Anatomy and Physiology 10 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
down
cata-
pit
fove-
sweat
hidr-
good
eu-
three
tri-
leuk/o
white
axillary
armpit
gallbladder
sores bile
pertaining to
-etic
scaly, dry
ichthy-
a covering
integ-
Abbreviation inf.
inferior
clot dissolving
fibrinolytic
thromboembolism
moving blood clot
to shoot forth
ejacul-
gestational diabetes mellitus
GDM
put to sleep
carotid
low birth rate
LBW
blood pressure
hydrostatic pressure
Unsaturated
Not filled with
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
Location
tendons
ligaments
 
Functions
strong attachment of two body parts in one direction
ascending tract
carries sensory impulses
myofibrils
densely packed, rodlike elements
~80%of cell volume, and they exhibit striations: perfectly aligned repeating series of dark a bands and light i bands
to fan or blow
ventilat-
Immnuocompetent
Possessing immunocompetence, the ability of a lymphocyte to recognize specific antigens (by binding); reflects the presence of lymphocyte antigen receptors.
Hyperplasia
Increase in cell number
External
Outside or exterior to
Treppe
________ is the "staircase effect". 
target organ for prolactin
mammary tissue
ALLOW FOR DETAILED COLOR VISION
DENSEST IN THE CENTER OF THE RETINA
FOVEA CENTRALIS
CONES
Infraspinatus
*location in back of scapula 
*origin: infraspinous fossa of scapula
*insertion: greater tubercle of humerus
*actions: 
Shoulder: external (lateral) rotation
vertebral
pertaining to spinal columb; backbone
What is a cervicis?
a neck
Leukopenia
low WBC count (< 5000/uL)
Autonomic ganglia
divided into three groups:

Sympathetic trunk (paravertebral) ganglia

Prevertebral ganglia

Terminal (intramural) ganglia
Mitochondria
Site of aerobic cell respiration-production of ATP and heat.
adductor
any muscle that adducts (
appendicular
body region, consists of appendages, or limbs
Life Processes (6)
Metabolism, Responsiveness, Movement, Growth, Differentiation, Reproduction
What is weight?
How heavy something is.
WHITE CONNECTIVE LAYER OF TISSUE
SEEN ANTERIORLY AS THE "WHITE OF THE EYE"
SCLERA
Axis
the second cervical vertebra, with which the atlas bone articulates. This articulation allows the head to be turned, extended, and flexed.
adipose tissue
a connective tissue composed predominantly of adipocytes; fat.
Ventricular diastole occurs during

atrial diastole
atrial systole
atrial relaxation
vefntricular relaxation
atrial equillibrium
1. atrial diastole
Antivenom
A preparation of antibodies used therapeutically to neutralize the various toxic components of venoms from spiders, snakes, etc.
Adenohypophysis
Anterior pituitary; the glandular part of the pituitary gland, and a small portion of the infundibulum.
what is a pubis?
an anterior pelvis
The Frank-Starling law equalizes the output of the right and left ventricles and keeps the same volume of blood flowing to both the systemic and pulmonary circulations
True
contains haploid number of chromosomes (23)
secondayr spermatocytes
regeneration
replacement of destroyed tissue w/ same kind of tissue
what functions to speed conduction velocity and insulate the axons from one another
mylenation
Matter
Anthing that occupies space;may be solid, liquid or gas. May be living or nonliving.
sychondroses
-2 bones joined by hyaline cartilage
-costal cartilages some what flexible
-epiphyseal plates in long bones.
bicepses
either of two flexor muscles, one
Fiber
______ = cell; cylindrical with many nuclei. 
Extensor digitorum longus
Origin tibia,
Insertion phlanges,
Action extend toes, dorsiflex
What represents a link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
hypothalamus
4 Muscle Functions
Producing Body Movements, Stabilizing Body Position, Storing and Moving Substances within the body, and Thermogenesis.
heart lies:
center of thoracic cavity in mediastinum
Angiology
study of structure and function of blood vessels and lymph system
Z disc
coin-shaped sheet of proteins that anchors the thin filaments and connects myofibrils to one another
intermediate
between two structures - medial and lateral
hypothermia
refers to body temperature of 35° (95° F) or below
contractility
the ability to shorten or contract; when a muscle responds to a stimulus, it shortens to produce movement
metaplasia
transformation of one cell type into another cell type
Endocrinologist
A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating hormone disorders.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Posterior pituitary hormone that regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. Also called vasopressin.
composed of nucleotides
Nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
digestion
the process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbe into the blood for delivery to all body cells
the breakdown of proteins causes the formation of
ammonia
The buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones, requires energy
Anabolism
Same concentration as cell fluids; cells remain the same
Isotonic solution
Covers all skin surfaces ecept palms, soles, eyelids, lips and nipples
Hair
Responsiveness
Ability to sense changes in the environment & respond to them
The stimulus for secretion of glucagon is _____________.
hypoglycemia
Modified muscle fibers confined to ventricles of the mammalian hearts
Perkinje network
atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element, consisting of a nucleus containing combinations of neutrons and protons and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus by electrical attraction; the number of protons dete
heterozygous
a genotype that has two different alleles
Calcitonin
__________ is a 32- amino acid hormone synthesized by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. 
TISSUE
COMPOSED OF SIMILAR TYPES OF CELLS AND PERFORMS A SPECIFIC FUNCTION
what are cholinergic fibers?
-neurons that RELEASE acetylcholine (in efferent division of peripheral nervous system)
Matrix of CT?
 
2 kinds, both produced by fibrocytes
a. Ground Substance: a homogenous gel, varies from hard to soft.
b.3 kinds of Fibers:
1. collagenous-most abundant,not elastic, strong, do not stretch,white when fresh
2. elastic-long, slender, elastic, interwoven networks, yellow when fresh
3. reticular- short, thin, form tight nonelastic
Function of epithelial tissue
Protection, absorption, filtration and secretion
distinguishing features of synovial joints
1.articular (hyaline) cartilage
2. Joint (synovial) cavity
3. articular (joint) capsule: outer fibrous capsule of dense irregular tissue, inner synovial membrane of loose connective tissue
4. synovial fluid
56 The entire nerve supply of the shoulder and upper limb is provided by the ________ plexus
brachial
embryonic period
state of development that lasts from the beginning of the third week until the end of the eighth week after fertilization; period during which the organ systems develop in the body
This is the principle hormone that releases milk into the mammary ducts
 
prolactin
PIH
PRH
oxytocin
GnRH 
 
4. oxytocin
homeostasis
a normal stable condition in which the body's internal environment remains the same; constant internal environment
systemic anatomy
body structure is studied system by system.
Cardioacceleratory center (sympathetic)
Sympathetic cardiac center located in the medulla oblongata; accelerates heart rate and force of contraction.
The special cells in nerve tissue are called?
Neurons
Molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration; lowering the concentration gradient
Diffusion
What is the electrical threshhold of a nerve cell?
-55 mV
shock due to an overwelming infection caused by various microorganisms, the more common being gram negative bacteria
septic shock
types of epithelium
1) covering &amp; lining epithelium
2) glandular epithelium
Phagocytosis
- movement of solid particles into the cell by a vesicle.
articular cartilage
also called hyaline cartilage, is the smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of all the diarthrodial joints in the human body
Secretion of PTH is stimulated by __________, and inhibited by ______________.
hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia
U shaped tubule that contains the most concentrated fluid in the nephron
Henli
arteriole
any of the smallest branches of an artery, terminating in capillaries.
How is muscle tissue described? (2 ways)
 
structure and function
 
-structure- striated or smooth
-function- voluntary or involuntary
what is the soma?
cell body-contains nucleus & all other organelles-grouped by function in the central n.s. = nuclei -grouped by function in peripheral n.s. = ganglia
Simultaneous Vocal Attack
coordinating adduction of VF and onset of respiration so they happen at same time
body cavity
either of two main cavities int he body, the dorsal and the ventral
negative feedback system
if a response reverses the original stimulus, the system is a ________ ________ ______
brain stem
the portion of the brain, between the diencephalon and spinal cord, that contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Inferior vena cava
Vein that returns blood to right atrium from body regions inferior to the diaphragm.
Name 8 cranial bones
1. Occipital2. (2) Pariental bones3. Frontal4. (2) Temporal5. Ethmoid
What does polarized mean?
A cell that has membrane potential.
Seen only on sperm as the tail, moves cell
Flagella
- is the weight-bearing part of each vertebra.
Body (centrum)
Vasoconstriction
A decrease in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
The central area of the kidney where the urinary ducts come together to form the ureters
Renal pelvis
Short-term intense/ powerful movements
What activities are best suited for fast glycolytic fibers? 
What is the Kreb's cycle?
-in aerobic respiration, when pyruvic acid from glycolysis is transferred and high energy bonds are broken within mitochondria
The atomic weight of an element is determined by the number of
Protons and neutrons
Explain the Anterior Anatomical Direction
toward the front /"ventral"/"in front of"/
What is Physiology?
is the study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.
What are the levels of Organization?
Organism levelOrgan System levelOrgan levelTissue levelCellular levelChemical or molecular level
- broken ends of bone are forced into each other.
Impacted fracture
Longitudinal section
A plane along the long axis of an organ.
average length of estrous cylce in bitch
6 to 12 days
During the inflammatory response, describe what causes heat?
vasodilation - increase of a blood vessels diameter
Explain Positive Feedback Loop. Give an example!
stimulates/amplify a change ex: when in labor, you experience contractions.
What is systemic anatomy?
the study of the structure of orgran systems such as the skeletal and muscular systems
75% of the blood of the body is in the
venous system
30. The stimulus for secretion of aldosterone is:
a) low blood sodium level
How does the K+/Na+ ATpase pump move the ions against their concentration gradient?
through energy derived from enzymatically splitting ATP into ADP and an inorganic phosphate group
 
-this splitting releases energy
Aryodynamic described by Bernoulli Effect:
given a constant volume and flow of air or fluid at a point of constriction there will be a decrease in air pressure perpendicular to the flow and an increase of velocity of the flow.
  
as velocity of a gas or liquid increases pressure will decrease.if there is constriction in a tube aire will flow faster around constriction and pressure on wall of constriction will be lower.
 
faster the air flows through glottis the farther apart air moelcules became, so less force they will exhert against VF to push them open.
 
ex; TOLL BOOTH/ CONSTRUCITON 
How has the body evolved homeostasis?
The body has evolved this feedback something that happens will cause something to happen in the future ex. blood drings heat to the surface to radiate heat
What is the Reproductive Organ System?
Produces eggs or sperm. In women provides a site for the developing embryo-fetus. Ex. Ovaries, uterus,testes, prostate gland.
where are Langerhan's cells derived from?
found where?
from the immune system & migrate from bone marrow
found in stratum spinosum
How does the endocrine system get the body to respond?
It releases hormones that aren't immediately apparent.
Synarthrosis joint. Chp 6 pg 137
Is an immovable joint, such as the suture between two cranial bones.
Name 4 major elements for our bodies
Carbon (C)Oxygen (O)Hydrogen (H)Nitrogen (N)
which of the following is true about myasthenia gravis?
it is an autoimmune disorder in which Ach receptors are blocked by antibodies, the symptoms are muscle weakness and eventual paralysis
night
noct-
sinoatrial
SA
death
necr-
larynx
laryng-
basin
pelv-
antebrachium
forearm
life
bio-
Palmar
Palm
-blast-
bud, germ
extraocular movement
EOM
cerebrovascular accident
CVA
implant, introduce
inocul-
condition of
-osis
ipsilateral
same side
Scapular
Shoulder Blade
lumbar region
5 vertebra
blood urea nitrogen
BUN
white blood cell
WBC
chronic ulcerative colitis
CUC
what's prone
facing downward
Hydrophobic
to repel water
Olecranal
Back of Elbow
Umbilical
Pertaining to the navel
Basic Laryngeal Adjustments
1.attack
2.sustained phonation
3.termination
 
Tissues:
Groups of specialized cells
before, in front of
pre-
What does otomy mean?
Disconnect
muscle tissue
well-vascularized/ myofilaments
types: skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Solution
liquid containing dissolved substances
ventral
location of viscera (internal organs)
 
-is a serous membrane
-contains thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity (separated by diaphragm)
Aponeurosis
Broad Sheet of Muscle Connection
Sternohyoid
Origen: Thyroid oblique lineInsertion: inferior-medial to manubrium sterniInnervation: CNXII and, Spinal C1, C2Function: depress hyoid
vaginoplasty
surgical repair of the vagina
actin
a contractile protien of muscle
What does -al mean?
Pertaining to...
simtulates spermatogenesis
FSH- Follicle stimulating hormone
Enzymes
- speed up chemical reactions.
ellipsoid
modified ball-and-socket, lesser range of movement
-atlantooccipital joint in neck
tendons
attach muscles to the skeleton
what are parasympathomimetics?
-muscarinic receptor agonists-similar in structure to Ach-cause paraysmpathetic response-ex: pilocarpine is used to treat glaucoma. Pilocarpine induces contraction of the ciliary smooth muscle in the eye that aids in fluid drainage-this drug is an M3 agonist
reflex arc
occurs only in spinal cord
Glottis
space between vocal folds (horizonal space)
 
the MOST IMPORTANT SPACE FOR SPEECH
 
an average glottis is 20mm in length at rest -width an average 8mm
 
2 sections:
membranous glottis
cartilaginous glottis 
        
 
WHAT CELLS HAVE:
 
Gustatory hairs (long microvilli)
Hairs are stimulated by chemicals dissolved in saliva
GUSTATORY CELLS
bronzing
a bronze, almost metallic appearance of the skin is a sign of addison's disease, in which the adrenal cortex is producing inadequate amounts of its steroid hormones
intracellular fluid
the fluid inside body cells
lymphadenitis
inflammation of the lymph glands (nodes)
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal cortex hormones that regulate blood glucose levels and aid the body in resisting stress.
Dopamine (DA)
Hypothalamic hormone that regulates secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary. Also functions as neurotransmitter.
Chromosomes form and become visible in this phase of mitosis
Prophase
following a mastectomy, removal of axillary lymph organs, partially blocked drainage and arm swelling
lymphedema
Skeletal system
consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints
sternal
the middle of the thorax, anteriorly
Acne
Inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles.
Neuro transmitter needed for muscle contraction
Acetylcholine
diencephalon
the posterior section of the forebrain.
Interstitial Growth 
The chondrocytes inside the lacunae divide and secrete new matrix from "within" the cartilage
Adherens Junction
Contains dense layer of proteins(aka plaques) that form adhesion belts around the cellCadherin: transmembrane glycoproteins which extend from plaque into the intercellular spaceProvides strong attachment points which resist separationex: intestines
Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
monocyte
Single covalent bond
1 pair of electrons shared
EYE FOCUSES IMAGES CORRECTLY ON THE RETINA
EMMETROPIA
 
Teres Major
Origin: Scapula inferior angle; to lesser turbecle
 
Action: extends and adducts humerus laterally
saddle joints
biaxial, allow greater freedom of movement than condyloid joints, each articular surface has both concave and convex areas
 
 
 
VENTRAL ROOT
 
 
 
*Axons from the large somatic motor neurons exit here and lead to the skeletal muscles
cardiac arrest
cessation of an effective heartbeat; heart may be completely stopped or quivering ineffectively in fibrillation
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production

Leutinizing hormone
Prolactin
Thyrotropin
Melanocyte stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
2. Prolactin
sign
evidence of disease, such as fever, that can be observed, measured, or evaluated by someone other than the patient
Diapedesis
The passage of white blood cells through intact vessel walls into tissue.
What is the forestomach?
the rumen and reticulum
What is the resting membrane potential in neurons?
-70 mV
main central veins
subclavian, internal jugular, and femoral
These tissues bind, support, protect, fill, store fat, and produce blood cells
Connective tissue
PNS Receptors: Sympathetic
Nicotinic (Ach)
Motor EP
All postganglionic neurons
Produces variations in skin color form pale yellow to black
Melanin
Plasma
The water found within the blood vessels. Plasma is 52% to 62% of the total blood.
metabolic turnover
continuous removal and replacement of all organic molecules except DNA
The three initial develpomental regions of the brain
1. Proseuchephlon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon
antigen
any substance that can stimulate the production of antibodies and combine specifically with them.
sacromere
the unit of contraction in the muscular system
Many
Are there many or few capillaries in slow oxidative fibers? 
The posterior (dorsal) horns of the spinal cord contain:
mixed neurons
Extension
Increasing the Angle of a Joint. Think Elbow.
Carbon dioxide
transported bound to globin portion of hemoglobin.
Lateral Hip and Buttocks
 
Mostly thigh extensors and abductors
 
Organic chemical composition of bone
osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts.  Osteoid-org. bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts.  Ground substance (proteoglycans, glycoproteins), collagen fibers.
differentiation
the change in a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state
leukopenia
a decrease in the number of white blood cells in the blood
Which of the following enzymes digests proteins?
 
lipase
amylase
trypsin
phosphatase
ligase
 
3. trypsin
exacerbation
increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms
Antibody
A protein molecule that is released by a plasma cell (a daughter cell of an activated B lymphocyte) and that binds specifically to an antigen. Also called an immunoglobulin.
Fatty acids
A major component of lipids (neutral fats and phospholipids).
Name the main bones of the neck
HyoidCervical Vertebrae
What is Catabolism?
Enzyme activity that breaks down something from larger to smaller ex. digestion
lack of red cells, or red cell substances such as hemoglobin or iron
anemia
Anatomy
The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another
In which hase does the cell membrane pinch off, dividing the cell into two new daughter cells?
Telophase
- (12 vertebrae) articulates with the ribs.
Thoracic region
condyle
the knuckle of any joint, a round projection, rounded articular area
Kyphosis Chp 6
An exaggerated thoracic curvature of the vertebral column.
6. Excretion
Process of removing wastes from the body
The hoof is ____ to the knee
Distal
cerebellum
a large portion of the brain, serving to coordinate voluntary movements, posture, and balance in humans, being in back of and below the cerebrum and consisting of two lateral lobes and a central lobe.
How many named bones in the human body are there?
206
Comminuted Bone Fracture
The bone is splintered, crushed, or broken into pieces, and smaller bone fragments lie between the two main fragments. The most difficult to treat.
Completion of coagulation:
blood clot id dissolved by enzyme plasmin.
multicellular glands
glands that may be classified on the basis of structure (simple or compound), type of secretion (mucous, serous, or mixed), presence or absence of ducts (exocrine or endocrine), characteristics of secreting units (alveolar or acinar), and manner of secretion (merocrine, apocrine, or holocrine)
collagenous fibers
fibers made of collagen, are tough and flexible and resist stretching
This structure lies posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose-filled fluid

prostate
bulbourethral gland
seminal vesicles
spongy urethra
prostatic urethra
3. seminal vesicles
genetic disorder
condition or disease that is caused by a defective gene and may appear at any time in life; also called a "hereditary disorder"
What is the thoracic cavity bounded by?
the chest wall
amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle per minute
cardiac output
mass reflex
in cases of severe spinal cord injury above T6 - stimulation of skin or overfilling of an organ below the level of injury results in intense activation of the autonomic and somatic output from the spinal cord as reflex activity returns
Secrete oily sebum to keep hair from drying out and turning brittle to keep skin soft and moist and to inhibit growth of bacteria
Sebaceous glands
Myasthenia gravis. Chp 7
An autoimmune disease characterized by extreme muscle weakness and fatigue following minimal exertion.
the particular protein in cattle that tells the cow not to reject the fetus and not to start to cycle all over again
bovine trophdolastic protein
Osmosis
terms of solutions across a membrane?
type of passive transport
 
-the movement of WATER from an area where there are LESS solutes to where there are MORE solutes.
-terms: hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic
 
What causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?
synovial fluid hardens and grows into the jointsautoimmune: antibodies are produced
Globin Portion of hemoglobin:
hydrolyzed to amino acids, which are refused. the heme portion has its iron removed and recycled or stored.
What is ionic bond?
when atomas "donates to" or "receive from" another atom to help fullfill their outermost energy level
Heart rate
Number of times the heart beats in one minute.
organ system level
system level, a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose
Secondary active transport
- simultaneous movement of Na+ (or H+) and another chemical. This depends on a Na+ (or H+) concentration gradient which is maintained by primary active transport.
Irregular bones. Chapter 6 WB
Vertebrae, facial bones. Made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone. The spongy bone contains red bone marrow.
long, multinucleate, cylindrical fibers; striated
What is the cell shape and appearance of skeletal muscles? 
group c fibers:-speed?-type of motor neuron?-myelination?-size?
-slowest speed of action potential conduction-autonomic (visceral) fibers-unmyelinated -small diameter
This is used to reduce the friction between membranes of the heart

epicardium
endocardium layer
pericardium
pericardial (serous) fluid
pericardial cavity
4. pericardial (serous) fluid
What kind of liquid does the oral cavity have for making food soluble?
serous-saliva and water mixed
Terminal (intramural) ganglia (Examples, ciliary-otic-submandibular ganglia)
located at the end of the motor pathway close to or within the wall of a visceral organ (long fibers), these are parasympathic.
Positron emission tomography
PET Uses images to depict the rates of physiologic processes such as blood flow, oxygen usage, or glucose metabolism.
Where are lacunae found? what are they? what do they contain?
found at junctions of lamellae-they are small cavities in the matrix-contain osteocytes
Explain Negative Feedback Loop. Give an example!
negate/oppose to a change in a controlled conditionex: when cold, you shiver to warm up
Where do sensory nerves go into the spinal cord?
In the dorsal root ganglion.
Saddle joint/carpometacarpal joint Chp 6 pg 134
The thumb is more movable than the fingers because of its carpometacarpal joint. This is a saddle joint, this inables the thumb to cross over the palm, and permits gripping.
when a fair skinned person blushes, why does his/her skin turn red?
the blood supply in the skin increases
Name 4 neoroglial cells found in the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Astrocytes - form blood brain barrierOligodendrocytes - make myelin sheathMicroglial cells - phagocytes eat up bad stuffEpidymal cells - secrete cerebrospinal fluid
What happens chemically, and to the organismal when body temperature drops or speeds up
When the temperature is too high, chemical reactions continue to speed up more and more. Body proteins lose their shape, and stop functioning. Death will occur.When normal body temperature drops, chemical reactions slow down until metabolism is stopped. Death occurs here too.
What does the Axial Skeleton consist of? andHow many axial bones total and what is the percentage of all bones in the body are axial?
- Skull (8 cranial, 14 facial)- Bones associated w/skull (6 auditory ossicles & hyoid bone)-Vertebral Column (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)-Thoracic Cage (24 ribs, sternum)80 axial bones - 40%
11.What are the 3 most important electrolytes.
Na, K, and Ca are the most important positively charged.
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