Anatomy and Physiology Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
temperature
therm-
against
anti-
skin
derm-
poison
tox-
food
cib
six
hex
system/o
system
Dorsal
back
liver
manufactures bile
ura, nitrogen
azot-
louse, lice
pedicul-
both sides
ambi-
Abbreviation med
medial
lymph organs
spleenthymustonsils
femoral
the thigh
osteocyte
mature bone cell
last menstrual period
LMP
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; type II diabetes or maturity onset diabetes
NIDDM
yellow fatty plaque
ather-
between or among
inter-
.9% NaCl
normal saline
Transitional Epithelial Tissue
Location
ureters
urinary bladder
 
Functions
distension
stretching
taqrget organ for LH
testes
Osteoarthritis
common, irreversible, degenerative ("wear-and-tear") arthritis ->85% of all americans develop this
phlebotomy
incision into a vein
a dried, hard body
skelet-
Define hemolysis
Destruction of RBC's
Proximal
Closer to the origin
diarthrotic
Synovial joints are generally ____. 
Class ___ causes allergic reactions.
E
MOVES EYE LATERALL
 
CN-VI (ABDUCENS)
LATERAL RECTUS
Trapezius
*location on back
*origin: spine (spinous process, occipital bone) 
*insertion: clavicle and scapula (acromion and scapular spine)
*action: elevation and depression of scapula
tarsal
ankle & instep of foot
what is a tarsus?
an ankle
Tachycardia
Resting adult HR above 100
medial
toward or near the midline
Connective tissue
Tissue that connects supports,transports,or stores materials. Consists of cells and matrix.
superior
situated above some other organ.
sagittal
mid-sagittal
para-sagittal
plane, vertical dividing body into right and left halves
 
-mid-sagittal divides body into equal halves
-para-sagittal divides body into unequal halves
Functions Of Proteins
Structural (collagen), Regulatory (hormones ex: insulin), Contractile, Immunological, Transport (hemoglobin), Catalytic (enzymatic)
Superficial
toward or at the body surface
CATARACTS RESULT WHENT THE LENS BECOMES ____ AND ____ W/ AGE
HARD
OPAQUE
Infra Spinatus
A rotator cuff muscle
Origin: infraspinous fossa; to greater turbercle
Action: Rotates humerus laterally
Synergistic*
smooth muscle
nonstriated involuntary muscle found in the walls of the blood vessels, many of the viscera, and other places
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes acts on glycogen and starches;
 
chymotrypsin
amylase
trypsin
phosphatase
nucleosidase
 
amylase
C cells
Thyroid cells that secrete calcitonin.
Epiglottis
Elastic cartilage that covers the opening of the larynx (glottis) during swallowing.
When asleep is your thermoregulatory set point higher or lower?
lower
responsiveness
the ability to sense changes(stimuli) in the environment and then to respond to them
heart rate at birth is about
120
serous fluid
lubricates parietal & visceral layers
where are schwann cells found?
the PNS
Lipids
An organinc chimical insoluble in water; includes true fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
sutures
-between flat bones of cranium
-bone margins interdigitate and are immovable
-suture ligament between bones in suture
-fontanels in newborns, which allow give during birth
fetus releases this hormone which triggers parturition
cortisone
Tropomyosin
__________ is a fibrous protein and binds to the actin chain. 
Tensor fasia latae
Origin ilium
Insertion iliotibial tract
Action abduct thigh
Tendons are composed primarily of
dense connective tissue
Endomysium
A thin sheath of areolar connective tissue; separates individual muscle fibers from one another.
Myocardium:
composed cardiac muscle forms bulk of heart. performs work muscle fibers r bound 2gether by fibrous skeleton.
Costal Head
Origen: inferior margin of ribs 7-12Insertion: sup-medial to central tendonInnervation: Phrenic nerve from C3-C5 cervical plexus Function: depress central tendon, enlarge thorax
squamous cell carcinoma
involves keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, most common on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands
meninges
three layers of protective tissue that line the dorsal body cavity
placenta previa
abnormal implantation of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone marrow cause by bacteria
chyme
the semifluid mixture of food and gastric juice that leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter
Hyperthyroidism
A condition in which there is excessive activity of the thyroid gland.
papilloma
benign epithelial tumor; may occur on any epithelial surface or lining
In which phase do the chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell?
Anaphase
water
accounts for 60-80% of body weight; accounts for the single most abundant chemical substance in the body and provides the fluid base for body secretions and excretions
increased arteriosclerosis is seen in countries with high fat diets
lipid theory
What are the 3 categories of WBC's?
Granulocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
In which phase do the chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell?
Anaphase
is superior portion of the coxal bones
Ilium
Parts of Anatomy
Gross or Macroscopic Microscopic Developmental- Embryologic
Microvilli
Increase a cell's surface area for absorption.
The resistance of a muscle to stretch
Tonus
ganglia
a mass of nerve tissue existing outside the central nervous system.
Antidiuretic hormone
stimulates the reabsorption of water in a nephron
Many
Are there many or few mitochondria in slow oxidative fibers? 
GLYCOGEN
READY STORAGE FORM OF GLUCOSE IN PLATS & ANIMALS
THE LIVER STORES GLUCOSE AS BLYCOGEN
what is autonomic tone?
-the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions oppose each other in action, and both are active all the time-one division is usually exhibiting more tone than the other, depending on what the body needs
Epithelial Tissue
Many Functions, eg. covering for free surfaces, protection, and for absorption, secretion, and excretion.
Available stores of ATP are depleted in
4-6 seconds
Movement in synovial joints
muscle contraction causes the insertion to move toward the origin, movements occur along transverse, frontal, or sagittal planes
57 Damage to the __________ nerve results in the inability to extend the leg
femoral
oogenesis
process of meiosis in the female in which one ovum and three polar bodies are produced from one primary oocyte
This hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat and amino acids in the small intestine
 
pepsin
secretin
gastrin
cholecystokinin
amylase
 
4. cholecystokinin
Antiport transport protein
A membrane-bound protein that will transport one substance in one direction in exchange for another specific substance moved in the other direction using the energy of the concentration gradient of one of the substances. A form of secondary active transport.
Cephalic phase
The earliest phase of reflexes that control GI secretions; the meal is not yet ingested and receptors for these reflexes are in the head.
The biceps, deltoid, and triceps enable movement in the ?
Arm and Shoulder
Alteration of the genes that is a natural occurence in the process of cell division
Mutation
Chordae Tendineae
tendonlike chords connected to the AV valve cusps
requires the rapid infusion of IV Ringer's lactate or normal saline
hypovolemic shock
stratified cuboidal epithelium
rare, 2 layers of cuboidal cells
location: ducts of large glands like sweat & mammary glands
Tonicity
is a measure of a solution’s ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content.(E.g. effects of different solutions on the red blood cell (RBC))
cranial cavity
within the rigid skull, contains the brain
As a result of Parathyroithe blood level of calcium is _______________ , and the phosphate blood level is _________________.
increased, decreased.
Principle excretory product in the avian species
Uric acid crystals
cortex
the outer region of an organ or structure, as the outer portion of the kidney.
Where is compact bone found?
outer covering of most bone
what type of neuron has largest diameter and are most heavily myelinated?
-group A fibers
Mass
thickness of VF and more mass there is at one point more force required to push it apart
 
Fibularis (Peroneus) Longus
Origin: Head and proximal fibula; to 1st cuneiform and metatarsal
 
Action: plantar flexes and everts foot
interstitial fluid
fluid in the interstitial spaces of a tissue, also called "tissue fluid"
four important functions that muscle contracts fulfills:
1.  movement       
2.  posture           
3.  joint stability   
4.  heat production
Cortical collecting duct
The portion of the renal collecting duct formed by the joining of the distal convoluted tubules from many nephrons; it lies within the cortex.
How does the excretory system purify the body?
Excreting perspirationdischarging bileexcreting urine
What is an EPSP?
An Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential (positive total)
Mark the cell as part of a particular tissue or organ in a particular person
glycoproteins
- (5 vertebrae) is the largest and strongest vertebrae.
Lumbar region
The term catecholamines is a collective term for the hormones _____________ and _____________ ,which are secreted by the adrenal _______________.
epinephrine and norepinephrine, medulla
Type of smooth muscle found in the iris and ciliary body of the eye
Multi unit
cardiac muscle tissue
_______ forms the muscular wall of the heart. 
what is the treatment for myasthenia gravis?
-treatment is neostigmine (Ach-esterase blocker)-it allows Ach to stay active in neuromuscular junction longer, increasing stimulation of functioning receptors
In forming a covalent bond, electrons are
Shared by two atoms
perforating (volkmann's) canals
 
 
at right angles to the central canal, connects blood vessels and nerves of the periosteum and central canal
distal
a part is further away from a point of attachment than is another part
What is the omasum?
many plies, many layers taking out water, absorbing water
Preganglionic neurons
1. The cell bodies of those in the sympathetic division are in the lateral gray horn of the 12 thoracic and 1st two lumbar segments of the spinal cord
2. Cell bodies of the parasympathetic division occur in nuclei of four cranial nerves (III, VII, IX and X)in the brain stem, or the lateral gray horns of 2nd-4th sacral segments of the spinal cord.
Describe the functions of ATP.
ATP ( adenosine triphosphate) a specialized nucleotide that traps and releases biologically useful energy.
list the three accessory sex glands in the male
1.prostate
2.cowpers gland
3.seminal veside
functions of connective tissue include
establishing a framework for the body, transporting fluids, providing protection for delicate organs, and storing energy reserves
What is Physiology?
is the study of the function of living organisms and the relationship of its parts.
what is a section
a single view or slice along a plane
if the heart fails and blood backs up in the venous system this is
jugular venous distention
Cells respond to some hormones but not to others because of the presence of _________ for certain hormones on the cell membrane or within the cell. When a cell has receptors for a particular hormone, the cell is said to be __________ cell for that hormone
a) receptors b) target
Yes, in multiunit. No in single- unit
Does smooth muscle have neuromuscular junctions? 
The function of nucleic acid is to
store information and control life processes
What is cytology?
The study of one cell or a group of similar cells, microscopic study of cells
Explain how ossification of the embryonic femur bone occurs. Chap 6
From each center of ossification, bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone by cells called osteoblasts
suppose a cell with 5 g NaCl is dropped into a beaker containing 15 g NaCl. Which solution is hypertonic? hypotonic? where will water go?
-beaker is hypertonic
-cell is hypotonic
-water will move out of the cell into the beaker
-cell will shrink (crenate)
What are the 2 reasons that body temperature set point could vary?
small oscillations around the set ointchanges in the set point
Amphiarthrosis joint. Chp 6 pg 137
Is a slightly movable joint, such as the symphysis joint between adjacent vertebrae.
What are the 4 Quadrants of the Division of the Abdominopelvic Cavity?
Right Upper Quadrant, Left Upper QuadrantRight Lower Quadrant, Left Lower Quadrant
A 55 year old woman sees a television program on osteoporosis and decides to take actionto lower her risk of developing this bone weakening condition. She starts to take daily calciumsupplements. Why might her precaution not be very helpful?
since she has probably already gone through menopause the calcium wont help to strengthen her bones
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