Anatomy and Physiology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pelvic
pelvis
pel
basin
gluteal
buttocks
-lyt
dissolvable
Calcium
Ca
codons
base triplets
ENDODERM
creates mucosae
Tetracyclines
(Tetracyclin, oxytetracyclin, chlortetracycline & dimethyltetracycline)
Effective against gram positive and negative bacteria as well as spirochetes, rickettsiae, and certain viruses.
ECTODERM
creates nervous tissue
Pertaining to the hand
Manus
Pertaining to the chest
Thoracic
glycogen
polysaccharide energy storage molecule formed by animals (liver)
pleur
rib or lung area
Giardia lamlia (Protozoa)
Locomotion:Flagella
Phylum: Mastigophora
Disease: Giardiasis, beaver fever
ANEMIA
LOW RETIC COUNT (RETICULOCYTE)
GLYCOPROTEINS
have attached carbohydrate chains
Lysosomes
membrane-bound vesicles that originate from the golgi apparatus and contain a number of enzymes for the breakdown of carbs, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids.
starch
polysaccharide energy storage molecule formed by plants
osmolarity
total concentration of solute particles in a solution
what is artificial active immunity?
vaccinations
Define Atom:
Building block of elements
PDGF
PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR SECRETED BY PLATELETS. STIMULATES SMOOTH MUSCLE AND FIBRINOBLASTS IN DAMAGED BV SO BV GETS REPAIRED
Reticular fibers coated with
a glycoprotein
INTERPHASE
growth and replication of DNA
integrator
instrument used for performing numerical integrations
Thin double-layered membrane
Serosa or serous membrane
microtubules
Thickest of the 3 cytoskeloten elements.
integument system interaction
houses cutaneous nerve receptors
ploysaccharides
many sugars, long chain, starch, glycogen, breakdown=many H2O molecules released
medial
imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves... a part is medial if it is closer to this line than another part.
BrachioradialisOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerusI: Proximal to styloid process of radiusA: Flexes elbow joint
Static
Disinfectants which inhibit the growth of pathogens
EX: Bacteriostatic, fungistatic
Myoglobinuria
Prcense of myoglobin from muscle tissue in urine.
What cell organelle helps with detoxification?
peroxisomes
Type of fiber found in aorta
Elastic
Secretory portion of an exocrine gland
acinus
MEROCRINE GLANDS
products are secreted by exocytosis

(ex/ sweat, salivary glands)
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
mucosae

inside lining of lungs, trachea, digestive, and respiratory tracts
(all of these are open cavities to the outside world)
molecule
smallest particle of a substance composed of one or more atoms
Respiratory System
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes CO2
Pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Sternal
Gray matter
Collections of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood
Endocrine glands
nucleolus
"dark spot" within a growing cell's nucleus whre protein and RNA molecules are being manufactured
Gonadal Arteries
arise from ventricle aortic surface just below renal arteries
serve gonads
Also known as:Ovarian arteries (female)
Testicular arteries (males)
psychiatry
branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders
monosaccharides- monomers
represented as rings, building blocks of carbohydrates, glucose, ribose, deoxyribose
nephrology
study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys
cations
lost one or more electron, have positive charge
Rectus FemorisOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Anterior inferior iliac spineI: Patella, tibial tuberosityA: Extends leg knee joint
Sporozoa
Protozoa with no known means of locomotion
Define Acid
Something that gives off hydrogen ions
What is a componant of ground substance besides water?
Proteoglycans
What system is involved in immunity?
Lymphatic system
RBCS, MONOCYTES AND GRANULOCYTES ARE PRODUCED IN _____?
BONE MARROW
Type of membrane that lines body cavities that open to the exterior
Mucous
Most abundant cell type found in connective tissue proper
fibroblasts
Gap Junctions
Cardiac and smooth muscle; connexions form channels between cells for the rapid and coordinated passage of small molecules and ions.
FUNCTIONS OF PLASMA MEMBRANE
transport (hydrophilic channel, hyrdolyze ATP to pump material)

enzymatic activity

receptors for signal transduction (bonding site for specific chemical messengers, like hormones)

intercellular joining

cell to cell recognition

structural support (for keeping proper shape and position)
TRANSLATION
-nucleic acids are translated into the language of proteins

-occurs in cytoplasm

tRNA comes and transfers amino acids and forms anticodon
neurophysiology
branch of physiology dealing with the functions of the nervous system
histology
branch of biology dealing with the study of tissues
4 Basic Tissue Types
epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, nervous tissue
Cardiovascular Physiology
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
Axon hillock
Cone-shaped area of cell body where axon arises from
Elastic fibers
form a scaffold of proteins for strength; skin and lungs
RNA
single strand of DNA that is composed of 5-C sugars, phosphate groups and 4 nucleotide bases
Inferior Mesenteric artery
Supplies distal half of large intestine
four pairs of lumbar arteries arise from the aorta and supply posterior abdominal wall
cardiovascular system major functions
pumps blood, transports blood throughout body, delivers o2 and nutrients, removes co2 and waste
anatomical position
body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from the body
Vastus IntermedialisOrigin/Insertion/Action
O: Anterior and lateral surfaces of femurI: Patella, tibial tuberosityA: Extends leg knee joint
P wave (ECG)
1. SA node fires2. atrial depolarization and systole
Flagellates
Protozoa that move by using one or more whip-like flagella
relative to matrix, the suffix cyte means?
maintaining matrix
RETICULOCYTE
THIS IS DAY 5-7 OF RBC PRODUCTIONTHIS CELL ENTERS THE BLOOD THIS CELL HAS A NUCLEUS THAT LATER IS SHED
Functions of epithelial tissue
1. Provide physical protection2. Control permeability3. Provide sensation4. Produce specialized secretions
Type of cell that secretes all the fiber types
fibroblast
EXOCRINE GLANDS
secretes hormones outside the body or onto body surfaces

ex/ mucous, sweat, oil, salivary glands (goblet cells also)
S PHASE
stage of interphase where DNA is replicated
organ system
composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function
Organismal Level 6th
represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to promote life
Functions of myelin:
Protects and insulates axons from one another, speeds transmission, functions in repair of axons
One or more cells that make or secrete a particular product
Gland
1) expands when frozen2) temperature buffer3) cohesive4) solvent to polar
Four properties of H2O
PHYSIOLOGY
study of how the body and its parts work or function
Steps of Ventricular Ejection
1. Semilunar valves open2. Rapid ejection of blood, then reduced3. Stroke Volume (70mL at rest)4. SV/EDV= ejection fraction5. EDV-amount left in heart after ejection
Layers of lymphatic vessels
tunica interna, tunica media, tunica externa
Bilirubin in Urine
Formed by breakdonw of hemoglobin by phagocytic cells in liver and spleen.
NORMAL: No bilirubin in urine.
Present if bile duct is blocked or if liver is damaged and unable to make bile.
Blood cell formation is part of what system?
Skeletal system
Define Cytoskeleton:
A framework for the inside of the cell, utilized to attach thing to.
MATURE RBC
THIS IS A RETICULOCYTE THAT HAS SHED IT'S NUCLEUSTHIS CAUSES THE RBC TO HAVE IT'S CONCAVE SHAPE
Location of simple columnar epithelium
Nonciliated: lines digestive tract, gall bladder, and excretory ducts of some glands.Ciliated line small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
3 PARTS OF HUMAN CELLS
1- plasma membrane (semi permeable)

2- cytoplasm (inside the cell)

3- nucleus (DNA replication)
receptor
one end organ or group of end organs of sensory or afferent neurons sensitive to stimulating agents
Name two viruses that can infect the nervous system because of the transportation of material, taken in by endocytosis, up the axon to the cell body.
Rabies and herpes
lymphatic system major components
red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels
parasympathetic nerves
right vagal to SA nodeLeft vagal to AV node
Renal Hilus
Point of entry and exit for renal vein and artery
Give an example of Homeostasis Positive feedback regulation.
Uterine contractions durring child birth. or Blood clotting to heal cuts.
WHAT DOES AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MEAN?
PATIENT MUST INHERIT DEFECTIVE GENE FROM BOTH PARENTS TO PRODUCE THE CONDITION
Function of bone (osseous) tissue
supports and protects, provides levers for muscles to act on, store calcium and other minerals and fat, marrow in site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis)
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
all resting body cells found in this state

results mostly from Na and K concentration gradients across the membrane due to:

1) differential permeability of the plasma membrane to Na and K

2) Na K pump
How do alterations in [Ca2+] change the membrane potential?
Voltage-gated Na+ channels are sensitive to [Ca2+] changes.
If extracellular [Ca2+] increases, Na+ gates close resulting in hyperpolarization.
If extracellular [Ca2+] decreases, Na+ gates open resulting in depolarization.
What does the cardioinhibitory center stimulate? Which hormone is secreted?
Right and Left vagus nervesright-SA nodeleft-AV nodeACH, which binds to muscarinic receptors
What organs are located in the Retro peritoneum space?
Kidney, adrenals and pancreas
Type of CT that makes up the dermis of the skin
Dense irregular
CELL AGING: WEAR AND TEAR THEORY
attributes aging to chemical damage and formation of free radicals that have cumulative effects throughout cell life
1) Transport2) Receptor3) Recognition4) Adhesion
four different types of membrane proteins
Chemical reactions are driven by?
the number or electrons in the Atom's outer shell
WHY IS BLOOD DOPING DANGEROUS?
CAN CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH EX CLOT TO BRAIN
Classification of epithelial tissue
1. # of cell layers2. Height and shape of the cells on the SURFACE layer
How does positive feedback propagate an action potential?
When Na+ ions flow in, they cause voltage-gated Na+ channels in adjacent segments of membrane to open.
What are the functions of connective tissue?
fill up space, protect, support, store energy, heat
What do the sensory neurons of the enteric division plexuses monitor?
Chemical changes within GI tract as well as stretching of its walls.
DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BASOPHILS?
NUCLEUS = HARD TO SEE BECAUSE COVERED BY GRANULESGRANULES = VERY LARGE, BLUE COLOR, CONTAIN HISTAMINE FUNCTION = INCREASE DURING ALLERGIC RX AND INFLAMATION
acr-
extremity
point
cusp-
pneumoencephalography
PEG
together
syn-
intestine
enter-
gram
g
neur/o
nerve
Chroma
color
Immovable
synarthroses means? 
high-density lipoprotein
HDL
muscle
myo-, mys-
no response
NR
Abbreviation mets
metastasis
section
cut made
carpal
the wrist
Dorsal Cavities
Spinal, Cranial
Subglottal
Below the glottis
distance visual activity
DVA
keep vein open
KVO
tumor, swelling, mass
-oma
Identify body system
Digestive
leukocyte
white blood cell.
pyloric region
attaches to duodenum
short bones
carpals and tarsals
synarthrosis
 
plural:  synarthroses
an immovable joint
Anoxia
An absence of oxygen.
supply the upper extremeties
subclavians
Iodine
(I)Part of thyroid hormones(thyroxine);essential for normal mental and physical development.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelial Tissue
Location
trachea
 
Functions
secrete and propel mucus
Target organ for GH
epiphyseal plate
Monocytes:
largest formed elements, differentiate into macrophages that in turn phagocytize forgein particles and debris and activate other cells of immune system.
The
Laryngeal Joints
Cricoarytenoid joint
Cricothyroid joint
umbilical
naval; middle region of abdomen
______________ supply every square inch of the human body.
Nerves
oxygen is carried bound to
iron
DNA nucleotide pairing
A-T and C-G
Matrix
1. The non-living intercellular material that is part of connective tissues.2 The part of the hair root in which mitosis takes place.
equine hormone with FSH-like activity
pmsg
Fat
In adults, the medullary cavity contains ____
PEPTIDE BOND
THE BOND BETWEEN AMINO ACIDS
PTH
Parathyroid Hormone- Secreted by the parathyroid glands;; promotes bone resportion; enhances recovery of calcium from urine, promotes formation of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol).
Cardiac myocytes:
autorhythmic make up cardiac conduction system
 
Serratus Anterior
Boxer's Muscle (Fan Shaped)
Prime Mover in punching, throwing and pushing!!!
Origin: Ribs 1-8 to superior scapula
Action: Rotates and protracts
organs
any anatomical structure that is composed of at least two different tissue types, has recognizable structural boundaries, and has a discrete function different from the structures around it
muscular dystrophy
an inherited, chronic, progressive wasting and weakening of muscles without involvement of the nervous system
idiopathy
pertaining to disease of unknown origin
hypertrophy
enlargement of an organ attributable to an increase in the size of the individual constituent cells independant of the body's general growth.
Muscles of the shoulder and arms
BicepsDeltoidTriceps
equilibrium
a balance in which internal conditions change and vary
heart rate less than 60 is
bradycardia
epithelium: regeneration
if apical-basal polarity destroyed, epithelial cells reproduce themselves
Boundry between epidermis and dermis
Dermal Papillae
pH Scale
-indicates concentration of hydrogen ions in solutions-hydrogen ions are protons7=neutral -7=acidic +7=basic
adrenal hormone involved with water and mineral balance
aldesterone
Collateral Circulation
process in which small (normally closed) arteries or different parts of the same artery
Hemodialysis
separation of wastes from the blood  by removing and filtering it through a machine
A large lymphatic organ important for the production and support of T cells is the
thymus
Troponin
A regulatory protein that is a component of the thin filament. When calcium ions bind to troponin, it undergoes a change in shape; this conformational change moves tropomyosin away from myosin-binding sites on actin molecules, and muscle contraction subsequently begins as myosin binds to actin.
Cardiac muscle:
more vulnerable to oxygen deficiency than it is to lack of fuel
Oblique arytenoid
Origen: posterior base of muscular processInsertion: oblique-superior to apex of contralateral arytenoid Innervation: RLB of CN XFunction: adducts vocal folds
adenoma
a benign tumor of glandular epithelial cells
51 The connective tissue wrapping each fascicle of nerve fibers is called the ___________
perineurium
episiotomy
surgical incision of the perineum and vagina to facilitate delivery and prevent tearing of the tissues
tenomyoplasty
surgical repair of a tendon and muscle; applied especially to an operation for inguinal hernia
rhinoplasty
plastic surgery on the nose; medical term for "nose job"
Haldane effect
The increase in carbon dioxide unloading from hemoglobin in response to oxygen unloading.
Columnar epithelium
An epithelium formed by columnar cells.
What cavity does the mediastinum contain?
pericardial cavity
In joints, one surface moving over another without any rotary or angular motion is called
Gliding
Intrinsic Pathway
-initiated by factor XII-cascade to factor XI to IX to VIII to X
After birth, the _______ _____________ is the primary site of blood cell production and in adultood is the exclusive site of hematopoiesis.
bone marrow
composed of nucleotides
Nucleic acids; DNA and RNA
premature closure of one or more cranial sutures during the first 18 to 20 months of life, resulting in a distorted skull. Premature closure of the saggital suture produces a narrow skull; premature closure of the coronal suture results in a broad skull.
craniostenosis
Rib Head
where rib connects to the vertebrae
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSHb) Functions in women: Initiates the development of____________in ovarian follicles and increases thesecretion of the hormone_____________by the follicle cells.
b) egg cells, estrogen
sarcoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum of a muscle cell
cells that produce androgens in the testes
leydag/interstital
scrotum
the muscular sac that surrounds the testes
True
T or F? Flat bone contains no diaphysis, epiphyses, or medullary cavity. 
Anatomy
the study of the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another
what is most common type of neuron?
-multipolar neuron
Whispering
not a true register (not mode of vibration)
-no voicing takes place
-laryngeal adjustments taking place
-partially adduct and tense VF to create turbulence in air stream
-turbulence helps us make speech 
Muscle twitch comparisons
Different strength and duration of twitches are due to variations in metabolic properties and enzymes between muscles
active transport
the movement of substances against a concentration gradient, from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration. It requires a carrier molecule and uses energy.
59 The area of skin providing sensory input to one pair of spinal nerves is called a(n) ___________
dermatome
phimosis
a condition in which the opening of the prepuce is narrow and cannot be drawn back ocer the glans penis
diaphysis
the long straight shaft of a long bone
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm at the end of mitosis to form two separate daughter cells
Efferent nerve
A nerve that carries impulses away from the central nervous system.
Small body in the nucleus composed of RNA, DNA, and proteins; makes ribosomes
Nucleolus
mediastinal cavity
located superioir to the heart and between the upper lobes of the lungs
blood pressure in the arterioles
about 65 mm Hg
stratified epithelia
-2 or more cell layers
-found in high-abrasion areas
normal saline
solution is a 0.9% NaCl solution, which is isotonic to red blood cells.
pathology
the study of the nature of disease including the structural and functional changes produced
Myalgia. Chp 7
Pain or tenderness in a muscle.
Genetic disease
A hereditary disorder that is the result of an incorrect sequence of bases of the DNA in the chromosomes of cells.
saddle joint
2 saddle shaped surfaces at right angles to each other- movement in 2 planes.
-EX: carpometacarpal joint of thumb (at wrist)
simple diffusion
rate of diffusion with temperature?
rate of diffusion with molecular size?
type of passive transport
 
-rate of diffusion INCREASES as temp. INCREASES
-rate of diffusion DECREASES as molecule size INCREASES
The red color and heat associated with inflammation is the result of
local vasodilation
Determines the atoms chemical behavior
Electrons in the atoms shells
Types of Connective Tissue
1) Bone2) Cartilage3) Blood4) Adipose (Fat)
Flexor digitorum profundus
*location on the ulnar side of forearm
*origin: medial and posterior surfaces of ulna, medial surface of coronoid process, and interosseous membrane
*insertion: bases of distal phalanges of fingers 2-5
*actions: flexion of the fingers
intramembranous ossification
method of bone formation in which the bone is formed directly in a membrane
Active channels
Ion channels that can be opened or closed by gates.
what is the eponichyium
Eponychium is lateral and proximal covering
frontal section
when the cut is made along the lengthwise plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts; also called the coronal section
True or false: The lower the pH, the more redily hemoglobin will release oxygen.
True
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):


tuberosity
large rounded projection (often roughened)
Sebaceous gland/sebum
An exocrine gland in the dermis that produces sebum. Sebum the lipid (oil) secretion of sebaceous glands.
Chemical/Molecular Level
Can be used to describe behavior of ions, elements, compounds within and between cells. (water, carbon dioxide, oxygen)
False; irregular
T or F? Spongy bone is rather regular in appearance. 
how is compact bone organized microscopically?
into structural units called osteons
Motor Unit Recruitment
The process in which the number of active motor units increases.
six types of synovial joint classifications
plane, hinge, pivot,condyloid, saddle, and ball and socket
Which hormone is stimulated by decreasing levels of blood glucose?
 
Insulin
Leutinizing hormone
Glucagon
Parathyroid hormone
 
3. Glucagon
 
Insulin is released in response to increasing levels of blood glucose.
 
 
What are the 7 major organs of the male reproductive system?
TestesEpididymisDucturs deferensSeminal vesiclesProstate glandPenisScrotum
What are the components of the Scientific Method?
* Observation
* Hypothesizing
* Expirimentation
synovial fluid Chp 6
A thick slippery fluid that prevents friction within joint cavities.
In mammals, Only these are without a nucleus
Red blood cells
The Curvature of the Spinal Sections
Cervical cave, thoracic vex, lumbar cave, sacrum vex, cocyx cave
how many bones are the in the adult human skeleton?
206 named bones
What are the 5 major organs of the Lyphatic system?
SpleenThymusLymphatic vesselsLymph nodesTonsils
an Rh negative person can give blood to...
an Rh postive person
Estrogen Promotes maturation of the __________ in an ovarian follicle. Promotes growth of blood vessels in the _______ of the uterus, to prepare for a fertilized egg. Promotes the development of the female secondary sex characteristics which include ___
1) ovum
2) endometrium
3) growth of duct system of mammary glands (or)
fat deposition
What is the main function of the excretory system?
to remove waste products
-with the eye as the target organ, what is the sympathetic effect? parasympathetic effect?
-sympathetic:pupil dilation via the contraction of the radial muscle of the iris-parasympathetic: pupil constriction via contraction of the circular muscle of the iris
Is the rumen aerobic or anaerobic and what types of VFA's does it contain?
anaerobic-lacks oxygen, acetic and butyric
Parietal bones. Chp 6 pg 123
Parietal means "wall," and the two large parietal bones form the posterior top and much of the side walls of the skull.
Single fusiform cells; uninucleate; no striations. 
What is the cell shape and appearance of smooth muscle? 
What organ does each pleural cavity of the thoracic cavity contain?
a lung lined by a serous membrane
Hinge joint Chp 6 pg 130
The humerus forms a hinge joint with the ulna of the forearm. This hinge joint, the elbow, permitsw movement in 1 plane, that is back and forth with no lateral movement.
where is the N2 receptor in nicotinic cholinergic receptors? when is it used?
-on the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle cells-used during depolarization-the N2 receptor is on all postganglionic cell bodies on the adrenal medulla
What is the free edge of a nail?
portion of nail that extends past the fingertip
What are 2 ion channel gates in a nerve fiber?
M Gate - closed at restH Gate - open at rest
the most abundant skeletal cartilage
hyaline
a fracture which penetrates the skin
open--compound
second degree burns
severely damage the dermis
this is a cancerous tumor
basal cell carcinoma
all humans have approx. the same number of melanocytes. differences in 
pigment and amounts are controlled by
stratum basale
a mass of cells that divides without control
cancer
the shaft of a long bone is properly called
diaphysis
the growing area in a young long bone is called the
epiphyseal plate
an erector pili is a ____ associated with eac individual hair follicle
a small muscle cell
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