadine Triphosphate breaks down into what?
ADP + PAdenadine Diphosphate plus an extra phosphate, creating energy.
What are some organs of the muscular system?
Cardiac muscle, pectoral muscle, bicep, tricep
List the muscles in the "H" test
 
From Upper right to left:
Superior Rectus (III), Medial rectus (III), Inferior rectus (III), Inferior oblique (III) Lateral rectus (VI), Superior oblique (IV)
What are the names of the 3 Veins that run to the diaphram and what do the run into
Pericardiophrenic > brachiocephalicMusculophrenic > internal thoracicInferior phrenic > Splenic
what the 3 main parts of a nail?
free edge, body and root.
What are the functions of the reproductive system?
Male - Create sperm to inseminate eggs. Female - Create eggs for sperm to inseminate.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
Bring gas (oxygen and carbon dioxide) to and from the blood.
What were the basic concepts that inhibited the advance of anatomy during the Greek period?
 
No anatomy knowledge was needed, more focused on universal concepts not empirical science, no dissections of humans and some knowledge gathers from sacrifical omens
What arteries, nerves and vein run to the penis
Dorsal and deep AADorsal VVDorsal NN
What are the deep MM of the back
Trap, Lat, Rhomboid Major and Minor, Lavator scapulae
what is the flow of urine starting in the kidney to the toliet
Renal prymids> minor caylx > major caylx > renal pelvis > ureter > bladder > urethra> external urethral orifice
How many ribs are there and what are the true false and floating ribs
12 1-7 are true8-10 are false11 and 12 are floating
glossa
the tongue.
epidermis
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium.
auri
a combining form meaning "ear":
mandible
the bone of the lower jaw.
nares
the nostrils or the nasal passages.
calcanei
the largest tarsal bone, forming the prominence of the heel.
pollex
the innermost digit of the forelimb; thumb.
hallux
the first or innermost digit of the foot of humans and other primates or of the hind foot of other mammals; great toe; big toe.
umbilicus
the depression in the center of the surface of the abdomen indicating the point of attachment of the umbilical cord to the embryo; navel.
patella
the flat, movable bone at the front of the knee; kneecap.
femur
a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
tibia
the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle; the shinbone
Auto
self
DACTYL
digits
arbor
tree
-morph-
form
brady
slow
heart pericardium
fibrous
serous
Process
bone prominence
Rectus Abdominus
Flexion
nueroglia-glia
nerve glue-protect nuerons
Myofibrils
Located in Sarcoplasm
Fibrocartilage
Great strengthKnee, vertebrae
origin e.c.r.l
lateral supracondylar ridge
Adduction
Movement towards the midline
Sprain
Ligaments stretched / torn
flexor carpi radialis
arm muscle
type ab blood
universal recipient
Cells
basic unit of living things
The organic component in bones
osteoid
What pathological curvature is this?
 
 
Scoliosis
HAMSTRINGS
consists of biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, located on the posterior surface of the thigh, flexes the leg at the knee
Plicae
folds in the digestive tract
Ventral (anterior) Cavities
Thoracic-the superior cavity
Abdominopelvic-the inferior cavity
extension
increase int eh angel betwen articulating bones
Cartilage-Hyaline
Function: Supports and reinforces; has resilient cushioning properties; resists compressive stress
Upper subscapular nerve
From posterior cord
Innervates subscapularis
What muscle is the transverse spinalis?
Semispinalis
Innervation to levator veli palatini
CN X
Do reactions tend to be reversible?
no
FIBULA
thinner bone positioned alongside the tibis in the lower leg
juxtaglomerular apparatus
endocrine structure formed from structures of the DCT that secretes 2 hormones, renin and erythropoietin-elevate blood volume, hemoglobin levels, blood pressure, restore normal rate of filtration production
Short bones
Cube shaped, more spongy boneTriquetral
iliacus
flex thigh
iliac fossa of ilium
lessor trochanter of femur (via iliopsoas tendon)
luxation
to put out of joint; dislocate:
dorsal ramus
Enter your back text here.
subclavian vein
The external jugular vein terminates by emptying into the...
foramen
pl. foramina. An opening in an anatomical structure, usually in bone, for the passage of a blood vessel or a nerve.
surface tension
Attraction that molecules at the surface of a liquid may have for each other due to hydrogen bonding.
Stylomastoid Foramen
Motor division of Facial Nerve (VII)
tubular
duct and secretory portion are uniform diameter
Metabolism
refers to all the physical and chemical changes that occur within body
Left horn of sinus venosus (SV)
coronary sinus
varicelectomy
removal of overly large veins around the scrotum
is composed of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers,inner layer of the articular capsule
synovial membrane
longest of metatarsal relative and actual lengths
2nd metatarsal
Two Types of Exocrine Glands
sebaceous and sudoriferous
Def of Chronic Bronchitis
excessive tracheobronchial mucus production, cough occurs for at least 3 months for 2 consec years
Frontal Lobe
-seperated from parietal lobe by central sulcus (runs along coronal plane)
-movement,personality,thinking,behavior
tonsil
a prominent oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
elastic arteries/conducting arteries
pressure reservoir (more elastic fibers), finger-sized garden hose; aorta, pulmonary trunk, major branches of aorta (common carotid); stretch during ventricular contraction and recoil during ventricle relaxation
left atrium
The pulmonary venous orifices are in the wall of which chamber of the heart?
peripheral nervous system
spinal and cranial nerves and ganglia
fatty acids
A building blocks of a triglyceride that are attached by dehydration synthesis reactions, one to each carbon of the glycerol backbone.
acromion
point at the distal end of the spine
Rhomboid Minor : Action
Stabalize Scapula; Retracts, Elevates & Rotates Scapula Inferiorly
In thorax, the mesentry support is the ____
pleurae
A knot of capillaries in the nephron is called what?
glomerulus
The digestive (GI tract) of the anphioxus includes: (3)
midgutileocolic ringhindgut
internal intercostals
muscles that depress the ribs and reduce the width of the thoracic cavity (exhalation)
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & special sense organs, such as eyes & ears
NERVOUS SYSTEM
trigycerides
neutral fats and are composed of fatty acids and glycerol
Joints of the Foot
1.Intertarsal – plane, between tarsal bones
2.Tarsometatarsal – plane, between distal tarsal bones and all five metatarsal bones
3.Metatarsophalangeal (MP) – condylar, between metatarsal and proximal phalanges of the toe
4.Interphalangeal (IP) – hinge, between individual phalanges
1. Interatrial septum
2. Interventricular septum
1. internal wall seperating 2 atria from each other
2. internal wall seperating 2 ventricles from each other
inferior
further from the top of the bodyex the feet are inferior to the knees
Identify the parts below
 
What does 4 consist of?
 
What is 5 made up of?
 
After S2 (end of spinal cord), what is it made up of?
 
1) Spinal cord
2) Conus medullaris
3) Dura mater
4) Cauda equina
5) Filum terminale
 
Roots of the spinal cord
 
Pia mater
 
(External terminae) pia & dura mater
Functions of skeletal system
 
support- provide a framework for the rest of the body
protection- of vital organs (flat bone - sternum, ribs, skull, hips)
movement- point of attachment for muscles via tendons
mineral homeostasis-calcium crucial to the body
blood cell production (hemopoiesis)- occurs in red bone marrow & produces both red and white cells
triglyceride storage (fat)- occurs in yellow bone marrow which consists mainly of adipocytes; "compact bone"
 
True (obstetric) conjugate diameter
The narrowest fixed distance the baby's head must pass through - distance b/w sacral promontory and pubic symphysis (measured by imaging - bladder in the way)
 
**oblique conjugate diameter increases during delivery b/c sacroiliac joint opens up a little
NAMEis if the first body part is away from the surface and internal
deep
codon
3 letter mes on mRNA that codes for certain amino acids
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the
cranial and spinal nerves
Cervical Sympathetic Ganglia
distribute to structures in head and neck.
~Axons innervate sweat glands, smooth muscle in blood vessels, dilator pupillae muscle of the eye, and the superior tarsal muscle of the eye. (ability for eye to dilate)

~Middle and inferior cervical ganglia house neuron cell bodies that extend axons to the thoracic viscera
respiratory system
the system by which oxygen is taken into the body; in mammals the system includes the nasal passages, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Anterior rami innervate
Extrinsic muscles of the back and rest of body.
hypertensionhypertrophy of smooth muscle
an increase in arteriole tonus can lead to
Two types of sweat glands
Eccrine gland: most numerous; produce true sweat
Apocrine gland: confined to axillary, anal, and genital areas; produce a special kind of sweat (musky odor attracts mate)
Right horn of sinus venosus (SV)
smooth part of right atrium
Soft Palate
posterior part of the roof or the oral cavity, smooth, ticklish and behind hard palate
The anterolateral pathway
is located in the anterior and lateral white funiculi of the spinal cord
~The pathway is composed of the:
Anterior spinothalamic tract
Lateral spinothalamic tract
~pathways conduct stimuli related to crude touch and pressure as well as pain and temperature.
~decussation(crossover) occurs in the anterior white commissure
Typical articulation of the vertebral (posterior)portion of the rib
-The rib articulates with the vertebrae with the same number and the vertibrae superior to it
-the inferior facet of the head of the rib articulates with the superior costal facet or demifacet of the vertebrae with the same number (eg=rib7-T7)
-the superior facet of the rib articulates with the inferior costal facet or demifacet of the superior vertebrae (eg=rib7-T6)
-the articular part of the tubercle of rib articulates with the facet on the transverse process of the vertebrae with the same number (eg=rib7-T7)
Clinical correlate:
muscles of anterior compartment are innervated primarily by C6
Muscles of posterior compartment are innervated mainly by C7
 So C7 injury will affect primarily posterior compartment and anterior should be ok
Yeah.... it was just a clinical correlate, not a question. Sorry.
Anterior, posterior, and lateral relationships of the vagina
Anterior: fundus of the bladder and urethra
Posterior: anal canal, rectum, rectouterine pouch
Lateral: levator ani, visceral pelvic fascia, ureters
Name the cavities closed to the outside of the torso.(12)
Right & Left Pleural cavity,Mediastinum, Diaphragm, Abdominal cavity, Pelvic cavity, Abdominopelvic cavity, Thoracic cavity, Spinal cavity, Foramen magnum, Cranial cavity, Posterior/Dorsal cavity
ulnar collateral ligament, elbow a strong ligament spanning the medial side of the elbow joint
it connects the medial epicondyle of the humerus with the ulna; it reinforces the medial side of the elbow articular capsule
alae of sacrum articulate with
wings of the ilium on the ox coxae
What is a neurotransmitter?
This is a chemical released by the a nerve and diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binding to the membrane protein ion channel causing it to open or close.
How is the back innervated?
The dorsal primary rami of all 31 spinal nerves functisons to do what in the back?
Spongy bones (what it does and does not contain:)
contains lamellae, does not contain osteons
How many tissue types are there? Name them.
There are 4 TYPES:

1. EPITHELIUM TISSUE
2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE
3. MUSCLE TISSUE
4. NERVOUS TISSUE


   Which of the following make up the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
The brain and spinal cord           
Where do you place the stethoscope to hear the pulmonary valve?
Just to the left of the sternal angle. slight inferior.
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Term:
Definition:
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