Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dors
back
peri
around
Histamine
vasodilator
Bacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria
digital
finger or tow
Histology
Study of tissues
Pertaining to the wrist
Carpal
ribosomes
sites of protein synthesis
plantar
sole of the foot
SA action potential threshold
-40mV
Hystology is refers to?
Tissue
ELECTRICAL SIGNALING
voltage-regulated "ion gates" in nerve and muscle tissue respong to voltage changes
Tall and column shaped
Columnar Cells
subatomic particles
protons, neutrons and electrons
telophase
daughter nuclei begin forming, cleavage furrow begins to form
endoplasmic reticulum
communication and transportation. comes in 2 varities, depending on ribosomes.
Plasmodium vivax (Protozoa)
Locomotion: None
Phylum: Sporozoa
Disease: Malaria
What poison stops ATP formation?
Cyanide
Adipocytes
fat cells in adipose tissue
INTRONS
junk DNA; matching/non coding triplets
ENDOCYTOSIS
particles moving within the cell
Pertaining to the bony eye socket
Orbital
Tonicity
relative solute concentraions of 2 fluids and, in the body, these two solutions are the extracellular fluid and the intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic fluid)
Lipids
contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, insoluble in water due to lack of polarity... neutral fats or triglycerides phospholipids, steriods
valence shell
outermost electron shell- determines behavior
mitochondria
powerhouse, energy is extracted from organic compounds and turned into r.a.u. energy in ATP molecules via Cellular respiration
signs of inflammation
redness, heatswellingpain-caused by chemicals and pressure on nerves
Eukaryotes
Large single cell or multicellular organisms with a nucleus and other organelles.
EX: fungi, protozoa and parasytic worms
ATP stores energy in __________ bonds.
Oxygen
Tall cells are refered to as?
columnar
S.E.R
Site responsible for lipid metabolism; detoxification
Intercalated discs only found in
Cardiac Muscle
EXONS
characteristics; coding regions of DNA that
positive feedback
self-regulatory biological system in which the output affects the input either positively/negatively
Negative feedback mechanism
most common homeostatic control mechanism, it shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
Pertaining to the point of the shoulder
Acromial
At resting potential most gated channels are ________, so that when they are ________ they change the permeability of the cell membrane.
closed; open
Energy that travels in waves
Radiant energy/electromagnetic energy
Auricle
Earlike appendage of each atrium of the heart.
 
nucleoplasm and a nuclear envelope
components of nucleus
radiology
study of X rays and radioactive substances, as well as their uses in diagnosing and treating diseases
anions
gained one or more electrons, negative charge
Quadriceps FemorisOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Anterior inferior iliac spineI: Patella, tibial tuberosityA: Extends leg knee joint
name the non-specific defenses
physical barriers, phagocytes, immunilogical surveillance (NK cells), interferons, complement system, fever, inflammation
What are the building blocks of Carbohydrates?
monosaccharides
DEFINE LEUKEMIA
THIS IS AN UNCONTROLLED WBC PRODUCTION, CANCEROUSINCREASED NUMBER OF WBC TAKE UP TOO MUCH ROOM IN BLOOD, CAUSING DECREASED RBC PRODUCTION WITH ANEMIA, AND DECEASED PLATELETS WITH BLEEDING DIORDERS
Holocrine glands
accumulate their product until the entire cell ruptures. The shed cells are replaced by division of stem cells.
GLYCOCALYX
carbohydrate rich area at the cell surface (glycolipids and glycoproteins); provides biological markers for cells to recognize each other and interact
living system
general theory regarding the existence of all living systems, their structure, behavior, development
homeostasis
tendency of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes
anatomy
the science dealing with the structure of animals and plants.
Nervous Tissue
provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
Pia mater
The membrane covering the outside of brain and spinal cord, which Astrocyte process feet cover the surface of.
Stored in the bonds of chemical bond
Chemical energy
Intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure; the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder
Facilitated Diffusion
results from the simple concept that diffusion would not occur if the protein did not form a channel for molecules to move across the membrane. Thus, it is a combination of simple diffusion with the presence of an open protein channel in the membrane.
Ascending Aorta
The only branches of the ascending aorta are:
Right coronary artery
Left coronary artery
Which supply the Myocardium
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
transverse or horizontal
divides body into superior and inferior parts
Adductor MagnusOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Inferior ramus of ischium and inferior ramus of pubis I: Linea aspera and medial epicondyle of femurA: Adducts thigh at hip joint
Define Cardiac Cycle
one full contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the heart
Facultative Anaerobes
Bacteria that can grow in an environment with or without oxygen
Define Physiology
Study of the functions of an organism
Information comes out of the cell nucleus as?
Messenger RNA
In what mode of secretion does the cell lyce and secrete the product along with the cell?
holocrine
ANTICOAGULANTS
REMAIN ACTIVE IN THE BLOOD TO KEEP BLOOD FLOWING UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES, PREVENTS CLOTS.
Type of CT found around organs that are working hard
Adipose
Location of adipose tissue
Found around hard-working, active tissues such as the bone marrow, heart, and lymph nodes
EDITING RNA
1st copy (pre-mRNA) has coding exons and non coding introns; the same regions as found in DNA

spliceosomes produce functional RNA
epithial tissue
specialized to form the covering or lining of all internal and external body surfaces
Proximal
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk (elbow is proximal to the wrist)
What does the Somatic Nervous System voluntarily control?
Skeletal muscle contractions.
Free surface cells are squamous, cells of the deeper levels are cuboidal or columnar, most widespread, thick and suited for protection.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Arteries in Lower Limb
Common iliac arteries internal iliac artery
external iliac artery
changes to femoral artery
changes to popiteal artery
Anterior tibial artery
Changes to Dorsalis pedis artery
Arcuate artery

Posterior tibial artery
distal
a body part is farther from the trunk or farther from another specified point of reference
Extensor Carpi UlnarisOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus and olecranon of ulnaI: Base of fifth metacarpal boneA: Extends and adducts wrist
What is the only organ that filters lymph?
lymph nodes
Amoeba group (Protozoa)
Protozoa moves by a flowing amoeboid movement
What are the functions of simple cuboidal cells?
secretion, minor absorbtion
What is the function of the carbohydrate chains on the extracellular side of proteins?
Lubrication (cell protection)
WHAT DOES "NLMEB" STAND FOR?
"NEVER LET MONEYS EAT BANANAS"NEUTROPHILSLYMPHOCYTESMONOCYTESEOSINOPHILSBASOPHILS
Pinocytosis
Name for the process for taking in a large volume of fluid containing dissolved ions and small molecules
digestive system
group of organs that break down food and absorb the nutrients used by the body for fuel
Explain in term of voltage-gated channels what goes on in repolarization.

Na+ channels close because inactivation gates close, so diffusion of Na+ in stops.
K+ channels are now open and K+ diffuses out.
Tunica Intima
Lines the the lumen of the vessel, is a single layer of endothelium that is continuous with the endocardium of the heart. Helps decrease friction as blood flows through the vessels
 
Isovolumetric relaxation of ventricles
1. T wave on ECG2. Ventricles repolarize and relax3. Semilunar valves close (S2) AV stay closed4. Ventricles expand, do not fill
What are the secondary lymphatic organs?
tonsils, lymph nodes and spleen
relative to matrix, the suffix clast means?
actively breaking down matrix
DESSCRIBE BLOOD DOPING.
RBC ARE REMOVED AND STORED A MONTH BEFORE EVENT - CAUSING ANEMIARBC ARE REINJECTED FEW DAYS BEFORE EVENT - CAUSING POLYCYTHEMIAALLOWS FOR INCREASED O2 AND ENDURANCE FOR ATHLETE
Location of superficial fasciae
Between the skin and the underlying organs
negative feedback
supply of an input to some process or system as a function of its output
What determines the maximum frequency of action potentials?
The duration of the absolute refractory period.
to continually withdraw and repalce patches of plasma membrane.
primary purpose of endocytosis and exocytosis
What are the three functions of carbohydrates?
Structure, energy source (#1), bulk
LIST THE THREE PRIMARY STEPS OF CLOTTING
1- PRODUCTION OF PROTHROMBINASE (PROTHROMBIN ACTIVATOR), CA+ ESSENTIAL2-PRODUCTION OF THROMBIN3-CONVERSION OF FIBRINOGEN(SOLUBLE PROTIEN) TO FIBRIN (INSOLUBLE PROTIEN) RESULTING IN CLOT FORMATION
BEFORE A CELL CAN DIVIDE, WHAT MUST FIRST HAPPEN?
DNA must be replicated
What type of neuroglial cell is this? What is it's main function?
Astrocytes; form permeability barrier between blood and neurons
What are the 3 main functions of fever?
1. promotes interferon activity2. accelerates tissue repair3. inhibits pathogen reproduction
What are the two types of membrane proteins?
Integral proteins and Peripheral proteins
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE OF LYMPHOCYTES?
*THESE ARE SMALLEST WBCS - THEY ARE APPROX THE SAME SIZE AS AN RBC*NUCLEUS= DARK BLUE, LARGE, ONLY THIN RIM OF CYTOPLASM IS SEENGRANULES = NONE, AGRANULOCYTE
Why would the Enteric division be considered separate from the PNS?
It can control the digestive tract (control contraction of GI tract smooth muscle; secretions of GI tract) independently of the CNS
What are the types of T cells?
Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Memory T cells, Suppressor T cells
ACTIVE PROCESS

3) SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
use of an exchange pump indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes

ex/ NA K pump
Name the four types of membranes and where they arae found.
Mucus: lining cavities open to the outside
Serous: lining ventral cavities
Cutaneous: Skin
Synovial Membrane: lines synovial joints Knee, elbow, hip.
HOW MANY TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES ARE THERE? WHAT IS THEIR FUNCTION?
THREE TYPES = T , B AND NK CELLST CELLS = PROVIDER CELLULAR IMMUNITY, DESTROY FOREIGN AND DAMAGED CELLSB CELLS = HUMORAL IMMUNITY, PRODUCE ANTIBODIES AGAINST SPECIFIC ANTIGENSNK CELLS = "NATURAL KILLER" CELLS, NONSPECIFIC IN THIER ACTION, THEY DESTOY OTHER CELLS
EndovsIntra
InsidevsWithin
cervix
Cx
decibel
db
movement
kinesi-
saliva
sial-
large
macro-
melan/o
black
Fat
Adipose
small bag
follic-
ball, globe
glob-
rectum, anus
proct-
pectoral
chest region
protien-bound iodine
PBI
Airways:

Sympathetic Effect
Dialation
Abundant nitrogenous Waste:
Urea
age-related macular degeneration
AMD
osteocyte
mature bone cell
basal cell carcinoma
BCC
Hepatocyte
A liver cell.
cephalad
toward the head
Antonym of medial
Lateral
infundibulum
attaches pituitary to hypothalamus
Thyromuscularis
Origen: lateral thyroid notchInsertion: posterior to arytenoid muscular processInnervation: RLB of CN XFunction: relaxes vocal folds
throacic vertebrae
T1, T2, etc
somatic
pertaining to the body
Epicardium
Seros membrane covers heart
popliteal
back of the knee
homrone that maintains pregnancy
progesterone
PET scan
Positron Emission Tomography (Radioactive)
Whistle
not a standard register
-above falsetto
-not common but still present
-prodcut of turbulence on edges of VF
-typically in females-sounds like a whistle
-VF not vibrating-air flowing through glottal area 
 
symphyses
hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surfaces and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage, they are strong, flexible, and amphiarthroses
During follicular development, granulosa cells secrete follicular fluid causing the formation of the;
 
antrum
secondary follicle
corona radiate
theca interna
corpus luteum
 
1. antrum
In vivo
In the living body.
valves do not close properly
insufficiency
mitosis + cytokinesis =
cell division
stages of mitosis
interphase
early prophase
late prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
cytokinesis
Fluid matrix in the blood
Plasma
Epimysium
The gross skeletal muscle is surrounded by a sheath composed of dense fibrous connective tissue called the _________. 
immature/mature cell type of cartilage connective tissue?
 
chondroblast/chondrocyte?
Concentric Lamellae
Rings of calcified extracellular matrix much like the rings of a tree trunk.
RBC consists:
1/3 cytoplasm, hemoglobin; which carries most oxygen and carbon dioxide transported by blood.

Pronator Teres
Origin: Med. epicondyle, ulnar coronoid process; to lateral radius
 
Action: Pronates forearm and hand
Organelles
"little organ"; small structures that make up much of the cytoplasm
otosclerosis
progressive formation of bony tissue around the oval window, immobilizing the stapes; results in conduction deafness
inguinal
depressed region between abdomen & thigh; groin
Adrenal glands
Paired endocrine glands located superior to the kidneys; each consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens. Medulla secretes catecholamines.
what are sebaceous glands also called?
holocrine
(regions of the diencephalon)infundibulum
f(x)-suspends pituitary gland
highpressure about 45 mm Hg
hydrostatic pressure
Assimilation
incorporation of absorbed molecules by cells into a different form
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

line
small ridge
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) c) Function in men: Initiates the production of _______________ in the tests.
c) sperm
mediallateral
towards midline of bodyaway from midline
homologue to penis in the female
clitoris
reflex
an automatic response to a stimulus
lateral
direction, away from the midline of the body, the outer side of
which valve prevents backflow into the left ventricle
aortic
Symphysis
A cartilaginous joint in which the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage, but a broad, flat disc of firbrocartilage connects the bones.
Sinus rythm:
normal heartbeak generated by SA node
Organs
A group of different tissues that combine together to perform specific tasks
atom
the smallest particle of an element, consisting of electrons surrounding a nucleus composed of protons, neutrons, and other entities.
Latissimus dorsi
*location on lower back
*origin: spinous processes of inferior thoratic on all lumbar vertebre, ribs 8-12
*insertion: floor of intertubercular groove of the humorous
*actions: depression and retraction of the scapula,
shoulder: extension, adduction, and internal rotation
Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue:
Cubed shape.Function: Secretion and absorption of fluid.
blepharitis
inflammation of the edges of the eyelid
aspiration
the process of removing substances by means of suction
Calcium ions
Calcium atoms with two positive charges; concentrated in the extracellular fluid and terminal cisternae, but then enter cytosol where they play an important role in many processes such as muscle contraction and the release of neurotransmitters.
Gastric juice
The secretions of gastric glands including acid, enzymes, and intrinsic factor.
Cerebrospinal fluid
Plasma-like fluid within the brain ventricles, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space surrounding both the brain and spinal cord. It circulates in and around the brain and the spinal cord to protect and nourish the central nervous system. Abbreviated as CSF.
Are the frontal and sagittal plane parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the body?
parallel
Digestive System Functions
-Achives physical and chemical breakdown of food-Absorbs Nutrients-Eliminates Solid Wastes
contains ions and most closely resembles plasma
Ringer's solution
Disorder
when the body does not functions properly
transitional epithelium
-forms lining of hollow urinary organs
-has domelike apical cells
-can stretch/distend 6 to 3 layers
-cells: cuboidal/columnar
Peroxisomes
- are vesicles that contain enzymes that detoxify materials.
Magneticesonance imaging
A diagnostic imaging technique that uses a magnetic field and a computer to integrate the images of internal organs.
Respiratory system
lungs, trachea, larynx, other air passageways *kidney interacts with urinary and respiratory system.
disease whose symptoms include excess sugar in the blood
diabetes melatus
dura mater
the tough, fibrous membrane forming the outermost of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
smooth
_______ muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs
what is the nail body?
visible portion of nail
which of the following is NOT a component of matrix: fluid, protein fibers, muscle, or ground materials
muscle
Epithelial
the epidermis of hte skin lies between the inside and the outside of the body.epithelium lining the urinary bladder seperates underlying cells of the bladder wall from urine.
Taste buds are found on the sides of
PAPILLEA
membrane
a layer of tissue that lines body caviies, covers organs, or separates structures
regional anatomy
all structures in a particular region of the body
What are bones made of?:
Inorganic mineral salt (Ossein)
endochondral ossification
method of bone formation in which cartilage is replaced by bone
covalent bonds
chemical bond formed by two atoms sharing one or more pairs of electrons
Connective tissue wrappings
The various layers of connective tissues surrounding the muscle cells, fascicles, and whole muscle. They are noncontractile structures that bind the contractile structures into a functioning unit.
Bronchial tree
The branching network of airways, from the main bronchi through the terminal bronchioles, that conducts air within each lung.
Define Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy.
involved the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye
What type of tissue acts as a reservoir for energy-producing foods, helps reduce heat loss,serves as support for various organs and fragile structures such as the kidneys.
Adipose
inervates the smooth muscle layer control the calibre of the vessels thus the blood pressure
sympathetic nervous system
By volume, much more of the cell membrane is _______
lipid
diploid number
- two of each kind of chromosome
Yellowing of skin and whites of eyes due to elevated levels of bilirubin in blood because liver is unable dispose of bilirubin
Jaundice
Goiter (GOY-ter)
Goiter (GOY-ter) An enlargement of the thyroid gland,
often due to a lack of dietary iodine (Chapter 10).
aerobic respiration
-uses O2
-break down glucose to yeild 36 atp
-break down other macro molecules
-more efficiant
joint
the place at which two things, or separate parts of one thing, are joined or united, either rigidly or in such a way as to permit motion; juncture.
Vitamin D Intoxication
This results from too much vitamin D. 
_____ is an example of a granulocyte.
white blood cell
Triple covalent bond
Sharing more than 2 pairs of electrons
Influence of Recruitment
the more motor units that are contracting, the faster contraction and more prolonged the contraction
Explain Transverse Plane/Body Section
(horizontal or crosswise, divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower portions
stroke volume
the volume of blood ejected from one ventricle during one contraction; normally about 70 milliliters
posteroanterior (AP)
pertaining to the back and to the front
Chemical energy
The energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances. When the bonds are broken, the energy is released.
Effector
An organ of the body, either a muscle or a gland, that is innervated by somatic or autonomic motor neurons
Ion
an atom that has an overall charge as a result of gaining or losing electrons
Osmotic pressure
is the pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement (water movement) across a membrane. The higher the solute concentration of a solution, the greater its osmotic pressure.
Sarcolemma. Chp 7
The cell membrane of a muscle fiber.
ulna
the bone of the forearm on the side opposite to the thumb.
What type of receptor is:
touch receptor?
pain receptor?
temperature receptor?
pressure receptor?
-touch: merckel discs, meissner's corpuscles
-pain: nociceptors
-temp: thermoceptors
-pressure: pacinian corpuscles
Primary Ossification Center
Region where bone will replace most of the cartilage.
 
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Origin: ant. iliac crest and ant. sup. spine; to iliotibial tract
 
Action: Abducts and rotate thigh medially (synergistic)
The outermost layer of the ovary is the;
 
germinal epithelium
tunica albuginea
ovarian cortex
ovarian medulla
corona radiata
 
1. germinal epithelium
What two mechanisms are involved in homeostatic regulation?
autoregulation and extrinsic regulation
During the period of ejection in the cardiac cycle, the atrioventricular valves are__________ and the semilunar valves are __________.
A) closed, closed
B) closed, open
C) open, closed
D) open, open
B) closed, open
ear ossicles (aka auditory ossicles)
smallest bones in body, contained within the middle ear space
2. Cellular Level of Structural Organization
Molecules have formed organelles (basic components of the microscopic cell). Cells are the smallest units of living things.
What is the outermost layer of the periosteum made of? what does it contain?
dense, irregular connective tissue-contains blood vessels and nerves
Dilation of Larynx
when VF abduct to help bring in more air into respiratory system
 
-see during physical exhertion
-glottal area is doubling in size 
The mandibular nerve affects the:
muscles of the chin and lower lip
What is the neuron that receives the impulse?
The post synaptic neuron.
Both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters are present in the CNS and ENS. true or false
false

are present in the CNS and PNS
Estrogen—a) Its target organs include the _________ and the __________.
a) uterus, mammary glands (or) bones, adipose tissue
what is the cranial nerve #3 & what does it innervate?
-oculomotor nerve- innervates (supplies) the smooth muscle of the eye that influences pupil
What are the 3 functions of the nervous system?
Directs immediate responses to stimuliCoordinates or moderates activities of other ogran systemsProvides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
What does the Lamdoid Suture connect?

and

What other bones may the Lambdoid Suture contain?
- Connects the Occipital bone with both Parietal bones

-It may contain other sutures connecting Wormian bones
1. Chemical Level of Structural Organization
Atoms combine to form molecules such as water and proteins.
What is the concept of Lock-and-key model?
it explains how molecules react when they fit together in a complementary way in the same manner that a key fits into a lock to cause the lock to open or close; the analogy is often used to explain the action of hormones, enzymes, and other biological molecules.
what are the functions of the nervous system?
a. Sensory: Uses sensory receptors to monitor changes inside and outside the body
b. Integration: Processes and interprets the sensory input and decides what to do
c. Motor: Causes response to changes by activating on effector organs such as muscles and glands
what is the central process? (CP)?
-one of 2 branches that come from a single process off the cell body of a unipolar neuron-enters the central nervous system
Nasal bones. Chp 6 pg 123
The 2 nasal bones form the bridge of the nose where they articulate with the frontal bone (the rest of the nose is supported by cartilage).
superficial veins of the leg begin as the
dorsal venous arch on the top of the foot
adipo
fat
pregnancy
-cyesis
extremities
acr-
osteoarthritis
OA
gums
gingiv-
many
multi
caud/o
tail
cubitus
elbow
Cytoskeleton
nonmembranous organelles
 microtublule
microfilament 
 
Composition 
Proteins organixed in fine filaments or slender tubes
 
Functions
Strength and support; movement of cellular structures and materials
transurethral resection
TUR
parathyroid hormone
PTH
Kaposi's sarcoma
KS
excessive, above
hyper-
scapula
shoulder blade
PNS: Ganglion
Parasympathetic
Terminal
slightly movable
Amphiarthroses means? 
What forms microfilaments?
Acton
chronic myelocytic leukemia
CML
range of motion
ROM
ears, nose, throat
ENT
Define histology
microscopic anatomy
zygomatic bones
cheek bones
a castrated chicken
capon
ureter
connects bladder to outside
Subclavius
Origen: clavicleInsertion: inferior medially to chondral margin of rib 1Innervation: Brachial Plexus C5, C6Function: elevates rib 1
dermatitis
inflammation of the skin
myopathy
disease of the muscle
Heart Valves
-Atrioventricular (AV) Valves-Semilunar Valves
patellar
anterior knee region (kneecap)
funnel-shaped end of oviducts
infundibulum
secondary ossification center
found in epihpysis
Tissues: Classification by Function and Location
Tendonitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse, symptoms and treatment similar to bursitis
artherosclerosis
a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty plaques in the wall of the vessel
ECF
Extracellular fluid. Located outside cells, the ECF includes interstitial fluid and plasma.
contraction of the ventricles
ventricular systole
blood
red blood cells- enthrocytes
white blood cells- leukocytes
function: transports for cardio
Epinephrine—Has many target organs and tissues, the Effect on blood vessels in skin and viscera _________________.
vasoconstriction
Cellular organelle which secretes enzymes for digestion
Lysosomes
involuntary
Is smooth muscle involuntary or voluntary? 
areolar tissue
type of loose connective tissue
 
-attaches skin to underlying tissues
Trabeculae
Irregular latticework of thin plates of spongy bone tissue.
Thrombin:
cuts fibrinogen in fibrin which polymerizes form the web-like matrix of clot.
Triceps Branchii
on posterior arm
Origin: Inferior glenoid cavity and post. humerus; to ulnar olecranon process
Action: extends forearm (PRIME MOVER)
Antagonistic
Muscular System
Allows manipulation of the environments, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.Contains Skeletal Muscles
actin
contractile protein in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle cells
biopsy
removal and microscopic examination of body tissue
Aminopeptidase
Digestive enzyme that removes one amino acid at a time from the amine end of a peptide.
Anabolism is what type of metabolism?
Constructive
peduncles
nerve tracts that communicate w/ other parts of CNS
the main blood pressure artery
brachial artery
Lysosomes
Digest worn cellular parts or substances that enter cells
Bone Surface Markings
Depressions & Openings

fossa
shallow depression
The stimulus for secretion of calcitonin is ____________.
hypercalcemia
Tissue Level
Similar cells that accomplish particular functions*bone *muscle *cartilage
average gestation period of queen
63 days
zygote
combination of sperm and egg nuclei
receptor molecule
example?
protein function in PM
-serve for substances to bind to protein to cause chain of intracellular events
-ex: acetycholine (Ach) binds to specific protein receptor on surface of a muscle cell's PM. Chain of events occur (cascade) and then a contraction
The contents of the stomach are emptied into the:
duodenum
Fibrosis
The replacement of muscle fibers by fibrous scar tissue.
Contractile myocyte:
exhibit potentials differ than neurons or skeletal muscle. they have stable RMP depolarze only wen stimulated
Simple Tissue
Composed of one layers of cells
epiphysis
spongy bone tissue, located at the ends of a long bone
Flexor Carpi Muscles
*location on distal forearm, wrist
*origin: medial epicondyle of radius
*insertion: metacarpal bones
*action: flexion
How many types of tissues are there?:
4
heart block
impairment of conduction of impulses from the sinoatrial node to heart muscle
cirrhosis
a chronic liver disease marked by degeneration of liver cells with eventual resistance to blood flow through the organ
Hyponatremia
A concentration of sodium in the extracellular fluid less than 136 mEq/L.
what is the cardiovascular system's function regarding body temperature?
Heat distribution
what causes insomnia?
intense cerebral activity stimulates the reticular formation causing____
the exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and tissue cells is an important part of bodily functioning and utilizes three basics:
osmosisfiltrationdiffusion
skeletal muscle
form flesh & cause body movements
striated, multinucl.
voluntary
Cancer
- an abnormal, out of control, division of cells which tends to spread to other parts of the body.
ventral body cavity
consists of the thoracic, abdominopelvic, abdominal and pelvic cavity
25. The hormone that increases excretion of potassium by the kidneys is:
b) aldosterone
Catabolic reactions
metabolism, dead body decays, using stored fat for energy
the fetal membrane that encloses the embryo and the other fetal membranes
chorion
contralateral
(of the body) pertaining to, situated on, or coordinated with the opposite side.
Dislocations
______ occur when bones are forced out of their normal alignment
what is diploe?
in flat bones, spongy/cancellous bone between 2 layers of compact bone
which of the following is NOT a symptom of inflammtion?edema, redness, hematoma, heat, pain
hematoma
Opening Phase
glottis opens and continues until the escape of air reduces subglottal pressure enough for the VF's resistence to overpower airflow
 WHAT ARE formed early in embryonic development
SPECIAL SENSES
subcutaneous tissue
the bottom layer of the cutaneous membrane, beneath the true skin
intravascular fluid
portion of extracellular fluid that is in the blood; plasma
spina bifida
a developmental anomaly in which the vertebral laminae do not close around the spinal cord, leaving an opening through which the cord and meninges may or may not protrude
isotope
atoms of a given element that have different numbers of neutrons and consequently, different atomic weights
External respiration
The exchange of gases between the alveoli in the lungs and the pulmonary capillaries.
Connective tissue
Tissues of the body characterized by widely spaced cells with large amounts of intercellular matrix. The functions of these tissues vary considerably; generally, they serve to support, bind, insulate, transport, and provide storage.
Granular cells
Modified smooth muscle cells in the walls of afferent arterioles associated with the glomeruli in kidney. They play a role in autoregulation and blood pressure regulation by releasing the enzyme renin in response to low blood pressure and other stimuli.
what region is the crus in?
the crural region
cranial cavity
the space within the bony skull; contains the brain
is secreted in response to low blood pressure but also during essential hypertension
renin
A cell membrane includes a few kinds of lipid molecules but many kinds of _________
proteins
Nuclear envelope
- the double membrane that surrounds the nucleus, it has pores that allow water and dissolved materials in and out.
Covers palms, soles, fingers, and toes with layer of dead cells and lack of hair follicles
Thick Skin
13. The hormone that increases sodium reabsorption by the kidneys is:
a) aldosterone
Z line
anchor site of actin myofilaments, in center of I band
tarsus
the bones of the proximal segment of the foot; the bones between the tibia and the metatarsus, contributing to the construction of the ankle joint.
10 mg/ dL
The total plasma calcium level is normally about _____ mg/dL. 
Which answer describes the correct sequence of events, IN ORDER, that occur when you smell baconcooking?1. Olfactory cortex 2. Olfactory bulb 3. Chemicals dissolve in mucus 4. Chemicals dissolve in saliva 5. I 6. II
3, 2, 5, 1
What is chemistry?
Branch of science that considers the composition of matter and how this composition changes.
Isometric contractions
the load is greater than the tension the muscle is able to develop, tension increases to the muscle's capacity, but the muscle neither shortens nor lengthens
What is Aging Processes?
changes and functions occurring after the young years of age
CD4 cell
One of two major classes of T lymphocytes, characterized by the presence of the cell-surface protein CD4. Naive CD4 cells give rise to helper T cells and regulatory T cells, which continue to express CD4.
(Regions of the Braind Stem)Midbrain
myelinated fibers w/some gray matterf(x)-connects brain stem w/ superior brain and relays messages
Peripheral Protein
proteins that adhere to one side of the membrane
Phospholipids
- orient in a bi-layer to make the basic framework of the membrane.
- represent about 75% of membrane lipids.
- serve to prevent the movement of many chemicals through the membrane.
- give the membrane flexibility.
The hormone that increases the rate of cell division is?
growth hormone
hinge joint
a joint in which movement is limited to one plane.
What happens in basal cell carcinoma?
where does it start?
treatment?
-begins in stratum basale
-causes tissue destruction producing open ulcer
-treated by surgery or radiation therapy
Impacted Bone Fracture
One end of the fractured bone is forcefully driven into the interior of the other.
loose fibrous tissue
tissue that fills spaces int eh body and binds structures together
What is extrinsic regualtion?
results from the activities of either the nervous or endocrine system
Which of these conditions is most likely to cause bradycardia?
A) ectopic action potentials in the atria
B)damage to the tricuspid valve
C) excessive sympathetic stimulation
D) excessive parasympathetic stimulation
E) too much coffee
D) excessive parasympathetic stimulation
foramen magnum
hole in base of head, which the spine goes through
4 Primary Tissue types;EpitheliaConnective tissueNervousMuscle
Epithelia; covers the body and lines ites cavities, glands.Connective; supports other tissues of the body.Nervous; Cells that communicate with other cells.Muscle; Cells specialized for contraction.
What are the roles of phosphorus in the body?
ATP & DNA synthesis
Autorhythmic cells of SA node:
Resiting potential taht starts at -60V and then drifts upward
The bones of the arm and hand do not include.a. ulna and radiusb. ethmoidc. metacarpus and phalanges d. carpus
B Ethmoid
What are 2 things about the midbrain?
1. Controls subconcious muscle activity2. Contains the corpora quadrigemina(reflex center where the movement of eyes, head and neck in response to visual stimuli)
On the basis of the number of processes extending from the cell body, neurons are classified as...
multipolar, bipolar, and unipolar
8. Growth
Increase in size of a body part or the organism.
what are the beta receptors? what is the response? exception?
-beta1 & beta2-stimulation by epinephrine and/or norepinephrine generally results in an inhibitory response-exception: beta1 receptors on the heart are excitatory
what are the boundaries of the abdominopelvic cavity?
from the diaphragm to the pelvis
Sensory neurons of the CNS monitor chemical changes within the GI tract and stretching of its walls. true or false
false. sensory neurons of the ENS...
4. Organ Level of Structural Organization
Structure composed of at least TWO types of tissues. Performs a specific function in the body
four basic tissue types in the human body are
epithelium tissue covers the body surface and lines its cavities, muscle tissue provides movement, connective tissue supports and protects body organs, and nervous tissue provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses.
Tissue- Consists of similar types of cells
4 types: -Epithelium -Muscle -Nerves -Connective
what charge does the inside of the membrane become during EPSP? where does it go?
-membrane becomes more positive on the inside-brought closer to threshold
Temporal bone. Chp 6 pg 123
Each temporal bone on the side of the skull contains an external auditory ear labyrith.
State the normal pH ranges of body fluids.
Gastric juice 1-2pH, Urin is 4.5 pH to almost 8pH. Intestinal secretions are around 8pH.
ovary
oophor-
kidney
-ren-
fascia
fasci-
dust
-coni-
cephalic
head
sugar
-ose
abdomen
trunk
frontal
forehead
Synarthroses joints
immovable
entrance room
atri-
away from
ef-
outside, beyond
extra-
heart rate
HR
dorsal
the back
shape
deltoid, trapezius
Symbol for sodium
Na
free fatty acids
FFA
progressive muscular atrophy
PMA
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPF
between or among
inter-
brachial
the upper arm
origin and insertion
sternocleidomastoid
III
motor to eye muscles
Blood pressure:
measured w/ sphygmomanometer
spontaneous abortion or miscarriage
SAB
no granules in cytoplasm
agranulocytes
RNA nucleotide pairing
A-U, C-G
endomysium
membrane covering muscle fibers
Temporalis
Origin temporal
Insertion mandible
Action closes jaw
-ac, -al
pertaining or relating to
Lateral cricoarytenoid
Origen: superior-lateral cricoid Insertion: superior-posterior to muscular process of arytenoidInnervation: recurrent laryngeal branch of Cranial Nerve X (vagus)Function: adducts vocal folds
nethrectomy
surgical removal of a kidney
GDP
Hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) yields GDP.
(epithalamus)choroid plexus
f(x)-produce + secrete CSF
lie retroperitoneally against the back body wall, imbedded in fat, at about the spinal level t-11 to L-3
kidneys
frontal sinuses
spinal cavities behind eyebrows
myo and sarco
prefixes meaning "muscle"
Loose Adipose Connective Tissue
Location
hypodermis
within the abdomen
in breast
 
Functions
insulation
protection
energy storage
cushion
Supraspinatus
Origin above spine of scapulae
Insertion humerus
Action stabilize shoulder joint
what is necessary for:pepsinogen -> pepsin
HCl
Cells
The basic structural and functional unit of a living organism
pica
craving for substances not normally considered nutrients, such as dirt
catabolism
reactions that break down complex molecules into two or more smaller ones with the release of energy
GABA
Gamma-aminobutyric acid, an amino acid neurotransmitter. Important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Acinar cells
Pancreatic cell that produces enzyme-rich juice, an exocrine product.
Peripheral
Extenstions from the center, away from the center
excessive milk drinking and taking too much vitamin D
hypercalcemia
Ectoderm
Outermost germ layer develops into nervous system, pituitary gland, and outer most skin
calcitonin
1. inhibits osteoclast activity (so that less Ca2+ is released into the blood).
2. ↑ Ca2+ uptake by and deposition into the bone.
3. produced when blood calcium is too high
Diabetes mellitus
Insulin.Cells cannot utilize glucose for energy; the blood
glucose level rises.
An example of a sympathominetic agent
Epinephrine
myocardium
the muscular substance of the heart.
Synchondroses & symphyses
Name 2 characteristics of cartilaginous joints. 
BUFFER
HELP KEEP PH VALUES EITHIN NORMAL LIMITS
THEY ARE CHEMICALS OR COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICALS THAT TAKE UP ESCESS HYDROGEN IONS (H+) OR HYDROXIDE IONS (OH-)
Causes thyroid to release T3 and T4
TSH
Glottal Fry
-extremely low pitch sounding very rough
-VF in certain position to get sound
-short and thick
-VF not openin wide enough pattern
-maintain low subglottal pressure 
GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE POSTERIOR TO THE LENS
PREVENTS THE EYE FROM COLLAPSING
HELPS MAINTIAN INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
VITREOUS HOUMOR
 
Major and  Minor Rhomboids
Paddling Muscles
Origin: Lower ligamentum nuchae, C7, T1-T5 spines; to medial scapula
 
Action: elevate and adduct scapula
 
The
Cuneiform Cartilages
located within the aryepiglottic folds
wedg shaped rods
mesenchyme
an embryonic connective tissue from which all other connective tissues arise
thrombocytopenia
a lower than normal number of thrombocytes, or platelets, in the blood
lymphedema
swelling of tissues because of fluid accumulation resulting from obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders in the lymph nodes
Diuretic
A chemical that causes an increased urine volume.
Supinators are muscles that:
rotate the radius outward
Sympathetic Ganglia
Trunk (chain) Ganglia near vertebral bodies. Prevertebral ganglia near large blood vessels in gut
unit of weight of a substance
milligram (mg)
blood pressure in veins
0 or negative pressure
Process of molecules or particles too large to enter cell through diffusion or active transport being conveyed within a vesicle
Endocytosis
bone cancer that primarily affects osteoblasts and occurs most often in teenagers during their growth spurt; the most common sites are the metaphysis if the thigh bone (femur), the shin bone (tibia), and the arm bone (humerous).
Metastese occur most often
osteogenic sarcoma
An unmyelinated axon is much slower because the action potential must occur down the entire length of an axon. true or false
true
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Increases the reabsorption of ____________ and ____________ from the bones to the blood.
calcium and phosphate
Type of epithelium where cells are irregular in shape and size and thus appeared to be multi layered
Psuedostratified
intestine
the lower part of the alimentary canal, extending from the pylorus to the anus.
Hyaline Cartilage Connective Tissue
Location
ends of long bones
embryonic skeleton
nose
trachea
costal cartilage
 
Functions
support
cushion
pericardial 
cavity that is medial and encloses the heart
 
-within the thoracic cavity, which is within the ventral cavity
Which of the following pairs is NOT correct?(A) trypsin ......protein(B) pepsin.......protein(C) amylase......carbohydrate(D) lipase.......carbohydrate(E) carboyxpeptidase.......protein
lipase.....carbohydrate
Gomphosis
A cone-shaped peg fits into a socket. (Teeth)
Most coagulation disorders:
form of unwanted blood clot (thrombosis)
Cell Membrane
A bilatyer of phopholipid and protein molecules that controls the passage of materials in and out of the cell
The
Cricoarytenoid Joint
 located between the Cricoid  and  Arytenoid cartilages
saddle joint
allows for movement between the cataligescuses the vocal processes to adduct and abduct
also plays a role in deep breathing, speech and coughing
epithelial tissue
the tissue that forms innermost and outermost surfaces of body structures and forms glands
diapedesis
the process by which white blood cells squeeze between the cells in a vessel wall to enter the tissue spaces outside the blood vessel
secondary response
rapid and intense reaction to antigens on second and subsequent exposures attributable to memory cells
Dissociates
The separation of one thing or part from another. For example, acids, bases, and salts, dissociate when dissolved in water.
lumbar
region of lower back & side between lowest rib & pelvis
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
Acid produced by gastric parietal cells; acids protein digestion in the stomach and sterilizes chyme.
What are a molecules functional properties determined by?
It's 3-D shape
Divisions of the ANS
Sympathetic (Fight or Flight) -Thoracic and Lumbar segments. Parasympathetic (Rest and Repose)- Preganglionic fibers leaving the brain and sacral segments
Neural Control:Chemoreflex
* Chemireceptors in aortic bodies and carotid bodies * autonomic response to changes in blood chemistry -pH, O2, CO2 -primary role:adjust respiration
Blood cells that are do not freely move within the blood stream, but instead are attached to the walls of the blood cells are said to be:
marginated
deep
used to describe parts that are more internal
- anterior depression which receives the coronoid process of the ulna when the forearm is flexed.
Humerus: Coronoid fossa
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
membranous system of tubules that extends throughout the cytoplasm; rough ER is studded with ribosomes, smooth ER - a site of steroid and lipid synthesis, lipid metabolism and drub detoxification
Insulin Enables other body cells to take in _________ from the blood to use for __________ production.
glucose, energy
IsotopeRadioisotope
Isotope; Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.Radioisotopes; atoms that undergo spontaneous decay called radioactivity.
posterior
situated behind or at the rear of; hinder (
Compact Bone
Flat bone consists of two thin layers of _______. 
RNA
A NUCLEIC ACID IN CELLS THAT IS AN INTERMEDIARY IN THE PROCESS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, CONVEYING INFORMATION FROM DNA REGARDING THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE IN PROTEINS
Fast Glycolytic Muscle Fiber
Largest and contain the most myofibrils, Can generate more powerful contractions, Low myoglobin content, relatively few capillaries, Contain large amounts of glycogen, Generates ATP by glycolysis, Fibers contract strongly and quickly. Adapted for intense anaerobic movements of short duration (weight lifting, throwing a ball)Fatigue quicklyStrength training increases the size, strength and glycogen content – hypertrophy due to synthesis of muscle proteins
_____ _____ (BLIND SPOT) IS WHERE THE OPTIC NERVE LEAVES THE EYEBALL
OPTIC DISC
Flexure lines
dermal folds that occur at or near joints, where the dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures.
simple squamous epithelium
epithelium with only one layer; thin, scaly cells; allows rapid diffusion pr transport of substances through membrane; secretes lubricating serous fluid
This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of hydrochloric acid
 
neck cell
chief cell
g cell
chyme cell
mucous cell
 
3. g cell
physiology
the function of the body. How the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
What are the types of active transport?
endocytosis, exocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, carrier mediated transport
most consist of calcium salts and preicpitates in the renal calyces and pelvis
kidney stones (calculi)
- bone breaks cleanly but does not protrude through skin.
Closed (simple)
anatomical position
human body is erect, with head and toes pointed forward and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward
Acid
An acid may be defined as a substance that increases the concentration of ions(H+) in water solution.
lymph node
any of the glandlike masses of tissue in the lymphatic vessels containing cells that become lymphocytes.
how is skeletal muscle packaged?
in sheets of connective tissue attached to bone
which class of neurons are the fastest in speed of action potential conduction?
-group A fibers
SIGNALS PASS FROM PHOTORECEPTORS VIA A 2-NEURON CHAIN
BIPOLAR AND GANGLION NEURONS
 
 
 
 
VENTRAL (ANTERIOR) HORNS
 
 
 
*There are as well a Left and Right ventral horn
*It is thicker
*Extend toward the ventrolateral surfaces
*contain the large somas of the somatic motor neurons
Favorable conditions that encourage new cell reproduction and growth include
adequateSupply of food, water and oxygen
damaged tissue releases a substance with an enzyme-effect thromboplastin, which activates factor 7 then 10 which initiates clotting in 12 to 15 seconds
first step in blood coagulation
- consists of the 80 bones that run along the body’s main axis. (E.g. Skull bones, auditory ossicles (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx).
Axial skeleton
Synergistic muscles. Chp 7
Muscles that have the same function, or a stabilizing function, with respect to the movement of a joint.
where is skeletal muscle found? cardiac? smooth?
skeletal- packaged in sheets of connective tissue
attached to bone
cardiac- heart
smooth- in walls of hollow organs (small intestine, blood vessels)
what are the effectors of the autonomic part of the efferent division?
-smooth & cardiac muscle, glands
What are the Abdominopelvic Quadrants and what organ(s) do they contain?
1) Right Upper Quadrant(RUQ): contains liver and large intestines.2) Left Upper Quadrant(LUQ): contains the stomach3) Right Lower Quadrant(RLQ): contains the appendix4) Left Lower Quadrant(LLQ): contains the umbilicus and small intestines.
Nicotonic receptors are found on?
dendrites and cell bodies of ANS cells and at NMJ
Facilitated diffusion (facilitated transport)
- is the movement of a chemical through a transporter protein from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. This does not require energy
Vitamin A. Chapter 6 WB
Necessary for the process of bone formation.
How does emphysema affect blood pH? Explain in detail.
causes decreased membrane of the alveoli which also causes inadequate amounts of CO2 to get across from the blood to be released; CO2 stays in blood causing blood pH to decrease.
involution is

when the placenta is expelled
when the umbilical cord is cut
when the uterus decreases in size
when the cervix dilates
3. when the uterus decreases in size
This connective tissue is made of dense collagenous fibers. Ex. tendons/ligaments
White fibrous, or dense connective tissue
In the embryo, the cranial and facial bones are first made up of which tissue __________? The process of ossivication begins in the ___________ month of gestation, when osteoblasts differentiate from _______ in the centers of ossification in these bones.
fibrous connective tissue, third, fibroblasts. Chapter 6 WB
how does axon diameter influence the rate of action potential conduction?
-the LARGER the axon diameter, the FASTER the conduction-a larger diameter has less resistance to electrical flow
____________ hair is coarse, thick, and pigmented.
Terminal hair. This type of hair is found on the eyebrows, scalp, armpits, groin, and on the faces and bodies of males.
What do short and irregular bones have in the center?
a spongy bone center (also with trabecular bone and bone marrow) that is covered in compact bone
Describe the role of bone in calcium homeostasis.
A. Calcium (Ca2+) is needed for various body functions. Bone serves as the major reservoir for Ca2+ so that
exchanges of Ca2+ occurs between bone and the blood.
B. If blood Ca2+ drops too low, this stimulates release of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
C. If blood Ca2+ is too high, this stimulates release of the hormone calcitonin (from the thyroid)
Rib cage. Chp 6 pg 130
The rib cage has 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum, or breastbone.
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