Anatomy and Physiology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
II
sight
obstetrics
OB
passage
meat-
tongue
gloss-
contraction
-stalsis
cutaneous
skin
leukocyte
WBC
water
hydro-
Oral
Mouth
polyuria
excessive urination
diabetic ketoacidosis
DKA
pertaining to
-ary
chondrocyte
cartilage cell
visual examination
-scopy
umbilical
the navel
xiphoid
sword-shaped bone
Epiglottis
-unpaired
-leaf like looking
-originates:inner surface of thyroid
-travels:upward beyond larynx and above hyoid bone
-covered in mucus membrane
-lateral edges joined to arytenoids by way of aryepiglottis folds
-under surface find X cranial nerve called Vagus Nerve that conducts sensory info from larynx to brain
-has a protecitve function and protects laryngeal area from foreign objets when swallowing 
electronic fetal monitor
EFM
as desired
ad lib
quality of life
QOL
cranial bones (8)
frontal
occipital
sphenoid
ethmoid
parietal (2)
temporal (2)
The intermidiate layer
Arachnoid
Pepsin
gastric protein digesting enzyme
 
Saccharine
Some amino acids
ARE ASSOCIATED W/ WHAT TASTE RECEPTORS
SWEET
eye, ear, nose, throat
EENT
oncologist
someone who studies tumors
blood types present in
RBC
Cholesterol
- strengthens the membrane.
Where two bones meet
Synarthroses
What makes up bone cartilage?
chondroblasts
Genioglossus
Originates:inner surface of mandible at sumphysis
Travels:up, back, and down
Inserts:into tongue and the anterior surface of the hyoid corpus
 
when contracts it will elevate hyoid as well as help with lingual movements 
eithelial membranes
mucous and serous membranes
epidermis
outermost layer of the skin
Glycine
An amino acid neurotransmitter. Important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
main anion of extracellular fluid
chloride
Perform specific functions, dividing labor of cell
Organnelles
occipital bone
base of the skull
Inelastic connective tissue bands extending from bone to bone
Ligaments
5
Cardiac muscle tissue composes _____% of the total body mass. 
Rhomboid major
Origin vertebrae
Insertion scapulae
Action adduct scapulae
hematoma
pooling of blood in the tissues
Procoagulants:
clotting factors; produced in liver, activates the next, in turn activates another, and so on.
Plexus
collection of axons in the PNS
parathyroid hormone
increases blood calcium levels, stimulates osteoclast activity, increases intestinal calcium absorption, decreases excretion of calcium by the kidneys
presbycusis
impairment of hearing resulting from aging
sarcoma
a malignant growth derived from connective tissue cells
Goblet cells
Individual cells (unicellular glands) that produce mucus.
Endocrine System Components
-Hormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalmus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes) and hormone-producing cells in several other organs
Function of Neutrophils
(increase in bacterial infections)-phagocytosis of bacateria-release antimicrobial chemicals
The cell membrane contains more _______ by weight.
Protein
displasia
alteration in size, shape, and organization of cell due to chronic irritation or inflammation that may progress to neoplasia or revert to normal if irritation is removed
nuclear membrane
double layered porous membrane surrounding nucleus; similar to other cellular membranes, but has particularly large nuclear pores which permit large molecules like protein and RNA to pass easily
Bases
Remove hydrogen ions from solution (has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions)
Directional term meaning toward the tail
Caudal
hypothalamus
monitors body temperature and responds as necessary to maintain homeostasis
Troponin
What is the site for calcium regulation in skeletal muscle? 
Epidemiology
The study of the occurrence of disease.
are viscera innervated by parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions? what is this referred to as?
-mostly both-dual innervation
Pseudostratified columnar
Common, many respiratory passages, may be ciliated  (why?)
Smooth Muscle Tissue
Non-striated pointy shaped fibers capable of slow week response, not under voluntary control. encircles blood vessels, lungs stomach and glands, they expand or contract as needed to control flow and excretion of body fluids
Integumentary system
the skin and its derivatives. Functions of the skin include protection, the regulation of body temperature, sensory reception, and the synthesis of vitamin D
this tool of the homeostatic control system detects change
receptor
osseus tissue
tissue pertaining to bone; includes spongy & compact
cardiomyopathy
any primary disease of the heart muscle
antigen
a substance that triggers an immune response when it is introduced into the body
Efflux
The movement of molecules from the intracellular environment into the extracellular environment.
Another name for the digestive system is?
Gastrointestinal
sign
objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure
listening to the heart with a stethoscope
auscultation
two brachiocephalic veins join the
superior vena cava
multicellular exocrine glands
parts: 1)epithelium- derived duct
2)secretory unit-secretory cells
Apoptosis
- is a normal, genetically programmed cell death that occurs in cells scattered throughout a tissue.
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior to the diaphragm; includes the abdominal & pelvic cavities; divided into quadrants (upper right, upper left, lower right, lower left) & regions (umbilical, epigastric, hypogastric <pubic>, iliac, lumbar & hypochondriac)
With respect to the mammary glands, oxytocin causes the release of __________.
milk.
Types of molecules;InorganicOrganic
Inorganic; foremd via geological chemistyOrganic; formed by living organisms. 4 categories; Carbohydrates, fats, protiens, nucleic acids.
isometric contracton
increasing muscle tension (muscle does not shorten during contraction)
thyroid
of or pertaining to the largest cartilage of the larynx, forming the projection known in humans as the Adam's apple.
slow
Is the speed of contraction of slow oxidative fibers fast or slow?
articulating surfaces
areas where 2 structures come together to perform movement
 
-where hyaline cartilage is found
-ex: humerus and ulna 
Many hormones are thought to function by acting on receptor sites in the:
target tissues
What are proteins?
Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
ELEVATES THE EYE AND TURNS IT LATERALLY
 
CN-lll (OCULOMOTOR)
INFERIOR OBLIQUE
ion
an atom that has acquired a charge through the gain or loss of one or more electrons
Levels of Structural organization
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System Organismal
Osseous Connective tissue:
Bone Tissue. Dense fibrous connective tissue that forms tendons, cartilage, and bones
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
a neurological disease caused by generation of motor neurons of the spinal cord, medulla, and cortex; marked by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy with spasticity and exaggerated reflexes; mental capabilities are not impaired; also called Lou Gehrig disease or motor neuron disease
atheroma
an abnormal mass of fatty or lipid material (plaque) with a fibrous covering within an arterial wall
AV node
Mass of autorhythmic cells located in the inferior portion of the interatrial septum above the tricuspid valve (AV = atrioventricular); here, each impulse is delayed briefly, allowing atria to contract before ventricles.
What divides the ventral body cavity into the superior thoracic cavity and the inferior abdominopelvic cavity?
the diaphragm
Lymphatic System Components
-Lymphatic fluid or Lymph and vessels-Also includes spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils
the superior vena cava empties in the
right atrium
What is the normal pH range for humans?
7.35-7.45
- is an ongoing replacement of old bone by new bone and begins in utero.
Remodeling
Three layers of hair
inner medulla contains pigment granules and air spaces
cortex consists of densely packed keratinized cells
cuticle is single layer of overlaping scaly cells
The secretions of endocrine glands are called ______________ ,which enter capillaries and circulate in the ___________.
hormones, blood.
Atom
The unit of matter that is the smallest part of an element.
buffers
resist changes in pH by combining with hydrogen or hydroxide ions
kidney
either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
Very slow
What is the speed of contraction of smooth muscle? 
Which of the following cell(s) are found in lacuna?
osteocytes and chondrocytes
-with the blood vessel (smooth muscle) as the target organ, what is the sympathetic effect? parasympathetic?
-sympathetic: vasoconstriction (contraction), decrease in blood flow with alpha1
-parasympathetic: NO INNERVATION *those serving external genitalia, specifically eractile tissue, are via M3 receptors
Impulses are carried to the gustatory complex by WHICH cranial nerves
 
Facial nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vagus nerve
Geniohyoid Muscle
Origin: the lower portion of the mentl symphasis
Insertion: the anterior surface of the body of teh hyoid bone
Function: pulls the hyid upward and forward
complete protein
a protein that contains all of the essenial amino acids
chronic disease
a disease that continues over a long time, showing little change in symptoms
Chemically gated ion channels
Integral proteins in cell membranes that serve as ion channels. When a specific chemical binds to the receptor site on the protein, the protein changes shape, opens the channel, and allows certain ions to move from one side of the membrane to the other.
Muscarinic Receptors are found on?
Plasma membranes of all parasympathetic effectors
an abnormal dilation of a part of a vessel
aneurysm
Bulk-phase endocytosis (Pinocytosis)
- movement of fluid with dissolved solutes into the cell by a vesicle.
Calcitonin (thyroid gland)Chp 6
Decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones (lowers blood calcium level.)
epiphyses
a part or process of a bone separated from the main body of the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification.
What are secretions of the Apocrine sweat gland made of?
when are they active?
organic substances
 
-not active until puberty
what are the further divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
-sympathetic & parasympathetic
First stage of a twitch: Latent Period
events of excitation-contraction coupling
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
a blood sugar test performed at specified intervals after the patient has been given a certain amount of glucose; blood sameples are drawn, and the blood glucose level of each sample is determined
What is the Integumentary system's function regarding body fluid volume?
Loss of water through perspirtation
clearance is calculated as follows
concentration of urine times urine converted to ml/min divided by creatinine in plasma
- is the larger, more medial, bone of the lower leg.
Tibia (shinbone)
Name the four groups of tissues.
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Nerve.
What is the lunula of the nail?
crescent-shaped area above the cuticle
The 4 Parts of the Contraction Cycle
-ATP Hydrolysis-Attachment of myosin to actin to form crossbridges -Power Stroke: Crossbridges rotate and release ADP. Crossbridges generate force as it rotates toward the center of the sarcomere.-Detachment of myosin from actin: As ATP binds to ATP binding sites on myosin, the myosin detaches from actin.
what is production of melanin determined by?
1) genetic factors, 2)hormones, 3)and exposure to light
Name 3 types of neuronal circuits
Simple Series Circuit-1 pre, 1 postDiverging Circuit-1 pre, many postConverging Circuit-many pre, one post
- articulates with the talus and forms the ankle prominence on the medial side.
Tibia : Medial malleolus
Neuromuscular junction. Chp 7
The termination of a motor neruon on the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber; the synapse is the microscopic space between the two structures.
what are unipolar (pseudounipolar neurons)?
-have 1 process coming from the cell body that divides into 2 branches: peripheral process (PP) & central process (CP)
What is an example of autoregulation?
when oxygen levels decline in a tissue, the cells release chemicals that dilate local blood vessels increasing hte rate of bloodflow and provides the region with more oxygen
- an exaggeration of the thoracic curve.
Kyphosis (round shouldered in mild cases)
Match each hormone with the proper stimulus for secretion. 6) Epinephrine and norepinephrine
G. Sympathetic impulses from the hypothalamus during
stressful situations
What is a molecular formula? Give example:
 
 
Represents the numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
 
Ex: H2O
-forms part of the cranial floor and houses the middle and inner ears.
Petrous portions of the temporal bones
Describe the affect DJD has on the joints
causes the bones to griding against each other resulting in inflammation and swelling in the joints
Fibula. Chp 6 pg 137
A long bone of the lower leg; on the lateral side, thinner than the tibia.
what are the 4 subclasses of an adrenergic receptor?
-2 are alpha1 & alpha2-2 are beta1 & beta2
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Term:
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