Anatomy 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
urinary bladder
toward surface
Lower back
toward the midline
posterior vertebral arch
away from backbone
Hollow behind knee
Vagus, Both, Wanderer
What does inferior mean?
iliocostalis sections
iliocostalis cervicis
iliocostalis thoracis
iliocostalis lumborum
restorative or reconstructive procedure
Abducens, Motor, Abducts Eyes
6 extrinsic muscles of back
latissimus dorsi
levator scapulae
rhomboid major
rhomboid minor
Which layer is this---keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
O: Zygomatic arch
I: lateral surface of Mandible and Coronoid process
Innervation: Trigeminal
Action: Closes Jaw
facial, Both, Facial expression, etc
The corina is in the
Skin Functions
barrier, immunological function, homeostasis, sense organ, thermoregulation , endocrine function, & excretion
supplies & receives fibers (neurons) to & from the skin, skeletal muscles, joints, & tendons
Major action of the masseter
elevates mandible
Which layer is this?--Dead, keratinized cells of the skin surface
Stratum corneum
_________ fibers are thinner than collageneous fibers, and they branch and rejoin each other along their course. They are made of a protein called__________ whose coiled structure allows it to strectch and recoil like a rubber band.
In fresh tissue, collagenous fibers have a glistening white apperance, as seen in tendons and some cuts of meat; thus they are called ________ fibers
Connective tissue consists mostly of ___________ and ground substance, with widely separated cells
Location of elastic cartilage
external ear, epiglottis
tough, non elastic, largely composed of closely packed parallel fibers (muscle)
Where is the crista terminalla
R Atrium
The right testicular/ovarian A dumps into
What does ventral mean?
To the stomach side
intrinsic muscles of the back
splenius capitis
splenius cervicus
upper arm bone between shoulder and elbow
coverings of spinal cord and spinal nerves called?
Major action of temporalis
Elevates and retracts mandible
Forms sheets of tissue that cover external surface- lines internal cavitys- basement tissue
C7 does not have a ________spinous process
Nasal Cavity
external nares = nostrils
divided by the nasal septum
2 types of mucous membrane (olfactory mucosa and respiratory mucosa)
types of sweat glands
Eccrine and Apocrine glands.
Layers of the skin
Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis
What are some organs of the respiratory system?
Nose, lungs
curvatures of vertebral column develop when?
 3-9 months intrauterine
 cervical when holds head up
lumbar when walks
The space between adipocytes is occupied by 1. _________ tissue, 2. _____________ tissue and blood capillaries
1. Areolar
2. Reticular
Three types of loose connective tissues are:1._________2._________3.________
2. Reticular
3. Adipose
Describe an Anatomy class during the scholastic period
Barber Surgeon
what does the right adrenal vein run into
What does the ductus arteriosus become in an adult
liamentous arteriosum
The duodenum and jejunum have folds that are called
plica circularis
consist of: Type 1 cells and basal laminae, Type 2 cells that secrete surfactant
gas-filled air spaces
site for free movement of macrophages
interconnect by way of alveolar pores
second degree burns
epidermis and upper epidermis, redness , swelling, blistering & very painful
What are some organs of the circulatory system?
Heart, blood vessels
Movements of the Vertebral Column
flexion, extension, rotation, lateral bending
Tip of nose, Adams apple, and rings of cartilage around thr trachea is made up __________ cartilage
What masstication muscle does not close the jaw?
The pterygoids (lateral)
Opens jaw
Where do the Anterior intercostal VV go to
internal thoracic VV
what are the nerves of the bladder
Sympathetic-inferior hypogastricPara- pelvic nerve
What is Necrobiosis Lipoidica?
a degenerative collagen disease which leads to bleeding and ulceration of cells
What are stem cells?
undifferientiated cells that give rise that divide to give rise to keratinocytes.
What does peripheral mean?
Further from the center (of a particular system)
What are the three types of bonds?
Ionic, covalent, polar covalent
What are the four types of tissue?
Connective, muscle, nerve, epithelial
The epidermis is composed of 4 types of cells they are:
1. Keratinocytes
2. Melanocytes
3.Langerhans  (dendritic) cells
4. Merkel cells
Major Action of External Abdominal oblique
Both sides compress abdomen/flex vert.column
Endothelial tissue
Inner lining of the walls of the blood and lymph vessels
The male penis is compossed 2 things what are they
Body and root
The below listed are male parts what are the matching female partsScotumGlands PenisProstateProstatic utricleTesties
labia majoraClitorisparaurethral glandvagina and uterusovaries
What are sebaceous glands?
glands that are eveywhere except in palms and soles. they secrete sebum
What does proximal mean?
Closer to the main part of the body
Major action of sternocleidomastoid
both muscles flex neck one side alone turns head to opposite side
Two anatomic misconceptions of Eygptians and Greeks
Arteries- air-filled- due to lack of blood when examined
Diaphram- seat of the mind
Heart- source of love and loyalty
Spleen- source of hate
Bile is made in the ____ and stored in the _______
liver gallbladder
what are the names of the 3 Arteries that run to the diaphram and where do they come from
Pericardiophrenic Musculophrenic Inferior phrenic
What are the layers of the Dermis?
papillary layer(finger like extensions of the dermis,epidermal ridges, areolar loose c. tissue, meissner's corpuscles.) and reticular layer(dense irregular connective layer, collagen layers, cleavage line, elastin)
What is a polar covalent bond?
A bond where electrons are shared unequally.
The epidermis consists of four to five layers of cells. From deep to superficial they are
1. Stratum Basale
2. Stratum Spinosum
3. Stratum granulosum
4. Stratum lucidum
5. Stratum corneum
What 3 things does the umbilical cord contain
2 umbilical AA1 umbilical VV
what is the innervation of the adreanl medulla
Sympathatic from the splanchnic Nerve
What are the components of the integumentary system?
Skin & its derivatives(nails, hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands)
What are some organs of the reproductive system?
Male - Testes, Penis. Female - Ovaries, Uterus
white matter transfers what to gray matter?
white matter sends message to gray matter
gray matter does the thinking
The Adrenal Glands are Bilateral Organs the Right one is__________ shape and the left one is ________ shape.
The right one is Pyrimidal and the left one is semilunar
when is a burn fatal?
if over 25% is 2nd degree burns, 10% 3rd degree, or 3rd degree on hands , face or feet
Name the parts of the inside of the kidney
Renal pelvis, Renal Collums, Renal pryimids, Renal cortex, Minor and major caylx,
How many lobes are in the right and left ung and what are the fissures called
Right lung 3 lobes transvers and oblique fissureLeft lung 2 lobes and oblique fissure
What do you mean when you speak of the physiology of the body?
You are referring to the functions of the body parts
CUT (cute)
spinal cord
Sports fracture
Normal body temprature
Origin: subscapular fossa
Insertion: lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation: upper and lower subscapular nerves
small of back
Joint or ligament Description
cranial nerve IX
jugular foramen
stylopharyngeal - motor
salivary gland - parasympathetic
1/3 of tongue taste - sensory
Gonadal arteries from where?
center of body
Pertaining to the genital area
photopigment in rods is _______
endoplasmic reticulum
consists of interconnected, membrane-bound cisternae, or channels 

continuous with nuclear envelope
contain ribosomes 
phospholipids and proteins of the plasma membrane
proteins to be packaged and modified by other organelles

continuous with RER
synthesizes fatty acids and steroids
detoxifies alcohol and other drugs
stores calcium

NAMEthis organ regulates glucose levels
anatomy of stomach
lesser curvature-medial surface,greater curvature-lateral surface,rugae, regions:cardia,fundus,body,pylorus
membranous sacs containing powerful oridase enzymes taht use molecular oxygen to detoxify a number of harmful substances
originating outside the anatomical limits of certain muscles or nerves
Systolic Blood Pressure
Contraction of left ventricle
oocytezona pelucidafollicle cellsstroma cells
components of ovarian follicle
The three respiratory functions
VentilationGas exchangeOxygen utilization
are the smallest units of matter
some small materials diffuse through the cell membrane on their own
nucleic acids
least abundant but most important
Huntington disease
-basal ganglia neurons are defected-neurons stop releasing GABA or Ach

Which of the following respiratory center has the primary control over stimulation of the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles?
cellular material outside the nucelous and inside the plasma membrane
lymph capillaries
-collect excess tissue fluid
-single layer of endothelium
-drain into collecting vessels
a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated
 false ribs
1. another name
2. articuation anteriorly
1. vertebrochondral ribs (11-12)
2. Anteriorly have a costal cartilage that articulates with  the 7th rib (indirectly attached to the sternum)
Cardiac Muscle
Location: The walls of the heart
Vertebrae articulations
Vertebrae articulate with each other at their articular facets (with the superior to the inferior of the superior vertebrae). They also articulate with each other at their bodies through an intervertebral disc of fibrocartilage.
clusters of neuron cell bodies within the spinal cord are called __________.
A fibrous tissue layer enveloping an organ, joint, or a neoplasm
sensory input from skin carried to CNS by spinal nerves

 region of skin providing input by a single pair of spinal nerves
dermatome locations can be useful in diagnostics and therapy

Marafin’s Syndrome
extremely long slender limbs, abnormal epiphyseal activity
NAMEis a structure composed of at least two tisssues
Selected pressures
natural forces that promote the reproducive success of some individuals more than others
gastric glands
simple branched tubular glands found in the underlying lamina propria
sensory neurons interneurons and motor neurons
functional differences
mucous membrane
line passageways that communicate with the exterios
is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction (twitching) visible under the skin arising from the spontaneous discharge of a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers
collection of nerve fibers in the PNS
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder; a shoulder blade
what are the spinal levels for the lesser splanchnic nerve?
Isotonic Solutions
Cells retain their normal size and shape(same solute concentration as inside cells)
superficial and deep vascular plexi
play role in thermoregulation
if levels of glucocorticoids are low, the regulatory negative feedback loop would dictate an increase in secretion of ___________ and ______.
the primary visual cortex is located in the
occipital lobe
Pericaridal Cavity-abdominal
-The abdominal cavity is lined by serous membranes called the: -parietal peritoneum: lines the walls of abdominal cavity -visceral peritoneum: covers the abdominopelvic organs and constitues their serosa layer
What % of all leukocytes do basophils comprise?
contraction of the stomach causes
mechanical digestion and propulsion
Carnivores (carnivorous organisms)
meat eaters ex: bass and lions
active cells that produce heat
heart and skeletal muscle
Most of these muscles are innervated by CN X (vagus nerve)
Neck extension
Vastus Lateralis
O: shaft of femur
I: tibial tuberosity via patellar tendon
A: Extend Knee
a bone resulting from the fusion of two or more vertebrae between the lumbar and the coccygeal regions, in humans being composed usually of five fused vertebrae and forming the posterior wall of the pelvis.
ventral, dorsal, lateral horn
Enter your back text here.
structures passing through diaphragm:
anterior to posterior
1) IVC, T8
2) Esophagus, T10
3) Aorta, T12 **actually passes posterior to diaphragm, resting on bodies of vertebre
Spinous process (1)
Posterior, easy to palpate, and has important muscular attachment
Residual volume
amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
Sphenoid Sinus Relations - Superior?
Hypophyseal fossa, pituitary gland, and optic chiasm
This colon runds down left side of abdomen
Descending colon
glycolipids and glycoproteins
many of the lipid and protein molecules at the external surface of the cell membrane have chains of up to 12 sugars attached to them
depressor anguli oris
This muscle originates on the lower part of the mandible. It pulls down the angle of the mouth.
decrease in size in an organ or body area when it loses its normal stimulation
of or pertaining to the calf of the leg.
sacroiliac joint the articulation between the ala of the sacrum and the auricular surface of the ilium
a synovial joint; the fibrous articular capsule is thickened dorsally and ventrally to form the sacroiliac ligaments; because of the interlocking nature of the joint surfaces and the strong sacroiliac ligaments, only limited movement is permitted at the s
What is Black Hairy Tongue?associated with what ppl?
defective shedding of filiform papillaeppl with bad oral hygene, antibiotic use and elderly, and radiation
serratus dorsalis cranialis
lies on the dorsal surface of the cranial thorax
Positive Trendelenburg test caused by
injured superior gluteal nerve; when lifting leg, gluteus medius and minimus of opposite leg contracts to keep hip level.
run up and down from sternum to public bone, flexes and bend ther vertebral column.
bundle of his
from the AV node down through the interventricular septumbranches left and right
vocal cords
either of the two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the cavity of the larynx

What are the vital properties of water

high heat capacity: absorbs temperature changes (regulates body temperature)
polarity/solvent properties: liquids and gases can be dissolved and suspended in it, transport and chemical reactions
chemical reactivity: an important reactant in some chemical reactions (digestion)
Internal Intercostals : Action
Depress rib cage and aid in forced expiration
What are the two membrane potentials taht act as signals?
graded potentials and action potentials
what does the pectoral girlde consist of?
will not complete division unless fertilization occurs
after ovulation, the oocyte is still arrested in its second meiotic division and...
the nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles arise from where and travel how?
ventral divisions of ventral rami L-4,5 and S-1
-exits pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen , inferior to the piriformis muscle 
Muscular region b/w Pubic Symphysis, Coccyx, and Ischial Tuberosities.Contains:- External genitalia- Anal opening- Urogenital Triangle- Anal TriangleFloor is Urogenital Diaphragm and Superficial Perineal Space. Deepest layer is Pelvic Diaphrag
Where are the Superficial and Deep Transverse Perineal muscles located?
When comparing the pectoral girdle with the pelvic girdle, which of the following is true?
a. The pectoral girdle has a greater mass than the pelvic girdle
b. The pelvic girdle is more firmly attached to the body than the pectoral girdle.
c. The pector
b. The pelvic girdle is more firmly attached to the body than the pectoral girdle.
Name one way that having a parasite will affect the body
Stealing the nutrients from our food.Many people become anemic or weak/fatigued as a result.
What is the action of and innervation to the obturator internus muscle?
It laterally rotates & extends thigh and is innervated by nerve to obturator internus (L5-S1)
What goes into and out of the adductor hiatus? What goes into the anteromedial intermuscular septum?
1.) femoral vessels, nerve to vastus medialis, descending genicular artery, and saphenous nerve enter canal. The descending genicular artery and saphenous nerve do not leave canal.2.) The saphenous artery and nerve usually pass through the anteromedial intermuscular septum & not adductor hiatus. I surmise the saphenous nerve can either go through the hiatus or go through the intermuscular septum, but that it normally is found in the latter.
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