Anatomy and Physiology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Glossopharyngeal
taste
birth
-toc-
eye
ophthalm-
knot
gangli-
pain
-algia
pedal
foot
epitheli/o
epithelium
every
q
Brachial
Arm
renal pelvis
pyel-
formation of
-poiesis
barium enema
BaE
process, condition
-y
coxal
the hip
difficult birth
dystocia
Thyrohyoid
Originates:on oblique line
Travel:upward
Inserts:into inferior side of hyoids greater cornu
 
when contracts either depress hyoid or if hyoid is in fixed position will raise larynx 
expected delivery date
EDD
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
ALS
history & physical
H&P
to control, stayin
-sta-
PNS Receptors: Parasympathetic
Nicotinic (Ach)
none
Study of muscles
Myology
White pulp
found in spleen
PRODUCES LACRIMAL FLUID
LACRIMAL GLAND
gonad, primary sex organ
gonad-
Epithelioma
tumor composed of epithelium
Treatment of AIDS
"triple therapy"
Adipose Tissue:

Parasympathetic effect
no effect
Most superficial membrane
Dura matter
Desmosome
Provide stability and strength (strongest) Contain plaques and cadherin proteinsIntermediate filaments that extend from the plaque into the cytoplasmEx: found in skin & cardiac muscle(Heart)
Omohyoid
2 bellys:
inferior and superior belly 
 
Originates: upper border of scapula and joins at an intermediate tendon with the superior belly
Inserts:into side of hyoid corpus
 
when contracts will depress hyoid and larynx
deep to sternocleidomastoid 
long bones
femur, radius, and humerus
cramp
painful involuntary muscle spasm; often caused by myositis but can be a symptom of any irritation for ion imbalance
Adrenergic
Associated with norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (adrenaline).
main cation of intracellular fluid
potassium
What are the "garbage collectors" of the immune system?
Macrophages
lamboidal suture
connects parietals to occipital
Functional unit of the kidney
Nephron
Prolactin
_________ is the hormone responsible for milk production. 
Semitendinosis (Hamstrings)
Origin ischium
Insertion tibia
Action extend thigh, flex knee
An investigator who conducts an experiment to determine how the rate at which the heart beats isaffected by temperature changes is most likely to be a(an):
physiologist
Platelet functions:
secrete procoagulants or clotting factors; normal count range for platelets range 130,000-400,000.
Stylohyoid
Origen: styloid process of temporal boneInsertion: inferior medial to hyoid corpusInnervation: Digastric branch of CN VIIFunction: elevates hyoid
calcitonin
secreted by thyroid gland, lowers calcium levels.  inhibits osteoclast activity, and increases calcium excretion by kidneys
agglutinogen
a genetically determined antigen on the cell membrane of a red blood cell that determines blood type
histology
branch of microscopic anatomy that studies tissues
Glutamate
An amino acid neurotransmitter. Major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
ECG
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a recording of the heart’s electrical events. Electrical currents generated by the heart spread throughout the body and can be monitored with an electrocardiograph.
Sympathetic Pathway
Short Preganglionic neuron, to ganglion, longer postganglionic neuron. Uses ACh, N-Ep, and EP
Preload
-amount of tension in ventricle myocardium before in contracts
Metabolism
All chemical reactions within the body
Genome
- the total genetic information carried in a cell or an organism (all of their genes).
anaphase
centromeres split and the chromatids separate from one another & move toward opposite ends of the cell with their 'arms' dangling behind; complete when poleward movement ceases
Disaccharides
Tyep of Carb, 2 monosaccharides combined. i.e. sucrose(fromed from glucose & fructose), lactose (formed from glucose & galactose)
Cellular organelle which provides hormones, lipids, enzymes, and mucus
Golgi apparatus
extension
an act or instance of extending.
Periosteum
The _____ is a glistening white, double layered membrane
ENZYME
A PROTEIN MOLECULE THAT FUNCTIONS AS AN ORGANIC CATALYST TO SPEED A PARTICULAR METABOLIC REACTION
what is a target cell?
-similar to effector
Simple cuboidal
glands, eg. thyroid, salivary, sweat, some ducts leading away from glands. Sometimes stratified in some ducts, mammary glands.
ACTION OF ANGULAR HEAD MOVEMENTS:
THE CAPULA _____ THE HAIR CELLS.
AN IMPULSE IS SENT VIA THE _____ _____ TO THE ______.
STIMULATE
VESTIBULAR NERVE
CEREBELLUM
smooth muscles
spindle-shaped muscle that causes the cotnraction of blood vessels and viscera such as intestines and stomach
Neurophysiology
explains the workings of the nervous system
muscular tissue
a tissue composed of elongated, electrically excitable cells specialized for contraction; the three types are skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle
chemoreceptor
a sensory receptor that detects the presence of chemicals; responsible for taste, smell, and monitoring the concentration of certain chemicals in body fluids
hemorrhoids
varicose veins in the anal canal resulting from a persistent increase in venous pressure
Effectors
One of the components of homeostatic control mechanisms; provides the means for the control center’s response (output) to the stimulus. Information flows from the control center to the effector along the efferent pathway.
CECUM
The blind-end pouch that lies below the ileocecal sphincter at the beginning of the large intestine.
What carries water, oxygen, food and secretions to all the cells of the body?
Blood
plasma
the extracellular fluid found in blood vessels; blood minus the formed elements
phagocytic activity of endothelial cells
tissue macrophage system
a life threatenning arythmia often evolves into ventricular fibrillation
venticular tachycardia
cardiac muscle
in walls of heart
striated & uninucleate
involuntary
junctions: intercalated discs
Osmosis
- movement of water across a semipermeable membrane

Water moves from an area of [lower solute] to [higher solute]
- occurs only when the membrane is permeable to water but not to certain solutes.
proximal phalanx
section of finger closest to hand
Cushing's syndrome (KOOSH-ingz SIN-drohm)
Cushing's syndrome (KOOSH-ingz SIN-drohm)
Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids of the adrenal
cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound
healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities
(Chapter 10).
Matter
The stuff of the universeanything that has mass and takes up spaceSolid - has a definite shape and volume2)Liquid- Has definite voulume, changeable shape.3)Gas- Has changeable shape and volume.
contraction
refers to the activation of mysin's cross bridges so that force (tension) is developed in the muscle
testis
the male gonad or reproductive gland, either of two oval glands located in the scrotum.
True
T or F? Skeletal cartilages contain no blood vessels or nerves. 
elastic cartilage
made of what?
location?
made of elastin and collagen
 
-found in areas that are rigid but flexible
-ex: external ear
Gigantism is to excessive growth as dwarfism is to
retarded growth
Water is formed by molecules of hydrogen and oxygen united by a ?
Polar bond
WHAT MAKES UP THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS
LACRIMAL GLAND
LACRIMAL CANALS
LACRIMAL SAC
LACRIMAL DUCT
patella
a flat, triangular bone at the front of the knee joint. It is also called the kneecap
Plasma membrane
encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of the cell.
intercalated discs
a complex of fascia adherens, gap junctions, and desmosomes that join two cardiac muscle cells end to end, microscopically visible as a dark line which helps to histologically distinguish this muscle type; functions as a mechanical and electrical link between cells
cerebral palsy
partial paralysis and lack of muscular coordination caused by damage to the cerebrum during fetal life, birth, or infancy
primary response
the initial reaction of the immune system to a specific antigen
Adrenal cortex
Outer portion of adrenal gland that produces steroid hormones.
Amniotic fluid
The fluid that surrounds and protects the developing fetus.
What are serous membranes moistened by?
a watery fluid
Lymphatic System Functions
-Returns proteins and fluid to blood-Carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood-Includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease-causing microbes mature and proliferate
lies on the posterior wall, drains the intercostal veins
azygous system
True or fales, the pH scale is inversely related to the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood.
True
- tough membrane around the outside of bone. It contains cells that make bone increase in diameter. - serves in repair and nutrition of bone.
Periosteum
Formas epidermal ridges at surface of palms, fingers, soles, toes to increase grip friction
Dermal Papillae
17. The hormone that causes strong contractions of the uterus during labor is:
c) oxytocin
Pelvic Cavity
divided from abdominal cavity by an imaginary line from the cranial border of the pubis and an interior prominence of the vertebral column
platelet
a small platelike body, esp. a blood platelet.
Motor unit
A _________ is a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates. 
PTH and calcitonin are to blood calcium levels as insulin and glucagon are to:
blood glucose levels
Actin Fiber
A contractile protein that is the main component of the THIN filament. On each actin molecule is a myosin binding site where a myosin head of a thick filament binds during muscle contraction.
 
Hair cells are bent by the membrane
An action potential starts in the cochlear nerve
Continued stimulation can lead to adaptation
ARE ALL WHAT?
MECHANISMS OF HEARING
Biological Functions
of the
Laryngeal System
prevent air escaping fom the lungs
keep food out of the air way

clearing the throat
assist with heavy lifting
multipara
a woman who has borne more than one child
acute disease
a disease that has a sudden onset, severe symptoms, and a short duration
Cardinal sign
In medicine, a key finding made by observing a patient. For example, there are four cardinal signs of inflammation.
What is Necrosis?
Cells that die due to old age
slows the HR by stimulating the vagus nerve
carotid massage
Hypotonic solutions
- can be used to treat dehydration. (The tissues are dehydrated and blood is used as a vehicle to get more water to them.)
cell division
stage of cell life cycle; when the cell reproduces itself by dividing; series of events called mitosis and cytokinesis
Antagonistic muscles. Chp 7
Muscles that have oposite functions with respect to the movement of a joint.
plantar
of or pertaining to the sole of the foot.
what layer of dermis is made of large bundles of collagen and elastin?
reticular layer
what are examples of cranial nerves?
-oculomotor nerve (III)-facial nerve (VII)-glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)-vagus nerve (X)
Slowly Adapting Receptors
Adapt slowly and continue as long as the stimulus persists. Ex: pain, body position, chemical composition of blood
malabsorption syndrome
a group of disorders in which there is subnormal absorption of dietary constituents and thus excessive loss of nonabsorbed substances in the bowel
what cavity that's lined by a serous membrane does the abdominopelvic cavity contain?
The peritoneal cavity
venous drainage from teh brain is by way of the
internal jugular veins
- usually are breaks in the head, neck, or trochanteric regions of the femur; or the acetabulum of the coxal bone.
Describe hip fractures
Insertion. Chp 7
The more movable attachment point of a muscle to a bone.
What are the accessory skin structures?
sweat glands, sebaceous (oil) glands, hair, hair follicles
M Line
A region in the center of the H zone that contains proteins that hold the thick filaments together at the center of the sarcomere.
Helper T cell (TH)
A functional subtype of T cell that helps orchestrate the humoral and cellular immune responses by releasing chemical messengers called cytokines and by direct cell-to-cell contact. Also activates macrophages.
positive feedback mechanism
the net effect of the response to the stimulus is to increase the original disturbance (stimulus) and to push the variable farther; relatively rare in the body
- is the part of the coxal bone that you sit on.
Ischial tuberosity
What is the Skeletal Organ System?
Supports the body. Protects internal organs and red bone marrow. Provides a framework to be moved by muscles. Provides a storage site for excess Calcium. Ex.Bones and ligaments.
what purpose does cilia have in ependymal cells?
-helps in cerebral spinal fluid circulation
What is the purpose of the pancreas?
Secretes enzyme producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbs, protiens and fats.
G1 phase (gap phase 1)
- the cell produces new organelles to replace those that were lost to the other cell in cell division in this phase
a) Melatonin is produced by the _____________. b) In people, melatonin brings about the onset of _____________.
1. a) pineal gland b) sleep
The The 6 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System
Support, Protection, Assistance in movement, Mineral homeostasis (storage and release), Blood Cell Production (red bone marrow), Triglyceride Storage (yellow bone marrow)
Of those that pass through the cell membrane:
-Chemicals that dissolve in lipids (nonpolar) and very small polar molecules pass through the lipids.
- Other molecules will pass through channels or transporters but these are usually very specific as to what they allow through.
Archaeologist find the pelvis of a primitive human. How do they determine if it is a male or female?Give several suggestions.
Female: pubic arch is > 90 degrees; ilium is flared;n sacral curvature is larger; sacrum is tilted down and backMales: pubic arch is
Define the term Metabolic rate. Give example.
Metabolic rate is most often used to mean the speed at which the body produces energy and heat.
Describe the function of the auditory ossicles.
3 bones in each ear that touch and are at 3 different angles (they continue and increase sound vibrations)
fruit
fruct-
clotting
coagul-
blue
cyan-
gland
aden-
one
uni-
proxim/o
near
clavical
collarbones
hinge joint
knee
to hold
-continence
osteoblast
bone-forming cell
while awake
WA
neoplasm
new growth
voiding, urination
micturition
knee articulation
knee
Decreases blood Ca+
calcitonin
undernutrition
inadequate food intake
human chronic gonadotropin
hCG
digital subtraction angiography
DSA
magnetic resonance imaging
MRI
percentage of RBC
hematocrit
Gluconeogenesis (GLOO-koh-nee-oh-JEN-i-sis)
Gluconeogenesis (GLOO-koh-nee-oh-JEN-i-sis) The
conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates
or to glucose to be used for energy production
(Chapter 10).
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Location
heart
 
Functions
pump blood
target center for thymosin
immunity
Aryepiglottic folds
enclose the additus
generaly open

house the cuneiform cartilages
ductal carcinoma in situ
DCIS
plantar surface
sole of foot
Exocrine epithelium
secretes into ducts
Internal
Within or interior to
Fibers
_______ means individual muscle cells
sweating cools the body through
evaporation
MOVES EYE MEDIALLAY
 
CN-lll (OCULOMOTOR)
MEDIAL RECTUS
anatomy
the study of body structure
liposarcoma
malignant tumor composed of fat
What is a brachium?
an arm
Extrinsic Pathway
-initiated by tissue thromboplastin-cascade to Factor Vii, V, and X
megacolon
abnomally large colon - parasympathetic nerves to the distal segment of the colon do not develop properly
Giantism (JIGH-an-tizm)
Giantism (JIGH-an-tizm) Excessive growth of the body or
its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth
hormone in childhood (Chapter 10).
calcium
a silver-white divalent metal, occurring combined in limestone, chalk, gypsum, etc., occurring also in vertebrates and other animals, as a component of bone, skeletal mass, shell, etc., and as a necessary element in nerve conduction, heartbeat, muscle con
proximal
direction, closer to the body trunk
The vertebral column includes
5 lumbar vertebra
How many naturally occurring elements are there?
90-92
IMAGES ARE BLURRY
RESULTS FROM LIGHTS FOCUSING AS LINES, NO POINTS, ON THE RETINA DUE TO UNEQUAL CURVATURE OF THE LENS OR CORNEA
ASTIGMATISM
Cilium
one of numerous small, hairlike extensions that move substances across the surface of a cell
What controls the anterior pituitary gland?
hypothalamus 
Cytoplasmic vesicle
Small membrane-bounded sac that ferries materials through cells.
The words "anatomy and physiology" have what kind of origins?
Greek
stimulation of parasympathetic nerves
decrease heart rate
the axillary vein becomes the
subclavian vein
Located almost entirely in the nucleus; carries the genetic message
DNA
pubis
anterior-most portion of the hip bones
Cytoskeleton
Protein microfilaments that give shape to a cell, support the membrane and microvilli, and provide for attachment and movement.
cuticle
the nonliving epidermis that surrounds the edges of the fingernail or toenail.
Actin
_____ is the primary protein that makes up the filament; it exhibits high- affinity binding sites for myosin. 
Extensor carpi radialis
Origin humerus
Insertion metacarpals
Action extend wrist
When current leaps across an insulating myelin sheath from node to node, the type of impulse conduction is called:
saltatory conduction
frontal
divides the body from front and back
Parietal pericardium:
tough, fibrous layer of dense connective tissue w/ thin, smooth, moist serous layer
External intercostal
Origen: inf. surface of ribsInsertion: infer. - ant. on immediately inferior ribInnervation: Intercostal nerves originating from T2-T11Function: elevate ribs
stratum spinosum
(prickly layer)
several laters of keratinocytes unified by desmosomes.  cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin.  see melanin granules and dendritic cells (langerhans cells)
pericardial cavity
the cavity that surrounds the heart
heat exhaustion
condition characterized by fluid and electrolyte loss because of profuse perspiration, but body temperature remains normal; symptoms include muscle cramps, dizziness, vomiting, low blood pressure, and fainting; also called heat prostration
Reye's syndrome (RS)
brain dysfunction that occurs primarily in children and teenages and is characterized by edema of the brain that leads to disorientation, lethargy, and personality changes and may progress to a coma; seems to occur after chickenpox and influenza, and taking aspirin is a risk factor
hyperplasia
abnormal increase in the number of cells resulting from an increase in the frequency of cell division
ausculation
listening to organ sounds with a microscope
sign
evidence of disease, such as fever, that can be observed, measured, or evaluated by someone other than the patient
Movement that does not require cellular energy
Passive transport
iliac regions
INGUINAL, located lateral to the hypogastric region
two renal arteries arise from the
abdominal aorta
Smallest level of organization in an organism
Atom
Higher concentration than cell fluids; cell shrinks
Hypertonic solution
replaces dead or damaged cells with same cell type restoring normal functioni
Regeneration
Survival Needs
Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temperature, Atmospheric Pressure
The hormone that initiates egg or sperm production is?
FSH
Part of tooth which protrudes above the gum line
Crown
nucleolus
a conspicuous, rounded body within the nucleus of a cell.
lens
a solid structure that focuses light on the back of the eyes
Few
Are there many or few mitochondria in fast glycolytic fibers? 
The 8 Micro/lesser Nutrients
Iron, Sulfur, Potassium, Sodium, Magnesium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Chlorine
Creatine Kinase
Catalyses the conversion of creatine and consumes ATP to create phosphocreatine and ADP.
f. Cartilage
collagenous fiers imbedded in a ground substance of CHONDRIN which is firm:
3 kinds of Cartilage
1. hyaline:collagenous fibers, comon smooth, flexible.
2. Elastic: has elastic fiver, more flexivle, eg external ear3. Fibrocartilage:Like dense reg. Ct, but thicer and gives, intervertebral discs
Simple Cuboidal Tissue
Present in various glands, responsible for secreting enzymes and hormones
Elbow Joint
radius and ulna articulate with the humerus, hinge joint formed mainly by trochlear notch of ulna and trochlea of humerus, flexion and extension only
distal
father from the attachment of a limb to the trunk
fetal period
stage of development that starts at the beginning of the ninth week after fertilization and lasts until birth
The primary androgen produced by the male is;
 
estrogen
testosterone
aldosterone
inhibin 
progesterone
 
2. testosterone
prognosis
prediction of the course of a disease & the recovery rate
surface anatomy
study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
The largest, most complex nerve tissue in the human body is?
The brain
What are terrestrial animals with their surroudings? and what does this mean?
usually physiologically isotonic-meaning they can regulate their salt and water according to their surroundings
What is the blood brain barrier made of?
Astrocytes.
why is one kidney lower
because of the liver
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Plasma membrane
ilium
the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)—a) Its target organs are the ______________.
bones, small intestine, kidneys.
Fatty Acid
Type of Lipid, has carboxyl group, long chain of carbon & hydrogen atoms attached. i.e. saturated, unsaturated, omega-3
The membrane closest to the gray matter in the brain
Pia matter
vena cava
either of two large veins discharging blood into the right atrium of the heart, one
what do most cells in epidermis produce?
the protein keratin
how are sensory/afferent neurons structurally classified?-what do they do?
-mostly bipolar & unipolar neurons-transmit action potentials from sensory receptors in skin or viscera to the central nervous system
increase vocal intensity
if we wanted to increase vocal intensity need to increase subglottal presure and medial compression
 
talk on air eihter letting out loud or soft
 
intensity and frequency controlled independently can increase one wihtout increasing other one 
sagittal plane
a plane that divides the body into left and right halves. This plane is also referred to as the lateral plane
transverse plane
a plane that divides the body or organs into superior and inferior regions
shin splint
strain of the long flexor muscle of the toes resulting in pain along the tibia (shinbone); usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg
Cortical radiate artery
The artery that branches from the arcuate artery, continuing into the cortical region of the kidney. It branches to form the afferent arterioles.
The study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.
Histology
A stimulus from a presynaptic neuron can be ....
Exitatory or Inhibitory
The makeup of the cytoplasm
Semifluid with inclusions and suspensions
- are paired cavities that are lined with mucous membrane which are continuous with the nasal cavity. -They occur in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae bones.
Paranasal sinuses
Cerebrospinal fluid Chp 8
the
tissue fluid of the central nervous system.
The CNS is made up of
1. Brain
2. Spine
Haversian canal
The _____, which is in the center of the osteon, contains vessels and nerves.
AMINO ACID
HAS A CENTRAL CARBON ATOM BONDED TO A HYDROGEN ATOM AND THREE GROUPS
2 types of nucleic acids
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid
RNA - ribonucleic acid
Explain Sagittal Plane/Body Section
lengthwise, runs from front to back, divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sides.
Absolute refractory period
The period of time following an action potential when an excitable cell cannot generate another action potential no matter how large a stimulus it receives.
What is negative feedback?
An effector activated by the control center either opposes or eliminates the stimulusex. pregnancy during pregnancy, birth control
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
1. ↑ the number and activity of osteoclasts which ↑ the rate of bone resorption (break down)which ↑ Ca2+ concentration in the blood.
2. stimulates kidneys to conserve Ca2+ so that it is not lost in the urine.
3. stimulates formation of calcitriol (active form of Vit D) in the kidneys, which causes more Ca2+ to be absorbed from the food in the intestines
4. produced when blood calcium is too low
Describe the functions of DNA.
(deoxyribonucleic acid) A nucliec acid in the shape of a double helix. Makes up the chromosomes of cells and is the genetic code for hereditary characteristics.
auricular
of or pertaining to the ear or to the sense of hearing; aural.
the darker an individual's skin color, the
more melanin their melanocytes produce
Explain the Lateral Anatomical Direction
away from the midline of the body
What is a receptor?
A sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus
True or false: Marginated leukocytes leave the blood vessels through diapedesis.
True. This enables leukocytes to squeeze between the cells lining the blood vessels and follow chemical signals to the site of infection.
Estrogen Stops growth in height by promoting _________ in long bones.
closure of the epiphyseal discs
What are neurons/nerve cells?
one of 2 major types of nervous tissue cells
 
-actual conducting cells
-produce action potentials
two inferior chambers left and right ventricles:
pump blood into srteries for distribution elsewhere
what happens if you damage the reticular formation?
causes a coma or persistent vegetative state if damaged.
Explain how ossification of cranial bones occurs. chapter 6
In the 3rd month, fibroblasts turn into osteoblasts, which produce bone matrix. from the center of ossification bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone.
What are the functions of the hypodermis? (3)
1) stores fat (adipose tissue) for insulation and shock absorption
2) anchors skin to underlying bone & muscle 
3) serves as pathway for blood vessels & nerves to reach upper skin levels
What is the Urinary system's function in regards to body fluid composition?
Control of nutrient loss in the urine
What is the Integumentary Organ System?
It is the barrier to pathogens and chemicals. Prevents water loss. Ex. Skin, subcutaneous tissue.
What is the function of the human skeleton?:
It supports and gives shape. Protects vital organs. Provides attachment points for tendons, muscle and ligaments. have joints to provide movement
what are the classes of neurons based on diameter, degree of myelination, and speed of action potential conduction?
1) group A fibers2) group B fibers3) group C fibers
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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