Anatomy and Physiology Test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
protein
prote-
clot
thromb-
skin
cutane-
spleen
splen-
heart
cardi
apart
ana-
super/o
above
Patella
kneecap
flexion
to bend
near to
juxta-
little attachment
appendicul-
away from
ab-
sarc/o
connective tissue
bladder lies
peritoneal
nasal
the nose
decreases blood glucose
insulin
basal body temperature
BBT
ateriosclerotic heart disease
ASHD
sleep apnea syndrome
SAS
pubis
front pelvic bone
non invasive tumor
benign
Hypoglycemia (HIGH-poh-gligh-SEE-mee-ah)
Hypoglycemia (HIGH-poh-gligh-SEE-mee-ah) A low
blood glucose level (Chapter 10).
Cytosol
Composition
Fluid component of cytoplasm
 
Functions
Distributes materials by diffusion
target organ for vasopressin
kidney
The Vocal Folds
close together
 vibrate to create a voice
open in the back when we are vibrating
splenomegaly
enlargement of the spleen
popliteal fossa
back of knee
Anaerobic
does not utilize O2
Glycogenesis(GLIGH-koh-JEN-i-sis)
Glycogenesis (GLY-koh-JEN-i-sis) The conversion of glucose
to glycogen to be stored as potential energy
(Chapter 10).
Cardiac
________ muscle tissue is unicellular. 
histology is the study of:
tissues
VISION BECOMES HAZY AND DISTORTED
 
EVENTUALLY CAUSES BLINDNESS IN THE AFFECTED EYE
CATARACTS
physiology
the study of body function
anterior (ant.)
pertaining to the front
what in an antebrachium?
a forearm
Leukocytes
WBCs (different from erythrocyte-has no nucleus -protect against pathogens -5,000-10,000 WBC/uL
Liver:

Parasympathetic effect
increase glycogen synthesis
Ketoacidosis (KEY-toh-ass-i-DOH-sis)
Ketoacidosis (KEY-toh-ass-i-DOH-sis) A metabolic acidosis
that results from the accumulation of ketones in
the blood when fats and proteins are used for energy
production (Chapter 10).
cilia
minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals.
pleural
lateral cavities, each house 1 lung
 
-within thoracic cavity, which is within the ventral cavity
cauda equina
starts at L1 and L2
Electron
Extremely small, - charged particle that encircles the nucleus of an atom
POSTERIOR TO THE LENS
CONTAINS VETREOUS HUMOR
POSTERIOR SEGMENT
meninx
one of three connective tissue coverings, or meninges, around the brain and spinal cord. The three layers from the outermost to the innermost, are the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
formed element
an erythrocyte, leukocyte, or platelet; any cellular component of blood or lymph as opposed to the extracellular fluid component
The term systole refers to

contraction
relaxation
equillibrium
systemic circulation
circulatory system
1. contraction
Chymotrypsin
Digestive enzyme that cleaves proteins into smaller peptides.
ADP
Adenosine diphosphate, one of the products of ATP hydrolysis; composed of adenine, ribose sugar, and two phosphate groups.
What can a dissecting microscope see?
Tissues
stimulation of sympathetic nerves
increases heart rate
this allows transportation of sumbstances if there is less on one side of the membrane
active transport
Forms sex cells; divides the chromosome number in half
Meiosis
spinous process
center finger-like projection on vertebra
Renin-angiotensin mechanism (REE-nin
AN-jee-oh-TEN-sin)
Renin-angiotensin mechanism (REE-nin AN-jee-oh-
TEN-sin) A series of chemical reactions initiated by a
decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidneys to
secrete the enzyme renin; culminates in the formation of
angiotensin II (Chapter 10).
carbon dioxide
a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, present in the atmosphere and formed during respiration, usually obtained from coal, coke, or natural gas by combustion, from carbohydrates by fermentation, by reaction of acid with limestone or other carbona
No
Are gap- junctions present in skeletal muscles? 
Zygomatic Major
Origin zygomatic
Insertion skin at corners of mouth
Action smile
the type of immunoglobulin found in the secretions of exocrine glands is
IgA
proximal
closer to the limb of the arm
Serous layer:
base of heart, forming visceral pericardium covering heart surface.
Ectoderm:
outer germ layergives rise to NS, epithelium, hair, nails, mammary glands, and enamel of teeth
Elastic carilages
similar to hyaline, but contains elastic fibers
atoms
the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions
lipogenesis
series of reactions in which lipids are formed from other nutrients
neurilemma
the layer of Schwann cells that surrounds a nerve fiber in the peripheral nervous system and, in some cases, produces myelin; also called Schwann's sheath
passive transport
membrane transport process that does not require energy
neurophysiology
explains the workings of the nervous system
The cytosol and organelles make up the...
Cytoplasm
abdominal cavity
superior part of the abdominopelvic cavity including STOMACH, LIVER, INTESTINES, AND OTHER ORGANS
when the concentration of substances in the filtrate exceeds the transport rate it will appear in the urine...when the concentration of substances in the filtrate exceeds the transport rate it will appear in the urine...
renal threshold
Endoderm
Inner germ layer develops into linings of digestive system, thyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas and liver
Lower concentration than cell fluids; cell swells
Hypotonic solution
Surface epithelial cells multiply and loosen scab until it falls off
Maturation phase
Urinary System
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Visceral
Pertaining to the organs within a cavity.
Soft gelatinous tissue in center of tooth
Pulp
flagella
a long, lashlike appendage serving as an organ of locomotion in protozoa, sperm cells, etc.
sacromere
the unit of contraction in the muscular system
secosteriod
Vitamin D3 is a __________ (a steroid that has its ring structure opened). 
Hydrolysis
Add water to break down a large molecule to smaller ones.
Fibrous Joint
Bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers.
b. Dense Irregular:
similar to loose areolar, but denser-dermis layer of skin eg leather
Serratus Posterior Superior
Origen: Spinous process of C7, T1-T3Insertion: inferior-laterally to ribs 2-5Innervation: Intercostal portion of Spinal nerves T1-T4 or T5Function: elevate ribs 2-5
pallor, or blanching
during fear, anger stress, become pale, pale may also indicate anemia or low blood pressure
thoracic cavity
contains two pleural cavities, and the mediastinum, which includes the pericardial cavity
renal tubule
tubular portion of the nephron that carries the filtrate away from the glomerular capsule; site where tubular reabsorption and secretion occur
The normal pH range for blood is;

7.35-8.5
7.35-9.45
6.35-7.35
6.35-9.35
7.35-7.45
5. 7.35-7.45
Descending colon
Portion of the colon extending from the left colic flexure to the sigmoid colon.
frontal plane
divides the body into anterior & posterior portions (perpendicular to both the sagittal & transverse planes);sometimes called the coronal plane
The ___________ is the foundation of the body.
Skeletal system.
Describe epithelial tissue.
arranged in sheets->skin, lining of tubes of the body, 2 sides- 1 side to the inside and 1 side to the external environment
When do the H gates close?
at 30 mV
a short artery, becomes the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian
brachiocephalic artery
Small body in the nucleus composed of RNA, DNA, and proteins; makes ribosomes
Nucleolus
surgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae of the vertebreal column are stabilized with a bone graft or synthetic device. It may be performed to treat a fracture of a vertebra or following removal of a herniated disk
spinal fusion
compact bone
synonymous with Cortical bone, is one of the two types of osseous tissue that form bones
Papillary layer
The uppermost layer of the dermis; contains capillaries to nourish the epidermis.
Lipids
C,H,O present, but much less O than either, C to H ratio 1:2. example is lauric acid (C12, H24, O2), fats, oils, waxes.
Fracture in which a number of small fragments due to the bone being splintered or crushed
Comminuted
dermis
the dense inner layer of skin beneath the epidermis, composed of connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, sweat glands, hair follicles, and an elaborate sensory nerve network.
Stratum Spinosum
how many layers?
contains what?
-"spiny" 5-7 layers of living cells
-contains melanin granules that are produced in basale layer
-contains Langerhan's cells
what is the presynaptic cell?
-the neuron SENDING the signal
Carilaginos Glottis
2/5 of vocal edge made up of cartiledge of arytenoids
dorsal cavity
the main body cavity consisting of the cranial cavity, which contains the brain, and the spinal cavity, which contains the spinal cord
nervous system
an organ system composed of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia, specialized for rapid communication of information
origin
the end of a muscle that is attached to a relatively immovable part; the end opposte the insertion
Cortical radiate vein
The vein that drains the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta. It connects to the arcuate vein.
The human skull is made up of _______ bones.
22
What is an IPSP?
An Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential (negative total)
Systemic anatomy refers to:
structures by systems. ex: skeletal would study bones
- processes on either side of the sacral hiatus and serve as landmarks for anesthesia
Sacral cornua
Vasodilation
An increase in the diameter of a blood vessel caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle in the wall of the vessel.
Consists of many layers of the tightly packed coil of the Schwann cell plasma membrane that encircles certain kinds of axons
Myelin sheath
Irregular Bones
______ are bones that fit none of the preceding categories including some of the skull bones, the vertebrae, and the hip bones. 
Which of the following answers correctly describes, IN THE CORRECT SEQUENCE, a nervepathway involving the comparator function of the brain?1. Semicircular canal 2. VIII 3. Cerebellum 4. Efferent pathway 5. Ascending tract of the spinal cord 6. Afferent pa
1, 2, 3, 7, 8
What are isotopes?
atom with the same atomic number but different atomic weight
Explain the Posterior Anatomical Direction
toward the back /"dorsal"/"in back of"/
Chemically gated channels
Ion channels with gates that open or close when a neurotransmitter binds to them.
What is an Organ system?
Groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner
- one side of the bone is broken and the other side bends.
Greenstick
Define the term Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative electricle charge; found orbiting the nucleus of an atom.
autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
Describe two ways the integumentary system helps lower body temperature
1) sweat is released and evaporated2)vasodilation
Explain Midsagittal Plane/Body Section
is unique, runs from front to back, divides the body in two equal halves.
What are the 3 funtions of the muscular system?
Provides movementProvides protection and support for other tissuesGenerates heat that maintains body temperature
Increased venous return to the heart causes increased
A) stroke volume
B) preload
C) cardiac output
D) force of contraction
E) all of the above
E) all of the above
Some bones protect the internal organs from __________.
Mechanical injury. Chapter 6 WB
how is muscle contraction made possible?
by the interaction of 2 cellular contractile proteins: actin and myosin
Frank- Starling law of heart:
ventricles tend to pump out all blood that entered them
(Regions of the Braind Stem)cerebral peduncles
f(x)nerve tracts that are the main motor pathways between cerebrum and rest of nervous system
Genetic potential for height. Chap 6
Each person has a genetic potential for height, that is a maximum height, with genes inherited from both parents.
what does the papillary layer of dermis specifically contain?
-collagen and elastin (part of areolar tissue)
-dermal papillae
Does someone studying anatomy look at how a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton or at how the muscle contracts?
How a particular muscle attaches to the skeleton
Cervical vertebrae. Chp 6 pg 123
7 cervical vertebrae in the neck. 1st is the Atalas, which articulates with the occipital bone to support the skull and forms a pivot joint with the odontoid process of the Axis, the 2nd vertebra. This pivot joint allows us to turn our heads side to side.
What are the layers of the bone?:
1. Compact bone. 2. Calcellous bone 3. Medullary Cannel 4. Yellow marrow 5. Red marrow (only in long bones) 6. Periosteum
what kind of metabolic rate do neurons have?
-ver high, so need a constant supply of oxygen and glucose
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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