anatomy and physiology vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
vuvla
episi-
eye
op-
speech
phas-
vessel
angi-
carpal
wrist
femur
thigh
layer
strat-
Umbilical
naval
Organic Chemistry
CarbsLipidsProteins
fast, rapid
tachy-
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
NHL
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
pertaining to
ide
cervical
the neck
deltoid
abducts arm
Symbol for carbon
C
total abdominal hysterectomy
TAH
length of stay
LOS
percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
PTA
Follicle
See lymphoid follicle.
Kidneys:

Parasympathetic effect
no effect
Quadriceps femoris
extends knee
reticular formation
brain's activation center
Neutrophils:
granules (reddish/violet) contain lysosome, peroxidase, other antimicrobial agents. function in phagocytosis of bacteria and release of antimicrobial agents.
embryonic or early form
-blast
lipoma
tumor composed of fat
drug that inhibits thrombin
heparin
anterior (ventral)
towards the front
epimysium
membrane covering the muscle
Platysma
Origin chest fasia
Insertion mandible
Action depress mandible
inferior Corunu
piece that projects downward
 
Risorius
Origin: Longitudinal, superior to platysma; fascia by ears to skin at mouth angle.
 
Action: Draws mouth laterally (tension)
oliguria
very little, or scanty, urination
Cl-
Symbol for the chloride ion.
(memory and learning)learning
acquisition of knowledge
http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1527/flashcards/696123/jpg/brain-1.jpg
1) cerebrum2) lateral ventricle3) third ventricle4) cerebral aquaduct5) fourth ventricle6) pons7) cerebellum8) arbor vitae
head
ball at top of humerus
botulism
blocks release of neurotransmitter from axon terminal causing diaphram to go limp stoping breathing
Loose Reticular Connective Tissue
Location
liver
lymph nodes
bone marrow
spleen
 
Function
support via a "soft tissue skeleton"
Sartorius
Origin ilium
Insertion tibia
Action flex thigh, flex knee
Surfactant
prevents the collapse of the alveoli
Classification by Cell Shape
Squamous-flat, thin
Cuboidal-cube shaped
Columnar-taller than wide, upright rectangles
 
Rhomboideus Major
Origen: spinous process of T2-T5Insertion: Inferior-laterally to scapulaInnervation: Brachial plexus C5Function: stabilizes pectoral girdle
functions of bones
support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis), triglyceride (energy) storage
glomerular capsule
double-layered epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerulus in a nephron; also called Bowman's capsule
perineal
region between anus and pubis symphysis; includes region of external reproductive organs
Glycolysis
A cellular metabolic process involving a series of enzymes and reactions to break down glucose into pyruvic acid. Produces two net ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Does not require oxygen.
Expiratory
Pertaining to exhalation; act of expelling air from the lungs.
Parasympathetic Pathway
Longer Preganglionic Neuron, to ganglion which very close or on effector, short postganglionic neuron. Uses only ACh
cancer of blood forming tissue resulting in increase mature and immature white cells in the blood
leukemia
tiny, hairlike structures that move fluid over the cell
Cilia
-is composed primarily of calcium salts that provide the hardness to the bone. Is also composed of collagen fibers which make it less brittle. Like reinforcing rods in concrete, they provide tensile strength.
Matrix
Nutrients
Needed for energy & cell building
The adrenal______________ secretes a group of hormones called mineralocorticoids, of which ___________ is the most important.
cortex, aldosterone
Joints between bones of the skull
Sutures
bronchiole
a small branch of a bronchus.
smooth
________ muscle tissue composes 5% of the total body mass. 
CELLS
THE BASIC UNITS OF ALL LIVING THINGS
The ______ is also called the “emotional brain”.
hypothalamus
Laryngeal Functions for Speech
main functon is phonation/voicing
 
-Aryodynamic Myloelsatic theory of Phonation=vocal fold vibration
 
-result of 2 factors:
1.aryodynamic factor
2.myloelastic factor
 
aryodynamic=air flow and pressure
myloelastic=laryngeal muscular resistence to air flow 
THE AUDITORY TUBE CONNECTS THE MIDDLE EAR WITH WHAT?
THROAT
Blood
the only type of connective tissue that is liquid, composed of cells suspended in a fluid matrix called plasma
Lock-and-key-model
each enzyme fits a particular molecule that it acts on as a key fits into a lock
fibroblast
a connective tissue cell that produces collagen fibers and ground substance; the only type of cell in tendons and ligaments
erythropoiesis
the process of red blood cell formation
interleukins
proteins that stimulate the growth of T cell lymphocytes and activate immune responses
pandemic
occuring over a large geographic area; a widespread epidemic
Acini
A histological term referring to a blind pocket, pouch, or sac. The acini in the pancreas are clusters of secretory cells surrounding ducts.
The ulnar and ___________ arteries are primary blood supplies for the arms and hands.
Radial
ANS Effectors
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
the unit of measurement for fluid volume
mililiter
external jugular veins empty into the
sublcavian vein
Process of cells taking in tiny droplets of liquid from surrounding as cell membrane indents
Pinocytosis
Cytoskeleton
- an internal network of protein filaments that serves to maintain cell’s shape, move structures within the cell, and also move the entire cell.
physiology
the study of the activities or functions of the body and its parts
In Luteinizing hormone (LH) c) Function in men: Causes the testes to secrete the hormone _______________.
c) testosterone
Sagittal
Vertical plane that cuts body into right and left parts.
Three types of granulocytes
1. basophils
2. acidophils
3. neutrophils
valve
a membranous fold or other structure that controls the flow of a fluid, as one that permits blood to flow in one direction only.
Loose Areolar Connective Tissue
Location
deep to all epithelial tissue
surrounding organs
 
Functions
wrap/cushion organs
apical surface
surface of epithelial cell that is exposed to the body exterior or to the cavity of an internal organ
 
-"free surface"
-has microvilli
-can also have cilia (hair)
which part of the kidney nephron is the site of filtration
glomerular
distal
farther away from the limb of the arm
WATERY FLUID FOUND BETWEEN LENS AND CORNEA
SIMILAR TO BLOOD PLASMA
HELPS MAINTAIN INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
PROVIDES NUTRIENTS FOR THE LENS AND CORNEA
REABSORBED INTO THE VENOUS BLOOD THROUGHT HE SCLERAL VENOUS SINUS, OR CANAL OF SCHLEMM
AQ HUMOUR
clavicle
collarbone. One of the pair of long bones that form the anterior part of the pectoral girdle
What is Homeostasis?
the constancy of the internal environment that is stabilized by Feedback Loop.
elastic fibers
a connective tissue fiber, composed of the protein elastin, that stretches under tension and returns to its original length when released; responsible for the resilience of organs such as the skin and the lungs
excitability
the ability to receive & respond to stimulus; to function properly, muscles have to respond to a stimulus from the nervous system
peripheral resistance
opposition to blood flow caused by friction of the blood vessel walls
Excitable
Refers to a cell that responds to stimuli by generating an electrical signal at the cell membrane. Neurons and muscle cells are excitable.
What 2 major subdivisions does microscopic anatomy include?
cytology and histology
Rami Communicantes
White - Myel - PreganglionicGray - Unmel - Postganglionic
Two types of Polcycthemia
-primary (cancer of erythropoietic cell line) -secondary (dehydration, emphysema, high altitude etc)
When solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are equal in concentration, they are said to be:
Isotonic
Adrenergic receptors
a. These occur on visceral effectors innervated by most sympathetic postganglionic neurons.
b. Are two main types - alpha receptors & beta receptors. Some are excitatory and some are inhibitory.
c. NE & epinephrine also stimulate these as hormones.
d. NE stimulates alpha-receptors more vigorously than beta-receptors but epinephrine stimulates both equally well.
- is the most frequently fractured single bone of the carpal bones.
Scaphoid (navicular)
Fascia. Chp 7
A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers individual skeletal muscles and certain organs.
Hierarchy complexity
Neutrons Protons & Electrons = AtomTwo or more Atoms bind together= Molecule (like O2)Different Molecules bind together with other molecules to= Compounds ( like H2O)Organelles sub-cellular structures of a cell which is the basic unit of life.Cells group together to form TissuesTissues group together to form and OrganOrgan group together to create an organ system.Molecules
buccinator
a thin, flat muscle lining the cheek, the action of which contracts and compresses the cheek.
Long bones
All bones of the limbs are _________; except the patella, carpals, and tarsals
Names for number of carbon double bonds
Single-ane, Double-ene, Triple-yne
Diarthrosis Joint
Freely movable joint, all of which are synovial, and have a variety of shapes and permit several different types of movements. Covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage.
2 STRUCTURES OF THE EXTERNAL EAR
AURICLE (PINNA)
EXTERANAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS (AUDITORY CANAL)
skeletal muscle tissue
attached to bones and skin, striated, voluntary, powerful
Types of Epithelial Tissue:
1. Columnar epithelial tissue 2. Squamos Epithelial Tissue 3. Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue
autoimmune disease
a condition in which the body's immune system becomes defective and produces antibodies against itself
Enterohepatic circulation
The secretion of bile salts by the liver, followed by their absorption in the ileum and return to the liver by the hepatic portal vein.
What is the reticulum?
close to the diaphragm, honeycomb, hardware b/c this is where the hardware would drop out
because of injury to the JCGA and the release of renin
hypertension
- forms the external layers of all bones. it is relatively strong. -release a lipid-rich, water-repellent secretion.
Compact bone
spongy bone
Filling the interior of the bone is the trabecular bone tissue (an open cell porous network also called cancellous)
The stimulus for secretion of cortisol is ________ from the ___________ in situations of physiological stress.
ACTH, anterior pituitary
popliteal
of or pertaining to the ham, or part of the leg back of the knee.
what are the 2 types of bones?
cancellous (spongy) and compact
what does continous conduction mean? saltatory conduction?
-continuous = slower (unmyelinated axons)-saltatory = faster (myelinated axons)
FUNCTION OF THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS
PROTECTS, MOISTENS AND LUBRICATES THE EYE
EMPTIES INTO THE NASAL CAVITY
primary germ layer
one of the layers of embryonic tissue, called ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm, that give rise to all tissues and organs of the body
Functions of the cerebrum include:
sending messages such as thought, hearing and sight
drains the upper right half of the body
right lymphatic duct
- consists of the 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs and also the girdles that connect these to the skeleton (E.g. all other bones).
Appendicular skeleton
Lactic acid. Chp 7
The chemical end product of anerobic cell respiration; lowers pH and contributes to fatigue in the muscle cells.
how does new cell production in skin occur?
mitosis
 
-deeper layer or epidermis (stratum basale)
 
what are the 2 types of cholinergic receptors?
- nicotinic and muscarinic
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Rate at which energy is expended (heat produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions: 12 hours after a meal, at rest.
(Regions of the Braind Stem)corpora quadrigemina
f(x)-relay centers for visual and hearing reflexes
Primary active transport
- the movement of a chemical across a membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.
Phosphorus. Chapter 6 WB
Becomes part of the salts of bone matrix.
When comparing the endocrine system to the nervous system, we could say theendocrine system
sends action potentials, rather than chemical signals through the blood
B cell OR B lymphocyte
One of the two major classes of lymphocytes involved in adaptive immunity; when activated, B lymphocytes generate antibody-producing plasma cells, mediating humoral immunity.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS)(stuctural)
2. In the ANS motor pathway, one autonomic motor neuron (the preganglionic neuron) extends from the CNS to an autonomic ganglion (outside of CNS).

Another autonomic motor neuron (postganglionic neuron) extends from the ganglion to an effector.

Autonomic motor neurons release ACh or norepinephine (NE).
In the embryo, bones of the trunk and extremities are first made of which tissue?
cartilage. Chapter 6 WB
how does each action potential differ from the initial one?
-each is identical to the initial one-action potentials do not decrease in intensity during propagation to reproduce or spread
Dehydration can be caused from which of the following:
A) Gastrointestional losses
B) Increased insensible loss
C) Increased sweating
D) Internal losses
E) All of the above
E) All of the above
Dehydration can also be caused by plasma losses.
What is the patella also known as? what kind of bone shape is it?
irregular bone shape; known as a sesamoid bone
Discuss the following function of the skeletal system

Helps in movement
- muscles contract to pull bone and move the body.
State the locations of red bone marrow, and name the blood cells it produces.chapter 6
Red bone marrow is found in flat and irregular bones. It produces red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets.
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