|All endocrine organs are||
|Secretory granule's are used for...||
increases smooth muscle contraction, and helps during child birth
|The bronchial tree:||
Mams=primary bronchi, 1/lung
Lobar=secondary bronchi 1/lobe
Segmental=tertiary bronchi 1/segment
bronchiole<1mm, no cartilage
|The hypodermis is primarily composed of what?||
|In the abdominopelvic cavity the serous membrane is modified, forming....||
|Cords in Red pulp mainly contain...||
|A type 1 pneumocyte is...||
|The larynx has _ named cartilages||
|Can you live without a gallbladder?||
|what are peroxisomes?||
vesicles that contain oxidative enzymes and catalase and are used for digestion of certain materials.
|The integument is the ____________ organ, taking up _% of mass||
|Cristae ampullares contains...||
receptor cells for rotational equillibrium
|What are the 3 tunics?||
|What cranial nerve is associated with the organ of corti?||
|The glomerulus is...||
a tuft of capillariers, fenestrated
|Lymph is a _ way flowing system||
|What is required for a multicellular exocrine gland?||
|Describe the perichondrium||
The membrane that surrounds the cartilage, a DICT, that houses BV, nerves, and the sources for cell growth
|The cardia is where...||
the esophagus joins the stomach
|The adrenal gland is located...||
superior to the kidney
as an enzyme that digests bacterial cell walls
|The neurohypophysis is....||
The posterior pituitary, and is structurally part of the brain.
|The muscularis externa has _ layers of smooth muscle||
mucous membrane that secretes mucus to lubricate the eye
|The ear deals with 2 senses...||
hearing and equilibrium
small pores in capillaries that are small enough to not allow cells through but fluids
|The Rapffer Cell is...||
the macrophage of the Liver
|When fat is consumed...||
muscles around the gallbladder contract, extreting it's extra bile into duodenum
|The quadrate lobe...||
is right next to the gallbladder
|Describe the sagital plane, differentiate between the midsagital and parasagital cuts||
Sagital separates left from right
the midsagital section is a cut directly down the midline, while parasagital is an off midline cut
|Describe the frontal (coronal) plane||
Vertical separation of anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) regions of the body. Separates front from back.
|Describe the mucous membrane||
Mucous membranes=mucosa, is moist and named for it's location, not it's product. It lines hollow organs/systems that eventually open to outside the body. (i.e. digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems) It varies in it's epithelium depending on the system, which is above areolar LCT. In the case of Mucous membranes, the LCT is known as the LAMINA PROPRIA.
|Describe Weeping lubrication||
Pressure applied to a joint force synovial fluid from the articular cartilage into the joint cavity (provide film). Release of pressure allows the synovial fluid to return into the articular cartilage
|Anterior of eye vs posterior (separated by lens)||
Anterior contains aqueous humor
Posterior contains vitreous humor
|Peyer's patches are...||
lymphatic nodules and are unique to the lymphatic tissue in ileum
|What are the pure endocrine organs?||
Pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands
|What are the 3 chambers?||
the scala vestibuli, contains perilymph and creates the oval window which fits the stapes
the scala media, Endolymph
the scala tympani, perilymph and creates the round window which is covered by a membrane which gives a little as perilymph moves
|The large gap/space between the variscosity and the smooth muscle...||
slows the muscle's response
|The Infundibulum connects the....||
anterior and posterior pituitary to the hypothalmus
|Exocrine uses _______ to deliver to a specific place, while exocrine uses _________ to deliver its products||
|The colon is...||
shorter than the small intestine at 1.5m, the material inside stays in 12-24 hours, where H2O and electrolytes are reabsorbed, producing the semisolid feces.
|T cells migrate to the||
thymus to become immunocompetent. They have the ability to recognize foreign material.
|Functions of the nose||
1. Passage way for air
2. Contitions air (warm, moisten, clean)
3. Involved in phonation
|What is the mesothelium?||
it is a simple squamous epithelium, which is part of the serous membrane in the ventral abdomen.
|Surfacing epithelium vs glandular epithelium?||
Makes and secretes a product
|What is unique to the transitional epithelium?||
They have "dome cells"
|Anterior means... while posterior means...||
towards the front of the body/ventral;
towards the back of the body/dorsal
|Describe the endosteum||
it is a membrane that covers all internal surfaces of bone and covers spongybone, lines volksmann's canals, haversian canals, and the marrow cavity. It contains osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts.
|What muscles toned cause more stability in the knee joint?||
The quads and the semimembranosus
|What are the types of fibrous joint? Where are they found?||
Gomphosis=point where tooth fits socket
Syndesmosis=ligament, short or long callogen fibers
|Describe the osteoblast||
It is cuboidal on the surface, it deposits bone matrix, and stains blue due to increased RER
|What are the types of corticosterioids?||
1. Mineralocorticoids = Aldosterone, which increases sodium and water absorption in the kidney, causing an increase in blood volume and pressure
2. Glucocorticoids = cortisol, helps maintain high glucose concentration to the brain
|What keeps smooth muscle connected together?||
Intermediate filament bundles which are attached to dense bodies
|What are the 3 staining categories?||
Acidophils (red), Basophils (blue), and chromatophobes (no color)
|what do parafollicular cells do in the thyroid?||
they produce calcitonin
Parafollicular cells are also known as C-cells
|Lymph node sinus is...||
a channel for lymph, lined by endothelium
|The region where the renal cotrex is between the medullar pyramids is called...||
the renal columns
|________ branch off the sides of the alveolar duct, and at the end there are __________||
alveoli; alveolar sac
|Medulary cords are cellular, containing...||
B&T cells, macrophages and plasma cells
|What is the costal cartillege?||
the cartillege that attaches the ribs and false ribs to the sternum
|what is contained in the ventral cavity? which are serous cavities?||
the thoracic cavity (containing pleural cavities and the pericardial cavities which are all serous) the abdominopelvic cavity (containing the abdominal cavity (holds digestive viscera) and the pelvic cavity(holds repro and urinary viscera)) which is also known as the peritoneal serous cavity
|What are microvilli and cilia, and what are their function?||
Microvili are short fingerlike projections of the cell membrane used to increase the surfaces areas and therefore absorption and ion transport.
Cilia are long fingerlike projections, which are more motile, and composed of an organized core of microtubules. they are used to move more material over/across the surface of the epithelium.
|Describe the joint cavity||
It is a potential space filled with synovial fluid which provides a lubricating film allowing cartilage to glide over it friction free, and nutrients to cartilage via diffusion
|Describe the circumferential lamellae||
There are outer, which are under the periosteum, and inner which are around the marrow cavity.
|What does the posterior pituitary do?||
it secretes antidiuretic hormone, and oxytocin, which are both made in the hypothalamus.
|The order of the alimentary canal is...||
1. Oral cavity2. Oropharynx3. Larygopharynx4. Esophagus
|The lamina propria in the respiratory tract...||
contains seromucous glands that moisten the air, alot of capillaries and veins used to warm the air
|The function of the lymphnode is...||
to remove pathogens from the lymph
|B cells do what to become immunocompetent?||
stay in the bone marrow
|What is used in the staining process for Electro Microscopy?||
Heavy metals which retard electrons
|What is endothelium and what does it do?||
Endothelium is simple squamous epithelium, and lines the blood vessels, the hert and the lymphatic organs
|What are the types and characteristics of Dense CT?||
The abundance of fibers (callogen)
the two types of Dense CT are irregular and regular, regular has organized callogen into one dierction to resist pull from 1 direction (tendons and ligaments are regular)
Irregular has callogen which is not organized in 1 direction, which resists pulling in all directions (like the dermis of the skin and organ capsules)
|what is contained in the dorsal cavity?||
the brain and the spinal cord
|How does one classify epithelium?||
They are classified by cell layers and the shape of the apical (top) cells.
Layers, simple is one layer, and 2 or more is stratified.
Shape, squamous is flat, cuboidal is cubic, columnar is taller than it is wide (nucleus is basal)
|What do Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) do for cartilage?||
They hold tissue fluid/H2O in place, and allow for the diffusion of waste and nutrients
|How long does it take a new skin cell to be shed?||
about a month
|The middle and inner ear house||
the pitreal portion of the temporal bone
|Describe the nasal cavities properties||
1. Has olfactory mucosa - limited to superior concha housing olfactory epithelium
2. Respiratory mucosa - epithelium and lamina propria, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and goblet cell.
|The spleen has a _______ capsule, because it is...||
thick; very bloody, and rupturing could cause one to bleed out
|The liver has both exocrine and endocrine properties. It's functions include:||
1. Making bile
2. Making blood proteins (Albumin)
3. Store Excess glucose as glycogen
4. Store fat soluble vitamins like A
5. Primary organ of drug metabolism
|What are the types of Dense connective tissue, and how are they utilized?||
Dense irregular CT has unorganized callogen, which allows for it to be pulled in all directions.
Dense Regular CT has callogen organized in one direction, which allows for pulling along that direction.
Elastic CT is a type of DCT with an abundance of elstiv fibers, but has limited distribution in the body.
|What are some of the functions of the epithelium?||
Protection, absorption, secretion, ion transport, diffusion
|How does Staining for Light Microscopy work? What are the types of dye, and what is an example of each?||
Dyes are charged, and therefore bind to tissue components of opposite charge.
Basic dye has a positive charge, Hematoxylin is a blue basic dye.
Acidic dye has a negative charge, Eosin is a pink acidic dye.
|What are the 2 types of bone formation?||
Intramembranous = within the membrane of mesenchyme where there is no cartilage involved, flat bones, mesenchyme --> osteoblasts --> bone
Endochondral = most common, uses hyaline cartilage. Mesenchyme --> a hyaline cartilage model --> Cartilage matrix calcifies, cells die, and cavity is formed --> periosteal bud invade – bv osteoproginator cells, and osteoclasts --> bone deposited on calcified cartilage --> Cartilage remains at the articular surface and at the growth plates
|What are the types of classification by structure? Which have cavities? Which is most abundant?||
Fibrous (DCT callagen fibers, no joint cavity)
Cartilaginous (cartilage, no joint cavity)
Synovial (Articular capsule, most abundant, has cavities with synovial fluid)
|What are the movements associated with the radius and the ulna?||
Supination is when they are parallel and pronation is when they are crossed.
|Describe the process of holocrine secretion||
The contents of the cell are secreted and the cell destroyed
|What are the 3 triggers for hormone secretion?||
1. Humoral- Secretion in direct response to changing nutrient levels in blood. CSF simplest
2. Neural- sympathetic nerve fibers stimulate cells in the adrenal medula. PNS
3. Hormonal- Stimuli received from other glands. Most common type.
|As you get older the thymus goes through the process of __________ which is when...||
involution: thymic tissue is mostly replaced by adipose
|What is special about pseudostratified columnar epithelium?||
it doesn't look so, but all the cells do touch the basal lamina. It is primarily found in the respiratory and male reporductive systems. If located in the trachea, it has cilia.
|What is the order of the anatomical Heirarchy?||
Atoms --> Macromolecules --> cells --> tissue --> organs --> organ systems --> organism
|What is the purpose of the hair papilla?||
It provides nutrients for the hair, and if it is destroyed the hair dies.
|The glands of the fundus and the body of the stomach are...||
Mucous neck cells and stem cells
the parietal cell (pink) which secretes HCl, and gastric intrinsic factor.
the chief cells (blue) secrete pepsinogen, which is converted to pepsin in the acid, which then works on proteins.
The enteroendocrine glands, which are unicellular glands that extrete hormones.
|What is a tropic system? (not tropHic)||
The release of one hormone, causes the release of another groop of hormones.
|What is the function of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)?||
It is involved in protien and membrane synthesis, and has many ribosomes.
|What is the basic tissue type for the 2 layers of the skin?||
the epidermis is made of epithelium (stratified squamous keratinized epithelium), and the dermis is made primarily of CT (Areolar LCT and DICT)
|In the pineal gland at 14 years and on||
you have calcium deposts known as brain sand, and are radiopaque, acting as a midline indicator.
|What is the function of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)?||
It is a lipid membrane inolved in drug metabolism, it as no ribosomes
|What is the synovial join composed of?||
1. Articular (hyaline) cartilage
2. Articular capsule (fibrous capsule and synovial membrane)
3. Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid)
5. BV and nerves