Anatomy and Physiology vocabulary A-C Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cx
condition
thorax
the chest
Malaria
Vector borne(biological)
tarsals
the ankle bones
Glomerular capsule
bowman's capsule
dx
Prognosis of death.
Outcome of disease.
Prognosis
red pigment of bile
bilirubin
Inspiration is also called?
Inhalation
axillary
pertaining to the axilla.
torso
the trunk of the body
receptors sensitive to various chemicals in solution
chemoreceptor
descendants of a single cell
clone
The ______ is dome shaped.
diaphragm
Exacerbation
Acute "flare up" of disease.
plasma
the fluid portion of the blood
peripheral pulses
the radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses. which can be felt on the outlying parts of the body.
ability to transmit an electrical impulse
conductivity
a malignant invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of spreading throughout the body or body parts
cancer
proposed mechanism of B cell activation in which multivalent antigens bind to several adjacent receptors on a B lymphocyte and pull them into a continuous cluster
capping
embryonic membrane; its blood vessels develop into blood vessels of the umbilical cord
allantois
chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions
buffer
the cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane
cytoplasm
Phonation is also called what?
Voice production
The longitudinal plane dividing the body into equal or unequal front and back parts in CT and MRI, the term "coronal" is used by radiologists.
Coronal/Frontal
CC
Chief Complaint-main reason a patient (pt) seeks care.
Unmyelinated axons conduct what slowly?
Action potentials
umbilical
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of an umbilicus or umbilical cord.
pulmonary veins 
the vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the right atrium of the heart. 
zygomatic arches
form the structure of the cheeks.
valve
structure that opens and closes to permit the flow of a fluid in only one direction.
anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
the automatic adjustment of blood flow to a particular body area in respose to its current requirements
autoregulation
severe surffocating chest pain caused by brief lack of oxygen supply to heart muscle
angina pectoris
structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factos (genes)
chromatin
chemical bond created by electron sharing between atoms
covalent bond
substance composed of two or more different elements, the atoms of which are chemically united
compound
state of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid
acidosis
____ controls this smooth muscle.
Autonomic Nervous System
Mechanical control....
operates through stretch receptors in the lungs that set limits on routine insp. & exp. when lungs inflate to a certain point, nerve impulses say lungs are full and stops contractions. Then notifys muscles to start exp.
Which route transmission has indirect and direct contact.
Contact transmission.
Another function of the endocrine system is?
Water balance
calcaneal
the largest tarsal bone, forming the prominence of the heel.
vein
any blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.
a common form of fetal testing in which a small sample of fluid is removed from the amniotic cavity
amniocentesis
receptor in the aortic arch sensitive to changing oxygen, cargon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood
aortic body
tiny, smooth muslces attached to hair follicles; cause the hair to stand upright when activated
arrector pili
What are peripheral chemoreceptors?
aortic bodies and carotid bodies
Does it require as much work as inspiration?
NO
Syndrome
a group of symptoms related to a certain cx or disease.
If a identification of a disease is made, what is that called?
Diagnosis
The brachial major plexus does what?
Controls upper limb
mammary
of or pertaining to the mamma or breast.
anterior
FRONT. Front of the body or the body part. 
mid-clavicular line
the line through the cent of each clavicle 
one of the microscopic air sacs of the lungs
alveolus
force exerted by blood against a unit area of the blood vessel walls; difference in blood pressure between different areas of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circuation
blood pressure
bundle of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the AV node to the right and left ventricles; also called bundle of His
AV bundle (atrioventricular bundle
What helps to draw blood from the midsize beins and then dump into the atria?
negative pressure
What are paranasal sinuses?
Outpouchings of the nasal passages that are contained within spaces in certain skull bones.
What has to stay open to allow airflow?
The pharynx
Signs are measurable, and objective give four examples.
(rash, edema, fever, weight)
Insulin does what?
It absorbs blood glucose for later use
Autonomic has 3 divisions what are they?
Parsympathetic,sympathetic, and enteric
palmar
of, pertaining to, or located in or on the palm of the hand or to the corresponding part of the forefoot of an animal.
peripheral nervous system
the nerves that enter and leave the spinal cord.
a hormone released by certain cells of the heart atria that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na+ and water retention
atrial natriuretic factor
What causes lung collapse?
the loss of negative pressure within the pleural space which allows the lungs to fall away from the thoracic wall because nothing is holding it in place any longer.
How do the muscles work?
The intercostal muscles rotate the ribs backwards decreasing the cavity size and the abdominal muscles push the abdominal organs against the caudal surface of the diaphragm making it the dome shape again.
What is blood supply to and from the lungs called?
Pulmonary circulation
Describe the arytenoid cartilages?
paired attachment site of the vocal cords.Muscles adjust the tension of the vocal cords by moving the cartilages
What are the three laryngeal functions?
Voice production, prevention of foreign material being inhaled, control of airflow to and from the lungs
What is Expiration?
Process of pushing air out of the lungs
In what ways does the respiratory system regulate body temperature?
By Acid-Base Balance Regulation
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure of the body; below.
Inferior (Caudal)
The cervical major plexus does what?
Controlls neck muscles and skin
What else does hyperpolarization cause?
Increase in Cl- permeability, decrease of Na+ permeability, or an increase in Ca+ outside the cell
What does the thalumus control?
Skeletal muscles, limbic system, and emotions
Glucagon does what?
It breaks down fat to increase blood glucose
what are the 2 stimuli to breathe?
primary- high CO2
secondary- low O2
How can it be treated?
By medication but if ineffective holes may need to be drilled into the sinus to allow drainage.
What are found in non-ruminant animals?
Vestibular folds (False Vocal Cords)a second set of connective tissue bands
What are the two sets of turbinates called?
Dorsal and ventral turbinates
What is the Hilius?
it is where air, blood, lymph, and nerves enter and leave the lung. It is also the only area of lung that is fastened in place.
Negatively charged proteins are synthesized where?
Inside the cell and cannot diffuse out
Cerebrospinal fluid fills the ventricles and what else?
The subarachnoid space and the central canal of the spinal cord
what are the 5 divisions of the vertebrae and how many bones are in each division?
-cervical- 7 bones
-thoracic- 12 bones
-lumbar- 5 bones
-sacral- 5 bones (fused)
-Coccyx- 4 bones (fused) <--Tailbone
How is air humidfied?
By the mucus and other fluids on the epithelial surface
Explain what the bronchial tree is?
air passages that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli that divide into smaller and smaller passages
What are the two parts of the refractory period?
Absolute refractory and relative refractory
The third ventricle is located where?
In the center of the diencephalon between the two halfes of the thalumus
What does negative pressure also aid in?
The return of blood to the heart
In consideration to Vector borne transmission what is biological mean?
the insect has the organism in them and they transmitt it through bite.
Depolarization is a decrease in the resting membrane potential, the cell becomes more positive due to?
A decrease in the K+ concentration gradient, causing a decrease in the membrane permeability of K+
What are the functions of the nasal passages?
The nasal passages hosue receptors for sense of smell, condition the inhaled air by warming, humidfying, and filtering it.
Mainly due to the tendency of K+ ions to diffuse out of the cell, is opposed by?
The negative charge that it develops
What is the pH range of blood
Normal pH is 7.4 but it can range from 7.35 to 7.45
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