Anatomy and histology quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
paalpebra=
eyelid
BEGIN CHAPTER 9
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Paranasal sinuses...
condition the air
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW START
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Is aqueous humor constantly made?
yes
The gallbladder...
stores and concentrates bile
Mucosa=
MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue)
Glands in cardiac and pylorus secrete
mucous
Tunica media is composed of-
sm muscle
Degenerative epithelial-reticular cells are found in the _________ of the thymus and are called _________
medulla; Thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles
Describe Ligaments
AKA syndesmosis (DRCT) more ligaments give more support, and they do not recoil if overstretched.
Most taste buds are located in __________ but not all
papilla
olfaction is used in the ____________
superior conchae
The anterior pituitary is made of...
epithelial cells
duodenum comprises _% of the small intestine, jejunum _%, and ileum _% and is _ meters long
5;40;60;5
Sinusoids are...
large leaky capillaries between the hepatocytes, lined by discontinuous endothelium.  They have a mixing of arterial and vein blood.
from the efferent arteriol arises
the eritubular capillaries
Where are stratified cuboidal and columnar epithelium located?
They line ducts
Opposition is...
The movement of the thumb towards another finger
The cochlear duct divides the cochlea into _ chambers also known as ____
3; scala
The thyroid gland produces...
thyroid hormones; T3 AKA triiodothyonine and T4 thyoxine, which needs iodine
 
and Calcitonin, regulates blood calcium levels
the lacrimal gland...
secretes lacrimal fluid which contains mucus antibodies and lysozyme to destroy bacteria
What is the only WBC that can re-circulate?
Lymphocytes
descrive the transverse cut
A horizontal cut, dividing superior and inferior (upper and lower) regions of the body
What are the 4 basic tissue types?
Epithelium (epithelial tissue)
Connective tissue
Muscle Tissue
Nervous Tissue
Describe the sweat gland
Simple coiled tubular gland that release sweat (99% H2O, ions, urea)
They function to cool the body and extrete
What are the lacunae?
Little holes that separate the lamellae
Describe the osteocyte
It is surrounded by matrix, and maintains the bone matrix
What is Osteoid?
It is the inorganic bone matrix deposited by the osteoblast
Cilliary processes are...
the little extensions (folds) of the cilliary body, which is where the aqueous humor is produced, and flows to the scleral venous sinus.
it takes ____ hours for the food to get through the small intestine
3-6
The cochlea is a spiral structure...
to increase surface area
The crista ampullaris....
contains hair cells, endolymph and the cupula.  When the head is spun, the endolymph's innertia moves the cupula, sending the impulse to the CNS
Describe the abnormal structures unique to the  colon
Mucosa- simple columnar epithelium except in the anal canal where it is stratified squamous.  It containst goblet cells and absoprtive cells, there are intestinal glands by no villi.

Muscularis-  outer longitudinal layer is organized into 3 thickened bands AKA Tenia Coli, which causes haustra, the puckers in the colon.

Transverse and sigmoid colon have serosa, all else has advantitia.
the 2 sets of tonsils are...
the pharyngeal (pseudostratified ciliated epithelium) and the palatine (stratified squamous non-keratinized)
Hilum is..
a point where structures enter or exit or both
Serous vs Mucus gland
Serous secretion - watery, ions, ENZ
 
Mucous secretion - thick mucus
The enzyme in saliva ____________ and bicarbonate ________________
starts starch digestion;
 
Neutralizes acid from bacteria
The intestinal trunk and the lumbar trunk form...
the Thoracic duct
anatomy and histology are...
the study of gross anatomy (large structures that are visible with the naked eye, and require dissection) and microscopic anatomy (requires microscope to view smaller structures such as cells tissues and organs) respectively
What is epithelium?
Sheets of cells that cover the body surfaces and line body cavities and line hollow organs.
It sits on the basal lamina (which is acellular) between 2 different environments (one is connective tissue, the side with the changing environment is where the epithelial cells are located)
superficial means... while deep means...
towards the surface of the body;
towards the core
What are the 9 abdominal regions?
Right Hypochondriac, epigastric, Left Hypochondriac, left lumbar, umbiblical, left lumbar, right iliac (inguinal region), hypogastric, and left iliac regions
What are the lamellae?
They are concentric Layers of matrix (rings) that surround a central haversian cannal that contains blood vessels and nerves.
What are the types of functional classification? Describe their differences
Synarthrosis (no movement)
 
Amphiarthrosis (some movement)
 
Diarthrosis (freely movable, most abundant)
Capsule ligaments (intrinsic) vs Extracapsular and intracapsular
Capsule ligaments are thickenings of fibrous articular capsule, and are not dissectable
 
Extra/intracapsular can be dissected, extracapsular being outside the capsule, and intracapsular running through the joint cavity
What does the vitreous humor function to do?
1. maintains intraocular pressure
 
2. Hold retina and lens in place
 
3. Transmits light
Glaucoma occurs when...
the sinus that the aqueous humor goes through is blocked.
the thyroid gland...
is located in the anterior neck, is the largest pure endocrine gland, is composed of follicles (epithelial) and areolar connective tissue, and produces 2 hormones.
Describe the macula densa
modified regtion of DCT, they detect the concentration of Na+ in the blood.  If there is a decrease in Na+, they tell the JG cells to release renin
The trachealis muscle...
controls diameter of the lumen of the trachea and connects between the hyaline cartilages
The uriniferous tubule consists of...
the nephron and the collecting ducts
What are some examples of Loose Connective Tissue?
Adipose tissue and reticular CT
What are the Cephalic body areas?
Frontal, orbital, nasal, oral and mental
Describe the Serous Membrane
AKA Serosa, the serous membrane is wet since it produces serous fluid, and is found in the ventral body cavity only, lining the body wall and covers most visceral organs.
What are the types of cartilaginous joint?
Synchondrosis (hyaline cartilage) and Symphysis (Fibrocartilage)
Describe growth plates
They are made of cartilage and grow in length until eventually they are completely turned into bone and eventually forms an epipheseal line and growth is no longer possible. This occurs in females at around 18, and males around 21
What is the expansion at the end of the hair follicle?
the hair bulb
Describe cells in the stratum granulosum
The cells are flattenned, organelles are deteriorating, cytoplasm is full of lamellated granules (which release glycolipids that prevent water loss) and keratohyalin granules (which contain material to make keratin)
Compact bone Vs spongy bone
Compact Bone - External, looks solid, surrounded by the periosteum. Contains osteons (haversian systems) which run parallel to the long axis of bone. the matrix is highly organized to resist twisting.
 
Spongy bone -  internal, looks like a sponge, is covered by the endosteum, it is organized in tension line. Has holes and no osteons (no need for BV). Is lamellar bone, which has osteoblasts on it.
Describe the lens of the eye
it's biconvex, epithelial Not CT, Avascular, and focuses the light on the retina
The layers of smooth muscle in the stomach are...
oblique, circular, and longitudinal
What are the layers of the adrenal gland?
Zona glomerulosa (spheres)
Zona fasciculata (columns)
Zona reticularis (branching network)
 
Describe the sensory tunic
The Retina, it has the pigmented layer and the neural layer (which are not attached)
 
Pigmented layer
 
Neural layer has the receptor cells
On the outside of all the alveoli are...
capilaries and elastic fibers
Describe the Thymus
Has a cortex and medulla, No B cells only T cells, Stroma is epithelial reticular cells, only lymphoid organ that does not mount an immune response, has a blood-thymus barrier.  It functions as the site where T cells become immunocompetent.
Describe the tonsils
No cortex & medulla, contains B & T cells, Stroma is reticular CT, located in the mucosa of pharynx.  Only lymphoid organ that is covered by an epithelium.
Describe the flow of urine from the urinary bladder
1. Urinary bladder
2.internal urethral sphincter
3.External urethral sphincter
4.urogenital diaphragm
5.Spongy urethra
What can you survive without?
A few lymphs (concentrated removal is bad)
 
thymus can be removed but life is tricky since there are no T cells
 
Spleen can be removed
 
Tonsils can be removed
Explain the difference between covers and lines in anatomical terms of an epithelium?
Covers means it's on the outside, while lines means it's on the inside next to the lumen
Describe the steps in specimen preparation
1. Fixation - preserve specimen to prevent postmortem change
2. Embed - providing a support around the specimen (I.E. Wax)
3. Section - slice specimen thin enough to allow light/electrons to pass through
4. Stain - Allows specimen to be visualized
What is the primary use for stratified epithelium?
it is a protective tissue
What is the function of the nucleus?
it houses chromatin (DNA and protein)
What is put down first in the osteoid?
Organic matrix, then calcium/phosphate is deposited
Receptor cells in the ear have...
hairs (not made of keratin)  which bend and send impulses the the CNS (mechanoreceptors)
In the ileum there is a high concentration of....
lymphatic tissue and lymphatic nodules, which are clusters of lymphocytes which are in the mucosa and submucosa.
What is the general plan of the alimentary canal?
1. Mucosa= mucous membrane (epithelium, lamina propria and muscular mucosae)

2. Submucosa - CT, glands, nerve plexus (submucosal plexus, innervates glands and muscle)

3.Muscularis externa=smooth muscle, has an inner circular (segmentation) plus outer longitudinal layer (peristalsis), separated by the myenteric plexus which enervates them both

4. Serosa or adventitia (CT only, no epithelium)
the Nasal Vestibule is...
 the part of the inside of the nose that has hair and sweat glands
describe the distal convoluted tubule (aka DCT)
shorter than the PCT, it's simple cuboidal epithelium and has selective ion secretion (Potassium), and selective ion reabsorption (NCl), it has fewer microvilli and mitochondria than the PCT
What are the functions of Ground substance?
The gel like protein and carbohydrate mix provides a physical barrier, holds tissue fluid that allows for diffusion of nutrients and waste.
What are the two types of serous membranes, and what do they cover?
the visceral serous membrane, which covers the outer surfaces of visceral organs in the ventral body cavity; and the parietal serous membranes, which line the walls of the ventral body cavity
What is an anatomical anomoly?
It is a variation in a specimen from the normal, such as a blood vessel which has a different origin or location.  Some Anatomical anomolies don't support life, such as missing an important organ like the heart.
Epiphyseal growth plates are what kind of joint?
They are cartilaginous joints made of hyaline cartilage
Is there a difference between callogen fibers in DCT and callogen fibers in Cartilage?
yes, callogen fibers are in cartilage but they are different, and cannot be seen with LM
What is the hair matrix?
it is the source of hair growth, which is the region surrounding the hair papilla
What is the second layer of the epidermis and what are its characteristics?
The stratum spinosum- has several layers with keratinocytes (whose spines are artifacts) and the Langerhans cells
What is mesentery? What is it's function?
a double layer of peritoneum (the serous membrane)
 
It is used to hold organs in place, is the route by which BV & Nerves reach the organs, and it is a site for adipose storage
What are the 2 cells of the parathyroid? describe them
Chief cells make parathyroid hormone, are small and stain blue
 
Oxyphil cells have an unknown function and are large and pink from containing alot of mitochondria
describe the chambers of the anterior segment...
Anterior chamber is the part infront of the iris, the posterior chamber is the part behind the iris.
The organs in the lympoid system are..
the tonsils, the thymus, the spleen, the aggregated lymphoid nodules and the appendix
The portal triad contains...
a branch of the bile duct, a branch of the hepatic portal vein, and a branch of the hepatic artery.
What is the function of the kidney?
It filters blood conserving H2O, ions, A.A's, and glucose, while it secretes wastes (urea, uricacid) drug metabolites, ions, H2O
 
It forms concentrated urine
What is the functional unit of the kidney? How many are there? What does it consist of?
the nephron; 1million; Renal corpuscle and tubular portion
What are the primary uses for simple epithelium?
It is used for absorption, secretion and ion transport
How are the strata of the epidermis named for?
what the keratinocytes are doing in that layer
What is the 3rd layer of the Epidermis and what are its characteristics?
The stratum granulosum (1-5 layers) contains granuals are obvious-hematoxyn
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
It makes most digestive enzymes which it deposites into the duodenum
What is the function of the mitochondria? what does a high concentration of mitochondria indicate? what color does it stain?
It is the site of ATP synthesis, many indicate a cell that uses alot of energy, and it stains pink (meaning it has a + charge)
What are the kinds of joints?
1. Plane joints
2. Hinge joints
3. Pivot joints
4. Condyloid joints
5. Saddle joint
6. Ball and socket joint
What is the first layer of the epidermis and what are its characteristics?
it is the stratum basale- 1st cell layer
stem cells- give rise to keratinocytes
Melanocyte (10-25%) only in Stratum Basale
Merkel Cells
What is the optic disk? (AKA blindspot)
it is the point where the optic nerve is, and there are no photoreceptors there (hence blindspot)
What is an anucleate, and what is an example?
A cell with no nucleus, Mature Red Blood Cells are anucleate
What are the 3 parts of the ear and what do they contain?
the external ear, which has the auricle which collects sounds, and the ear canal. Deals with hearing.

the middle ear, which contains the tympanic cavity, membrane (eardrum) and the bones (malleus, incus, and stapes). deals with hearing

the internal ear (inner labryinth) which contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular ducts deals with hearing AND equilibrium
olfaction=
smell
Oval window, round window
what important molecular structure does the nucleus contain?
DNA
BEGIN CHAPTER 5 REVIEW
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Smooth muscle contains only _____mysium
endo
Germinal center
Indicates an immune response,
What dose the hypodermis contain?
adipose tissue
Hypothalamus....
regulates secretion of hormones by releasing releasing factors or inhibiting hormones
Dorsal mesentery...
attaches organs to the dorsal/posterior body wall, e.g. greater omentum
lymphoid follicle/nodule
highly concentrated area of lymphocytes, just B cells
Valves serve to do what?
prevent backflow
Trabecula in the spleen
guide the blood
PALS are...
Pariarterial lymphatic sheath, which are the sleeve of T cells/B cells
Apocrine glands are activated...
by hormones at puberty
Semicircular ducts deal with
rotational equilibrium and acceleration of the head, they contain endolymph fluid.
Hypophyseal portal system...
transports hormones from Hypothalamus to the Pituitary
Taste buds are what kind of recepotor?
Chemoreceptors
Is there a conjunctiva on the cornea?
no
The fundus is...
the dome of the stomach
Macrophages serve as...
antigen presenting cells, and phagocytosis
All lymphocytes originate from...
the red bone marrow
Tunica intima is composed of...
endothelium and LCT
pain in the lower right quadrant could be...
apendicitis
What type of joints are the intervertebral discs?
Symphysis joints
the axons of the ganglion form...
the optic nerve
Ventral mesentery...
atach organs to anterior body wall (attaches liver to wall and to stomach)
The renal corpuscle is the site of...
blood filtration
Alveolar pores...
allows for equilibrium of air, and allows for alternate routes for air to flow
What is an artifact?
a minor distrotion introduced during processing/preparation
List the types of epithelium
Simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, stratified columnar, Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and transitional epithelium
Describe the Dermis
Connective tissue divided into 2 basic layers:
The papillarylayer, which contains areolar LCT (20% of the dermis)
  The reticular layer, which contains DICT (80% of the dermis.
It contains 5% of the blood vessels which helps with thermo regulation
Describe the osteoclast
It removes/breaks down bone matrix, is large, multinucleated, and is formed from monocytes. Stains pink from lysosomes. It has a ruffled border to increase surface area, and lots of lysosomes with the enzyme callogenase to break down callogen. In order to break down inorganic bone, it releases HCl onto the bone surface, breaking down hydroxyapatite. The HCl is contained by seals to either side.
aqueous humor (a blood filtrate) functions to...
1. maintain intraocular pressure
 
2. supplies O2 and nutrients to lens and cornea
Be able to draw sagital section of the eyeball and identify the structures.
perilymph fluid is found between
bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth
The thyroid has a right and left lobe joined by the...
isthmus
the pylorus is...
where the stomach meets the small intestine
The tonsil is located...
in the mucosa of the pharynx
the thoracic duct returns lymph from...
3/4ths of the body
Where does CT come from?
All connective tissue arises from embryonic tissue-mesenchyme (mesoderm)
How does histamine work?
it makes blood vessels more permeable, so they leak, alleviating some swelling
Woven bone is….
The first bone made, and is then remodeled into lamellar bone. Its callogen is unorganized
Describe the Sebacious gland
A simple aveolar gland that produces sebum (oil) and are associated with hair follicles, and reduce water loss.  The Sebum is released by a process known as holocrine secretion
What are the canaliculi?
They are the little lines between lacuna.
the otolithic membrane is a
gelatinous membrane, which is imbedded with otoliths
describe the fibrous tunic
DCT, the cornea, avascular bends and collects light, and the sclera it protects, shapes and serves as attachment sight for extraocular muscles
What is Specificity?
The ability of hormones to be designed specifically to bind one type of cells.
Folicle cells do what in the thyroid?
they produce thyroid hormone
Describe the vascular tunic
The iris, eye color, surrounds pupil and controls amount of light entering eye utilizing sphinctors (narrow, sympathetic) and dialators (widen, parasympathetic)

The ciliary body surrounds the lens, contains the ciliary muscle (intraocular) functions to change the shape of the lens

The  choroid, has alot of BV and pigmented cells, which provide nutrients and prevent reflection and scattering of light.
Soft pallette serves to...
prevent food from entering the nasal area
The parts of the pharynx are...
Nasopharynx (respiratory mucosa), the oropharynx (stratified squamous), and the laryngopharynx (stratified squamous)
Changes from in bronchial tree:
Decrease in cartilage, decrease in height of epithelium (pseudostratified columnar, simple columnar to cuboidal), increase in elastic fibers, increase in smooth muscle
Right lung has _ lobes, and left lung has _ lobes
3; 2
The porta hepatis...
is the entry way to the liver, containing the hepatic artery (carrying O2 rich blood to the liver), the Hepatic portal vein (carrying things absorbed from intestines), and the left hepatic duct which transports bile.
What is a microtubule?
it is a filament of the cytoskeleton that determines the shape of the cell, and are used to move material already inside the cell.
What things are dyed by Eosin, and what color would they be?
Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER), and callogen fibers
What is the purpose of the elastic fibers?
They allow for recoil
Covering and lining membranes are made of ___________
epithelium, with CT under it
What is the hair follicle?
the downgrowth of the epidermis into the connective tissue.
What is the type of epithelium found in the epidermis, and what does that mean?
Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium, meaning it has layers of cells (aka stratum), whose apical cells are flat, and whose cells are hardened by keratin
What are the stabilizers of synovial joints?
1.Articular surfaces
2.Ligaments (more ligaments more stability)
3. Muscle tone- constant low level contraction of muscles whose tendons cross the joint
What is the next layer of the epidermis and what are its characteristics?
The Stratum Lucidum, translucent-clean- and is only found in thick skin.  It contains no nuclei
What epithelium is used for the first few parts of the alimentary canal?
stratified squamous nonkaritinized epithelium
What is the macula lutea?
the point where the light entering your eye focuses, it has mostly cones and has the fovea centralis (which IS 100% cones) the highest point of visual acuity.
What replace T tubules in smooth muscle?
Caveolae, which are little invaginations in the sarcolema
Describe the spleen
No cortex & medulla but has red pulp and white pulp, has B & T cells, stroma is reticular CT.
 
Red pulp removes damaged or dead RBC's.
 
White pulp removes blood-borne pathogens, and has the immune function
Describe the Lymph nodes
has cortex & medula, B+T cells, stroma is reticular CT, functions to remove pathogens, cancer cells.... from lymph. ~500 exist
What are x-rays (radiographs) useful for?
Viewing dense hard tissue (such as bone)
What is a goblet cell?
it is a cell that secretes Mucus, Mucin disolved in water.  Mucin is a glycoprotein.
What are the parts of the peritoneal serous cavity?
The parietal (peritoneal serous membrane) and visceral (peritoneal serous membrane) parts
What are the visceral and parietal pleura?
The two membranes surrounding the lungs, and lining the walls around the lungs (respectively)
Organic bone tissue vs inorganic bone tissue
Organic includes cells, the matrix (callogen fibers) that provides tensile strength, some ground substance, and makes up 35% of the bone tissue
 
Inorganic includes the matrix which is composted of hydroxyapatite crystals (calcium and phosphate) and calcium and phosphate in non-crystalline form, and compose 65% of the bone tissue Both are extremely important for the physical properties of bone
where are osteocytes, and what connects them?
Osteocytes reside in the lacunae, and are connected by gap junctions in the canaliculi.
What are the 4 movements associated with the ankle?
Dorsiflexion toes move towards the body, and plantar flexion toes move towards the ground Exflexion foot moves away from midline and inflexion foot moves toward midline
What is the cell in the pineal gland?
the pinealocyte which secretes melationin
Describe the jejunum and ileum
They are covered by serosa, while the duodenum is covered in adventitia.
What is the basic hormone action?
they circulate throughout the body in bloodvessels, influencing only specific tissues, I.E. Target cells
The type II pneumocyte performs what functions?
1. Stem Cell
2. Produces surfactant (reduces surface tension, coats inner surface of the alveolus)
White pulp in the spleen...
is made of PALS and of lymphoid tissue
Describe the path of Urine.  What epithelium lines each?
1. Minor Calyx (1/lobe)
2. Major calyx (2~3)
3. Renal Pelvis (most superior part of ureter)
4. Ureter
5. Urinary Bladder
6. Urethra
 
1-5 are lined with transitional, 6 is lined with tansitional and others.
The molecular barrier functions to...
blocks material due to charge and or size
What are the specialized CT's? why are they special?
Bone, cartilage, and blood, because they have unique ECM's
What are the basic regions of the body, and what do they encompass?
axial: head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineum
and
appendicular=limbs, including girdles (attachments of appendages)
 
What are the 6 characteristics of the epithelium?
1. cellular (very little intercellular space/material)
2. Specialized cell junctions between cells (cell-cell contact)
3. Polarity, i.e. 2 distinct regions (apical, or top of cell, and basal, or bottom of cell)
4. Always associated w/ connective tissue
5. Avascular - no blood vessels (connective tissue houses blood vessels for nutrients and defensive cells) and innervative
6. Regenerative capability
 
What is multinucleate? Give an example
A cell with more than one nucleus, skeletal muscle is an example of a multinucleate
What are the Cell junctions and their function?
Tight junction (zonula occludens) is the most apical and goes around the circumference of the cell, preventing passage of material between neighboring cells
 
Zonula Adherans is below the zonula occludens, goes around circ of cell, and prevents cells from separating, involves actin/microfilaments
 
Desmosornes is located anywhere, but forms spot welds, and is the toughest of all junctions located in the areas where separation is likely.  It is made ofKeratin (an intermediate filament)
 
 Gap Junctions is where proteins between 2 adjacent cells form a channel between adjacent cells for ion transport.
Vesicles from the golgi may be incorporated into the cell, how?
by incorporating the vesicle into the cell membrane
What is the purpose of callogen fibers?
It is the toughest fiber provides tensile strengh (and stains pink)
What is interstitial growth? What cells does it happen in?
Growth due to mitosis (from within the bone) and it only occurs in chondrocytes, NOT osteocytes
What is unique about the knee joint's atricular capsule?
The anterior articular capsule is missing and replaced by the patellar ligament and medial and lateral patellar retinaculum
Describe the cells of the stratum corneum
They are dead, and contain keratin which is a combination of pre-keratin (intermediate filaments) and material from keratohyaline granules.  There are sacs of keratin.  The organelles are degraded by lysosomes.
When your eyes water the water goes down your lacrimal duct into...
inferior medus of the nasal cavity
What are the organelle concentrations in hepatocytes and what is their function?
High SER to make (Exocrine), High RER and Golgi to make albumin (endocrine), High SER and Peroxisomes and abundant mitochondria to aid in fat storage and drug metabolism.
The parenchymal cell is the...
main cell of the liver, making up 80% of it
The type 1 pneumocyte, the fused basal lamina and the endothelium of the capilary comprise the _______________
Blood-air barrier AKA the repsiratory membrane
The capillaries associated with the justamedullary nephron are...
the vasa recta, they arise from the efferent arteriol
What are the 2 basic parts of multicellular exocrine glands?
The secretory unit which makes the product (can be tubular or alveolar), and the duct which is the passage way for the product (can be simple, i.e. no branches, or compound, i.e. branching)
What are the two types of sweat glands, and what distinguishes them?
the eccrine glands, the normal sweat glands which have a general distribution over the body
 
the apocrine glands release sweat that also contains fats and proteins, and have a limited distribution on the body (the perineum and the axilla (the anus and external genetalia and the arm pits))
Why is the nail matrix critical?
it is the source of cell origin for the nail, meaning if it is damaged or destroyed the nail can no longer grow.
The surface mucous cell of the stomach...
cover the surface and line the pits, secreting mucous to protect the cells from the hostile environment of the stomach
Describe the flow of nutrients in the hepatocytes
Bile enters the bile canalculus, blood protein and glucose enters the sunisoid, and nutrients and toxins enter the hepatic cell.
What is the function of the nucleolus? How many can a cell have?
It is the site of synthesis of ribosomal sub units.
The cell will have as many as are necessary to it's functioning.
What are the 3 movements allowed by synovial joints?
1. Gliding – the sliding of flat bones
 
2. Angular- changing the angle between the bones and the joints
 
3. Rotational – turn/rotate around the long axis of the bone
What are dense bodies? what are they equivalent to?
they are the site of actin attachment and are equivalent to the z line
What is the path of blood through the kidney?
Renal artery to segmental artery to lobar artery to interlobar artery, to arcuate artery to interlobular artery
What are the 3 surfaces of epithelium, and what specializations may each have?
Apical is the top of the cell, which may have cilia and microvilli
 
Basal is the base of the cell which is attached to the basal lamina, which is a filter that provides support.  It is on a reticular lamina (layer of reticular fibers) and both are known as the basement membrane.
 
Lateral is the sideof the cell which may have cell junctions.
taste=
gustation
Posterior pituitary makes _____
nothing
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Mesenchyme condenses to form…
The periosteum
Respiratory zone:
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar duct, and alveolar sac
B +T cells are..
Leukocytes, agranulocytes
Osteoclast vs osteoblast
Osteoblast deposits bone ECM
 
Osteoclast breaks bone down ECM
olfaction utilizes what kind of receptor?
chemoreceptors
describe lymphoid tissue
Parenchymal cell= lymphocyte
Stroma= reticular CT (except in thymus)
Cells= B lymphocyte and T lymphocyte, plasma cells, macrophages
 
The 9 cartillages:
1. Epiglottis
2. Cuniform cartilages
3. Corniculate cartilages
4. Arytenoid cartilages (start of vocal cords)
5. Cricoid cartilages
6. Tracheal cartilages
7. thyroid cartilage (end of vocal cords)
Glands in the tongue are....
Compound tubuloaveolar
Classificatioin of synovial joints is done by
Articular surfaces
Otoliths are...
calcium carbonate particules that add to weight, and are embedded in receptor cells for equilibrium, and cause gravity to move the membrane, which moves the hairs, which sends an impulse to the CNS
What houses the receptors for olfaction?
specialized epithelium
the outer layer of the esophagus is...
adventitia
The pancreas has both....
Endocrine and exocrine functions
Glands in the carida and pylorus produce _________ for protection
mucosa
materials reabsorbed via tubules are colected in __________. Waste materials to be secreted by the kidneys are delivered via _____________
peritubular capillaries
The alveolus is...
the site of gas exchange
Describe Cartilage
Cartilage (Chondro-) has a firm but wet (70% H20) matrix with no blood vessels and no nerves, that contains delicate callogen fibrils and proteoglycans, and it resists compression. Chondrocyte is the cell in cartilage located in a lacuna, it has no intercellular connections.  Surrounded by the Perichondrium
Cecum is where...
the large and small intestine meet
Organ of corti contains...
the receptor cells for hearing
Variscosities are....
little swellings that act as axon terminals for smooth muscle
____ of the cerebral cortex deals with vision
40%
The small intestine earns its name from
its width
Red pulp is made of...
venous sinuses and cords
lymphnodes are located...
in the path of collecting vessels
The trachea
has 16-20 c shaped hyaline cartilage rings with fibroelastic CT between C cartilage. It has 4 layers
 
1.Mucous membrane
2. Submucosa
3. Hyaline cartilage
4. Advantitia
CT vs EPI
Epithelium has mostly cells and very little ECM, while CT has few cells and alot of ECM, consisting of fibers and ground substance.
Describe Bone
Bone (Osteo-) has a hard matrix which requires structures to house blood vessels. Bone can be organ or tissue (tissue being compact or spongy), organs having names (like femur) and have bone tissue nerve, blood vessels, epithelium, etc.  Functions as support, protection, levers, blood formation, and stores calcium and phosphate.
Special senses...
are located in a limited area with limited distribution
 
have receptor cells
 
utilize bipolar neurons
There are _ glands in the submucosa of the stomach
no
smooth muscle has no
triads T tubules or Z lines
What kind of tissue is commonly found around the parathyroid?
Adipose tissue
If the organ remains suspended in the cavity, it is called...
introperitoneal serosa
proximal convoluted tubule P.C.T. is composed of_____________________ and it's function is...
simple cuboidal epithelium, microvilli, and mitochondria;
 
reabsoprtion and secretion
Lymphatic vessels - think...
Transport lymph
and return lymph to veins in base of neck
Once the splenic artery leaves the connective tissue and enters the matter of the spleen, it is called...
the Central artery
Ipsilateral means... contralateral means.... and are terms mainly used in reference to the ____ system
on the same side;
on the opposite side;
nervous
What is a lysosome?
it is a vesicle which contains hydrolytic enzymes used to digest certain things within the  cell.
What exactly are appendages of the skin? What appendages are there?
Outgrowths/downgrowths of the epidermis (epithelium) that are always associated with connective tissue.  They consist of:
Nail and hair (made from hard keratin)
 Sebaceous glands and sweat glands
What is the purpose of articular cartilage? Does it have coverings of perichondrium or synovial membrane?
It bears weight; no
Hyaline cartilage remains only in the…
epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages.
What does parathyroid hormone do?
It increases blood calcium, osteoclast activity, and Ca reabsorption in the kidney
A decrease in calcium triggers...
the parathyroid gland to release parathyroid hormone, which then causes Ca++ levels to increase.
The esophagus is __ cm long and it takes _____ secs for food to get down
25; 4-6
The mucosa of the stomach has...
simple columnar epithelium, with several different cell types.  It also has gastric pits (ducts) and gastric glands.
Cortical nephrons vs juxtamedullary nephrons
Cortical- 85% of nephrons, almost entirely located in the cortex, the thin segment of the loop of henle is extremely small
 
Juxtamedullary- 15% of nephrons, they have the longest thin limbs of henle that concentrate the urine
Tissue fluid contains ______________, and what moves into the lymphatic capillaries is called ______
H2O, blood proteins, cells, pathogens, bacteria, cancer cells, etc.; Lymph
The Rima glottidis is...
the opening between the true vocal cords
The lobule is...
the smallest section of the liver, at its 6 corners it has portal triads and portal tracts.  Has a central vein at its center, with hepatocytes branching off.
Areolar LCT vs Dence CT
Areolar LCT is under the epithelium surrounded by blood vessels and nerves
Dense CT has an abundance of callogen fibers
What is Heterochromatin? How does it appear on slides?
Heterochromatin is condensed chromatin that cannot be transcribed.
It stains darkly
viscera is defined as....
any organ located in the ventral body cavity
What things are dyed by Hematoxylin? What color would they be?
Nucleus, nucleolus, Ribosomes, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) and DnA/RnA
what is the desmosome?
it is the only junction between the keratinocytes in the epidermis
What are the 2 basic classifications of joints?
Classification by function and classification by structure
Describe the zona glomerulosa
It is humoral, responding to Na, and is where aldosterone is contained
What are the 2 classes of hormones?
1. Amino acid-based hormones
 
2. Steroids
The tectorial membrane...
is where the hair cells in the organ of corti are attached.  it is stationary, so the hairs bend.
The hormones in the thymus...
allow the T cells to become immunocompetent
What 3 things dump into the duodenum?
Chyme, Bile, and Pancreatic enzymes
The collecting duct serves as...
the kidney's last chance to reabsorb water
The Stroma of the liver...
is the supporting tissue that is reticular CT.
Kidneys have ______ lobes, which consist of....
7-11; medullary pyramid and associated cortical tissue
What is the endoplasmic reticulum? name the two in the cell
 a network of interconnecting tube or sacs made of membranes
The rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Describe the Cutaneous membrane
it is the Skin, dry, the epithelium is stratified squamous Keratinized epithelium, it's CT consists of LCT and DCT
what are the components of the cytoskeleton? which are stable?
Microfilaments, which are not stable (constant turnover)
intermediate filaments which are extremely stable
Microtubules which are not stable (constant turnover)
Describe the osteopregenitor
It is a stem cell, squamous and on the surface
Describe gap junctions in bone, and why what makes it special?
They are the junctions between osteocytes and ostecytes, and osteoblasts and osteocytes.
Maculae,saccule and utricle in the ear detect...
linear acceleration and the position of the head with receptor cells
What features increase the surface area of the small intestine?
1. Plicae circularus - permanent fold of mucousa and submucousa
 
2. Villi - unique to small intestine, finger like extension of the mucousa
 
3. Mircovilli - extensions of plasma lemma on surface of epithelium
Describe the mucosa in the small intestine
it's simple columnar epithelium that contains goblet cells, absorptive cells (enterocytes, lots of microvilli), enteroendocrine cells (produce hormones), paneth cells (found at base of gland, and produce bacteriocidal material.
What are the types of glands in the mouth
Parotid - Purely Serous
 
Submandibular - Mucus and Serous
 
Sublingual - Mucus and Serous
How does tissue fluid enter the capillaries?
The endothelium has callogen fibers which connect to the local tissue, when it swells, it causes the valve to open, allowing tissue fluid in, until swelling goes down when it closes.
What is special about transitional epithelium?
It is found only lining the holow organs of the urinary system, allowing for stretching
What is the Golgi (aparatus/body)?
It is a stack of membranes that are not connected, which recieve material from RER (via transport vesicle), modify the package material, and determine it's final destination.
what is the difference between free and attached ribosomes?
free ribosomes produce proteins to be used within the cell, while attached protiens (which are embedded in the RER) are used to make proteins for export.
What is the purpose of reticular fibers?
they form a delicate network for support
When and where does regeneration occur in humans?
It occurs in the cartilage by interstitial and appositional growth, and is limited in the young, but impossible in adults.
What are the two structures associated with synovial joints, and what are they made of?
Articular discs which are a meniscus made of fibrocartilage. They improve the fit, allow for 2 different movements in 1 joint, and absorb shock
 
Bursae and tendon sheaths function to reduce friction, both being bags of synovial fluid. Bursae is the most common, and tendon sheaths are only found around tendons.
What is the volkmann's (perforating) canal?
It is a canal running perpendicular to Central (haversian) canals
What are the 2 basic layers of the skin?
the Epidermis and the dermis
What are the differences between thin and thick skin?
Thin skin lacks the stratum lucidum which the thick skin has.  Your palms and your soles are the only places with thick skin.
What is found in the villus, and what function(s) does it perform?
Blood capilaries absorb protein, carbohydrates, drugs, and travel to liver by hepatic portal
 
The lymph capillary, Lacteal, takes lipids which are carried to veins at base of neck
 
Lamina propria
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
The islets of langerhans, which compose 1-2% of the pancreas, contain alpha and beta cells.  Alpha cells produce glucagon, increasing blood glucose, and beta cells produce insulin, decreasing blood glucose.
What are the parts and functions of the loop of henle?
Thick descending limb, functions like the PCT
 
The thin limb, functions to concentrate the urine
 
Thick ascending limb, functions like the DCT
What are the basic organs of the respiratory system?
Nose, oral cavity, Larynx, the Bronchii, the pharynx, the trachea, and the lungs
What are the layers of the ureter and urinary bladder?
1. Mucosa (transitional epithelium, lamina propria)
2. Muscularis (Upper 2/3's has 2 layers, lower 1/3 and urinary bladder has 3)
3. Advantitia
*serosa is on the most superior part of the urinary bladder
What is Euchromatin? How does it appear on a slide?
It is a relaxed chromatin which is easily transcribed.
It appears to be clear or lightly stained since it is not condensed like heterochromatin
What is the serous cavity, and what does it contain?
the space between the two visceral membranes which contains serous fluid
How do joints prevent the loss of circulation? (due to pinching BV’s)
There is overlap in the blood supply
What are the 2 important features of classification by structure?
The binding material, and presence of a joint cavity
There are gap junctions between each smooth cell, which means...?
each cell does not neat to be innervated
What is the largest division of the adenohypophysis? What does it contain?
the pars distalis. It contains 5 different types of endocrine cells
What is the cell membrane called, what is it made of, and what is it's function?
plama lemma, it is composed of the phospholipid bilayer, proteins, and oligosacharides
It acts as a boundary between the internal cell environment and the external environment.
It also determines what materials enter and exit the cell via diffusion, facilitated transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.
What are the 4 types of cells that make up the epidermis?
1. Keratinocyte (makes keratin, and is most abundant)
2.Melanocyte (makes melanin that provides UV protection)
3. Merkal cell (disk, deals with touch perception: associated with a nerve)
4. Langerhans Cell (has an immune function)
What type of muscle is the muscle around the esophagus?
the 1st 3rd is skeletal, the middle 3rd is a mix of smooth and skeletal, and the last 3rd is smooth.
Which kidney is more superior than the other? Why?
the left kidney due to the liver blocking the other kidney
What are the two types of stratified squamous epithelium? Where are they found?
Dry and moist, dry being the skin and are distinguished by their lack of nuclei in the apical cells.
Moist has nuclei in it's apical cells and lines the mouth esophagus, etc.
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