ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY TEST I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
arterio
artery
ear
acous-
ointment
ung
enzyme
-ase
laceration
lac
somat/o
body
w
w
Lysosomes
membranous organelle
 
 Composition
Vesicles containing degradative enzymes
 
Functions
Inracellular removal of damaged
organelles or pathogens
catheter, cathetize
cath
pine cone
pin-
to swell
edem-
nature, function
physi-
Rostral
The nose
-ology
study of
ligament
cord = ?
Gentle Touch?
Meissner Corpuscles
ear, nose, throat
ENT
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NSAID
aspiration, biopsy, cytology
ABC
Central
Toward the center
carpal bones
wrist (16)
mature follicle
graffian follide
yellow bone marrow
contains fat
Pneumatochograph
used to measure airflow
tenorraphy
suture of a tendon
chloroma
tumor of green color
Leukocytosis
high WBC count (>10,000/uL)
Oxygen
Necessary for metabolic reactions
abductor
a person who abducts.
target organ for calcitonin
small intestine
High neutrophil count:
indicates bacterial infection
lacunae
small cavities that contain osteocytes
alveolus
microscopic dilations of terminal bronchioles in the lungs where diffusion of gases occurs; air sacs in the lungs
Inflammation
An innate (nonspecific) defensive response of the body to tissue injury; includes dilation of arterioles and an increase in capillary permeability.
depolarization of the atrium
P wave
goblet cells
secrete protective lubricating mucus
Cretinism (KREE-tin-izm)
Cretinism (KREE-tin-izm) Hyposecretion of thyroxine in
an infant; if uncorrected, the result is severe mental and
physical retardation (Chapter 10).
Isotonic
decreasing muscle length (muscle shortens during contraction)
NO
Are myofibrils and sacromeres present in smooth muscle? 
Muscular Tissue
Tissue specialized in muscle contraction and body movement.ex:
Epimysium
The outermost layer; circles the entire muscle.
inotropic agents:
alter stroke volume of ventricles
 
Illiopsoas
iliacus + psoas
Origin: ilium & lumbar vertebrae; to femur lesser trochanter
Action: prime mover of thigh flexion, also flexes trunk
Lumbrical
*location: in between fingers on hand
*origin: tandons of flexor digitorum profundus 
*insertions: tendons of extensor digitorum to digits 2-5
*actions: flexion 
synapse
the region of communication between two neurons
neuroglia
supporting cells of nervous tissue; cells in nervous tissue that do not conduct impulses
Amino acids
Organic compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building blocks of protein.
The muscular system:
covers the skeleton tissue
What bone forms the forehead,contains the frontal sinuses and helps form the eye socket and nasal cavity.
Frontal
supply the pelvic organs
internal iliac artery
antecubital
space in front of the elbow
surgical procedure to remove a vertebral lamina. It may be performed to access the vertebral cavity and relieve the symptoms of a herniated disc
laminectomy
Bone
1.A connective tissue made of osteocytes in a calcified matrix. 2.An organ tht is an individual part of the skeleton.
Digestive system
teeth, pharynx, stomach, intestines, pancreas, liver.
anatomical part of the reproductive tract that protects the uterus from infection and passage of foreign material
nucle(cervix)
arteries
large, elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart
what is atropine?
-example of anticholinergic-drug that is a specifically muscarinic receptor blocker-drug blocks parasympathetic response, so it is an antagonist-used to reduce salivation and mucus production before surgery because it decreases glandular secretions through M3
The distal area of the stomach adjoining the small intestine is:
pylorus
Tendon Sheaths
Tubelike bursae that wrap around certain tendons that experience considerable friction.
Heart sounds:
heard through stethoscope closing of valve and turbulence of blood against inner heart wall
Stratified Tissue
Composed of multiple layers of cells
dermis
the layer of skin cotnaining hair follicles, nails, glands, fibers, sense recptors, and blood vessels. it is also called true skin
Extensor carpi
(radial brevis, ulnaris, radialis longus)
*location on forearm/wrist
*origin: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus, lateral epicondyle of humerus
*insertion: base of metacarpals 
*actions: extension at wrist
Red Marrow:
Found in Long bones. manufacture RBC's
diarthrosis
 
plural:  diarthroses
freely movable joint characterized by a joint cavity; also called synovial joint
edentulous
without teeth; term used after natural teeth are lost
CD4
A cell-surface protein on a T lymphocyte that acts as a co-receptor for MHC II. Its presence characterizes one of the two major classes of T lymphocytes.
Fungi
A large group of single-celled or multicellular organisms with cell walls that obtain nutrients from their environment. The very few that are pathogenic in humans may be intracellular or extracellular.
what region is the thoracis in?
thoracic region
The Diencephalon
surrounds third ventricle: almost all gray matter
most common cause of increased body water due to heart failure , renal failure, etc
hyponatremia
Base
a substance that accepts H+ (hydrogen ion)
Movement of bulk amounts of material into the cell in vesicles
Endocytosis
- articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas.
Occipital condyles
perpendicular plate
vertical portion of the ethmoid; behind the cartilege of the nose & below/behind the nasal bones
Diagnosis
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of anything.
sternocleidomastoid
flexes neck and rotates and tilts head
days after fertilization in the cow before implantation occurs
35
scapula
either of two flat, triangular bones, each forming the back part of a shoulder in humans; shoulder blade.
Gouty Arthritis
_______ is a metabolic dislease that results in a build up of uric acid; crystals of uric acid are deposited in the joint cavities and cause swelling and pain; can be treated with allopurinol; also can be reduced by dietary restrictions. 
What is interstitial growth?
-cartilage growth from the inside-inner chondrocytes rapidly divide and expand the cartilage from within
how are interneurons classified structurally?-what do they do?
-mostly multipolar neurons-lie entirely within central nervous system-shuttle signals through central nervous system pathways where integration takes place
Thyroid Angle
where 2 plates come together at midline
TINY BONES THAT FLOAT IN GELL AROUND THE (MACULEA) HAIR CELLS
OTILITHS
stratum corneum
dead, keratinized cells located on the outer surface ofthe epidermis
Pectoralis Minor
*location on the chest under the Pectoralis Major
*origin: anterior-superior surfaces of ribs 3-5
*insertion: coracoid process of scapula
*actions: depression and protraction of the scpaula
core temperature
the temperature deep in the body; temperature of the internal organs
all-or-none principle
a property of skeletal muscle fiber contraction; when a muscle fiber receives a sufficient stimulus to contract, all sarcomeres shorten; with insufficient stimulus, none of the sarcomeres contract
infectious disease
an illness caused by a pathogenic organism
organismal level
represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive.
Define organ systems.
groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner.
pleural cavity
lateral body cavity that houses the lungs
may become chronically dilated in people with varicose veins
greater saphenous vein
Form of cell death, normal part of development
Apoptosis
aging
- Some cells are not replaced because they won’t divide or divide a limited number of times.

- Telomeres at ends of chromosomes erode with each mitosis event. This contributes to cell death.
-Loss of elasticity, stiffening, due to glucose forming cross links between proteins.
-Free radicals damage cells by oxidizing(stealing e- s from) lipids, proteins, or nucleic acids.
-Autoimmune responses
what are ganglia
groups of nerve/neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS
11. The hormone that increases water reabsorption by the kidneys is:
d) ADH
H zone
central lighter region of A band, where there is only myosin myofilaments
sphenoid
of or pertaining to the compound bone of the base of the skull, at the roof of the pharynx.
Cellular level
with examples?
all body cells have common functions (cellular respiration), but cells can also have unique functions (way muscle cells contract)
The complex network of tiny islands of gray matter within the brain that activates the brain to a state of wakefulness is the
reticular formation
What are elements?
Pure chemical substances with only one type of atom.
Isotonic Contractions
Muscle changes in length and moves the load, either concentric or eccentric
Carbohydrates. Name them!
Primary source of energy for the bodyMonosaccharide (Dextrose), Disaccharide (Lactose), ex: milkPolysaccharide (Glycogen) ex: starch
valvular heart disease
any disorder of the heart valves including insufficiency, stenosis, and prolapse
Aortic semilunar valve
Valve at entrance to the aorta; prevents backflow into left ventricle.
Basal nuclei (ganglia)
masses of gray matter located deep w/in hemispheres. F(x)-relay messages from cortex to brain stem+cord, produce the NT dopamine.
Define dydrostatic pressure
Blood pressure of force against vessel walls created by the heart beat.
- of the ethmoid bone has holes through which olfactory (smell) nerves pass.
Cribriform plate
Muscle tone. Chp 7
The state of slight contraction present in healthy muscles.
T or F. Enzymes are needed to catalyze all chemical reactions that occur in living cells
T
retina
the layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye made up of cells that respond to light energy
What are 3rd degree burns?
-epidermis & dermis are completely destroyed
-skin grafts are often necessary b/c skin can regenerate only from edges of burns
The 7 Parts of a long bone
Diaphysis, Epiphyses, Metaphyses, Articular Cartilage, Periosteum, Medullary Cavity, Endosteum
how muscles are there in the human body
more than 600
This means the lungs and the chest wall do not expand easily
 
high surface tension
low surface tension
high compliance
low compliance
none of the above
 
4. low compliance
What does the endocrine system play a major role in?
growth and development
The lobe of the cerebrum that aid in speech.
Temporal lobe
Organ Systems- Consists of different organs that work closely together
11 systems: Integumentary, Skeletal, Nervous, Muscular, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive, Endocrine, Digestive
Atomic numberMass numberatomic weight
Atomic number = to number of protonsMass number= to the the mass of the protons and neutrons.Atomic Weight= average of the mass numbers of all isotopes.
What do irregular bones look like? examples?
odd-shaped-ex: vertebrae and the patella
Opening and closing heart valves:
result of pressure gradients from one side of cusps to other
An organ is ?
a group of tissues that perform a specific function
What happens in a nonmyelinated nerve?
There is continuous conduction. The same process all the way down the axon.
the central nervous system consists of...
the brain and the spinal cord
Anatomy Study 5 types;SystemicRegionalComparativeDevelopmentalSurface
Systemic; study of body based on the 11 organ systems.Regional; Study of organ systems found within a patricular region.Comparative; Comparison of structures between species.Surface; Comparison of surface landmarks with underlying structures.
where does the preganglionic neuron have an origin?
-in different sites in the sympathetic and parasympathetic division
what makes up the floor of the pelvic cavity?
a layer of muscle
Some bones contain and protect the ____________, the principal,hemopoietic tissue that produces the blood cells.
red bone marrow Chapter 6 WB
Physiology; 2 subdivisonsOrganismal PhysiologyCell Physiology
Study of the functions of the body and its living processes.Organismal; functions and interrelated activites of the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systemCell; funtions of the cells themselves.
Ascending loop of Henle (thick segment)
The portion of the renal tubule loop that returns the filtrate back from the medulla toward the renal cortex.
Explain how a buffer system limits great changes in pH.
By reacting with strong acids or strong bases to transform them into substances that will not drasticly change in pH.
what is cranial nerve X? what does it innervate?
-vagus nerve-branches into 4 plexuses: 1) cardiac plexus: innervates heart2) pulmonary plexus: innervates the lungs and the bronchi3) esophageal plexus: innervates the esophagus4) descending aortic plexus: innervates most of the abdominal viscera
Name 3 main Properties of Water
1. High heat capacity. 2. "Universal Solvent" 3. Molecules are defined by their ability to interact with h20 (hydrophobic & hydrophilic)
Where is the diaphysis of a long bone and what is it made of?
the shaft that forms the long axis of bone-composed of compact bone
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