anatomy and physiology13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-algia
pain
tears
lacr-
wrist
carp-
paralysis
pleg-
tissue
hist-
my/o
muscle
Inferior
below
Polydipsia
Excessive thirst
fever, fire
pyr-
same, alike
iso-
alike, same
homeo-
XRT
Radiation Theraphy
white cells
leukocytes
cervical
neck region
epiphyseal disk
growth plate
Endoplsmic Reticulum (ER)
assemble, gather together
-agon
chest x-ray film
CSR
palmar
palm of hand
Identify direction
Dorsal (posterior)
Catecholamines(KAT-e-kohl-ah-MEENZ)
Catecholamines (KAT-e-KOHL-ah-meens) Epinephrine
and norepinephrine, the hormones secreted by the adrenal
medulla (Chapter 10).
ossicle
a small bone.
causes milk "let down"
oxytocin
anion
a negative charged ion
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD
Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms larger than viruses; some are pathogens; can be found extracellularly or intracellularly.
usually indicates diabetes mellitus
glucose
Myxedema (MIK-suh-DEE-mah)
Myxedema (MIK-suh-DEE-mah) Hyposecretion of thyroxine
in an adult; decreased metabolic rate results in
physical and mental lethargy (Chapter 10).
Nucleus
surrounded by a nuclear envelope
 
Composition 
Nucleoplasm containing nucleotides, enzymes, mucheoproteins, and chromatin; surrounded by double membrane (nuclear envelope)
 
Functions
Control of metabolism; storage and processing of genetic information; control of protein synthesis
homeostasis refers to
stable internal conditions
Hemoglobin:
consists globins, conjugated w/ nonprotien heme group that binds oxygen to ferrous ion @ its center.
HDL
"good" because this carries cholesterol away from cells and toward the liver for elimination from the body. High proportion of this is associated with low risk of developing atheroscloorosis.
to love, have affinity for
-phil-
What is a cephalon?
a head
normal hemoglobin values
males 14-18females 12-16
axial portion
head, neck, & trunk
Potassium
(K)Necassary for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. Necessary for proper movement of water(osmosis)among its compartments.
outerlayer of uterine tissue
tunica serosa
Fibrocartilage
This type of skeletal cartilage exhibits the following characteristics:
* Highly compressible with great tensile strength
*Contains type 1 collagen fibers in an acidophilic matrix
* Perichondrium absent.
*Found at the intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, and menisci of the knee joint. 
CARBOHYDRATE
FUNCTION FOR QUICK, SHORT-TERM ENERGY STORAGE IN ALL ORGANISMS
lateral
structure further away from the medial
Epicardium:
serous membrane overlying thin layer areolar tissue has thick deposits adipose tissue.
 
Coracobrachialis
Origin: Scapula corocoid process; to medial humerus shaft
 
Action: Adducts and flexes humerus
molecules
two or more atoms joined together
arrector pili
muscle associated with hair follicles
Basal lamina
Nonliving, adhesive material formed largely of glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells; provides support to epithelium.
The ________ is the body's pump.
Heart
growth
an increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells
potassium losing diuretics are
thiazides, and furosemides
merocrine glands
secrete product by exocytosis
expl: pancreas, sweat/salivary glands
New capillaries develop and fibroblasts deposit collagen into blood clot
Proliferative Phase
Atherosclerosis
The abnormal accumulation of lipids and other materials in the walls of arteries;narrows the lumen of the vessel and may stimulate abnormal clot formation
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
primary energy exchange molecule
___ and ___ are two catecholamines
epiniphrine
norepinephrine
Veins
blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart
Orbicularis oris
Origin Muscles around mouth
   Insertion skin at corners of mouth
Action purse lips
What prevents “grinding” in a normal synovial joint
synovial fluid/bursa
Superficial Fascia
Separates muscle from the skin consists of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue.
Muscle fibers:
provide support for heart, give muscles something to pull against, limits routes which electrical activity can travel through heart.
Pectoralis Minor
Origen: chondral border of ribs 2-5Insertion: superior laterally to scapula Innervation: Brachial plexus C4-C7, T1Function: elevates ribcage
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in response to the concentration gradient
64 Cranial nerve V is the _____ nerve
trigeminal
lochia
vaginal discharge during the first 1 or 2 weeks after childbirth; consists of blood, mucus, and tissue
muscle biopsy
removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
bronchogenic carcinoma
cancerous tumors arising from a bronchus; lung cancer; smoking is the primary etiologic agent; spreads readily to the liver, brain, and bones
Haustra
Bulging pocket-like sacs of the large intestine wall.
Current
The movement of charged particles. In biological systems, the movement of ions.
Somatic cells divide by the process called...
Mitosis
What is the first cervical vertebrae which supports the head.
Atlas
Erythrocyte life span
120 days from time produced
The pressure exerted by the concentration of solutes on one side of the semipermeable membrane.
Osmotic pressure
The cell membrane engulfs droplets of fluid
Pinocytosis
surgical procedure in which part of the cranium is removed. It may be permormed to remove a blood clot, a brain tumor, or a sample of brain tissue for biopsy
craniotomy
Integumentary System
-Forms the external body covering -Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair & nails -Protects deep tissues from injury & synthesizes vitamin D
The adrenal ______________ secretes a group of hormones called glucocorticoids, of which ___________ is the most important.
cortex, cortisol
Rigor Mortis
-stiffening of muscles several hours before death
-ATP production stops
-causes cross bridges to form between myosin and actin
-no atp to break bridges
carpus
the part of the upper extremity between the hand and the forearm; wrist.
absorbs water from the indigestible materials in the digestive tract
large intestine
Synovial Joints
_____ includes the majority of the joints found in the body. 
PH SCALE
USED TO INDICATE THE ACIDITY OR BASICITY (ALKALINITY) OF A SOLUTION
RANGES FROM 0-14
what period happens during repolarization?-depolarization?
-repolarization -relative refractory period-depolarization -absolute refractory period
Glottal Attack
adduction of folds prior to airflow
ex. cough 
Oxygen Defecit
Extra O2 needed after exercise for replenishment of: oxygen reserves, glycogen stores, and ATP and CP reserves. also for conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid, glucose, and glycogen
sweat gland
a gland that secretes sweat, either directly to the skin's surface (eccrine type) or indirectly through hair follicles (apocrine type). Also called sudoriferous glands, sweat glands are widely distributed over the body, except for the lips, nippes, and parts of the expernal genitalia
78 Upfolds of the cerebral cortex are called __________ or convolutions.
oligospermia
a condition in which there are few sperm in the semen; low sperm count
Absorptive cells of the small intestine have microvilli with enzymes.  This is referred to as the.
 
lacteals
brush border
absorptive border
villi
secretive border
 
2. brush border
compound
a substance formed from two or more elements joined by chemical bonds in a definite, or fixed, ratio; smallest unit of a ___ is a molecule
Double-helical chain
Two strands of molecules twisted into a spiral or coil.
types of sweat glands
1) merocrine 2) or apocrine
a stack of membranous sacs involved in sorting and modifiying proteins and then packaging them for export from the cell
Golgi apparatus
nutrients
food , contain the chemicals used for energy and cell building
this passes up the inguinal canal lateral and posterior to the bladder and enters the prostate gland
vas deferens
epithelium: avascular but innervated
innervated- supplied by nerve fibers
avascular-no blood vessels
Membrane proteins
- they largely determine what function a cell will perform and can vary from cell to cell.
Sacrum
5 fused vertebrae; second to last of spinal column
The stimulus for secretion of GH is __________from the hypothalamus.
GHRH
Muscles that tend to pull a limb toward the median plane
Adductors
mammary
of or pertaining to the mamma or breast.
passive transport
movement of what?
concentration gradient?
does not require ATP
-movement of solutes from an area of HIGHER concentration to LOWER 
-move DOWN a concentration gradient
The enzymatic action on lipids is the function of
pancreatic lipase
Nucleic acids
form genes and take part in protein synthesis
Magnetomete
is two coils of wire which generate an electromagnetic field
58 The largest nerve in the body is the __________ nerve
sciatic
sudoriferous gland
a gland in the skin that produces perspiration; also called sweat gland
Alveolar sac
Clusters of alveoli that open into a common space.
dorsal pedal artery
major pulse point on dogs/cats
top of hind limb 
atmospheric pressure
the force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air
The outer covering of a cell, also called the plasma membrane
Cell membrane
injury to the neck region due to severe hyperextension of the head followed by severe hyperflexion of the head -sypmtoms are related to stretching and tearing of ligaments and muscles, vertebral fraxures, and herniated vertebral discs
whiplash injury
Nail follicle
The structure within the skin of a finger or toe in which a nail grows; mitosis takes place in the nail root.
ionic bond
formed by attraction between - and + charged atoms
1. Articular Surfaces
2. Ligaments
3. Muscle Tone
Name 3 factors that influence the stability of synovial joints. 
What does cartilage in a bone provide?
flexible but firm support
The 6 Types of Synovial Joints
Planar, Hinge, Pivot, Condyloid, Saddle, Ball-and-Socket
Derivatives of the epidermis
sweat glands, oil glands, hairs and hair follicles, and nails
Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
 
ingestion
secretion
mixing and propulsion
absorption
none of the above
 
3. mixing and propulsion
What are the types of teeth?
Incisors, canines, premolars and molars
tissue repair step 1: inflammation sets the stage
-release inflammatory chem., cause capillaries to dilate which becomes permeable
-allows WBC, plasma fluid, antibodies seep through
-clotting proteins construct clot & isolates injured area
-clot dries & hardens-creates scab
Compact bone Chap 6
Bone tissue made of osteons (haversian systems); forms the diaphyses of long bones and covers the spongy bone of other bones.
A horse lying on its back is in this position
Dorsal
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the vena cava to the lungs?
pulmonary semilunar valve, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle
direct skeletal muscle attachment
 epimysium of muscle is fused to the periosteum of bone or pericondrium of cartilage
What is the urinatry system's function regarding waste product concentration?
Elimination or waste products from the blood
common in older people, are also seen in smokers and coffee drinkers
premature ventricular contractions (PVC)
Glucagon functions 1) Causes the liver to convert stored ______________ to glucose to be used for energy production. 2) Increases the use of _________ and ________ for energy production.
b) 1) glycogen
c) increased, food
What is the main function of the excretory system?
to remove waste products
What is the atomic weight?
the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom
What are Eustachian tubes?
two tubes that go to the middle ear and used to equalize pressure in the tympanic membrane.
Ethmoid bone. Chp 6 pg 123
Has a vertical projection called the crista galli (rooster's comb) that anchors the cranial meninges. The rest of the bone forms the roof and upper walls of the nasal cavities, & its perpendicular plate forms the upper part of the nasal septum.
PTHrP (parathyroid hormone- related peptide)
This is thought to play a role in cartilage development. 
Why are the kidneys and pancreas said to be retroperitoneal?
because they lie between the peritoneal lining and muscular wall of the abdominal cavity
Scapula Chp 6 pg 130
The scapula is a large, flat bone with several projections ( the spine of the scapula, the coracoid process) that anchor some of the smscles thatg move the upper arm & the forearm.
What is an exchange reaction? How is it symbolized?
Parts of two different types of molecules trade positions as bonds break and form new ones
 
AB+CD→AD+BC
What is the epiphysis of long bone? what is it made of?
the "knobs" at the end of long bones-mostly made of cancellous/spongy bone-covered in compact bone
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