anatomy exam 1B Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cephalic
head
thoracis
chest
Coxal
Hip
vulv/o
vulva, covering
tachypnea
rapid breathing
elevation
bring up
condyle
large round protuberance
mammary glands
milk-producing glands
an immovable jont
synarthrosis
detrus
to force away
two positive charges will
repel
lysosomes
 
membrane-bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes to break down material brought in via endocytosis
can perform

autophagy- break down of worn-out organelles

autolysis- digestion of entire cell

 
POSTERIOR FONTAINEL
smaller triangular shaped
tRNA
small cloverleaf-shaped molecules. protein synthesis
Survival Needs
food, oxygyen, water, heat
Belly
the bulge of the muscle
anterior body position
towards the front
Tarsal refers to the (1)
ankle
latissimus dorsifor arm extenson. rotates shoulder. chin ups
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Temporalis
Elevates & retracts the mandible
catabolism
destructive metabolism; the breaking down in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones, with the release of energy (
osteology
The study of the bones is...
-blast
Immature connective tissue cell. ex: fibroblast, chondroblast, osteoblast
Accomodation
Contraction of the ciliary muscles -->
Relaxation of suspensory ligaments-->
Lens becomes more round-->
Focus on Near Objects
trabeculae
a supporting framework of fibers crossing the substance of a structure, as in the lamellae of spongy bone
Intrinsic
Situated within or pertaining to internal origin
Antagonist
Muscle that opposes a given movement
respiratory system contains: (2)
lungs, bronchial tree
transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons .
neurons
transitional epithelium
highly modified, stratified squamous epithelium that forms the lining of the bladdar, uturas, and part of the urethra
Diencephalon consists of these three structures:
thalamus
hypothalamus
epithalamus
Posterior
dorsal back of body...remember shark fin
What's embolus?
A drifting blood clot in circulation
cholesterol
single most important molecule in our steroid chemistry
What type of innervation does dilator pupillae mm recieve?
S
decussation
crossing over of impulses from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain; occurs in medulla & spinal cord
Cerebrum
 The principal and most anterior part of the brain in vertebrates, located in the front area of the skull and consisting of two hemispheres. It is responsible for the integration of sensory and neural functions and the initiation and coordination of voluntary activity.
Transverses Process
Most lateral part of a vertebra
Plexus
A network of interlaced nerves or vessels
How long is the ileum?
12 ft long
Reduction
a chemical reaction in which a molecule gains electrons and energy
muscular injuries
pulled hamstrings: tear in hamstring musclespulled groin muscles: those muscles help adduct.plantar fasciitis: swelling of tissue on bottom of footshinsplints: pressure on nerve because has cut off circulationcarpal tunnel syndrome: pressure on nervestrain: damage to tendon attachmentssprain: teared ligament
summation and recruitment together can produce a _____ ____ of increasing strength
sustained reaction
serous parietal pericardium
lines fibrous pericardium, produces fluid
petalias.
Human brains tend to have shape asymmetry of the frontal and occipital lobes
Parathyroid Glands
posterior to thyroid glands, secretes _parathormone_ - hypercalcemic that acts on the bones and kidney
myocardium
The muscular substance of the heart. forms bulk of heart
transverse plane
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
muscles of the superficial compartment of the posterior compartment of leg
 
-names
-relationships
-attachments
-actions
Gastrocnemius-muscle(calf)-has a medial and lateral head that arise from the distal femur and cross the knee joint (can flex the knee joint) then they come down and form the Calcaneal (achilles) tendon that crosses the ankle joint and then connects to the calcaneus (plantar flexion)
Plantaris-deep to Gastroc, crosses the knee (thin looks like a nerve)and the tendonblends in with the calcaneal or achilles tendon.
Soleus-bilateral, arise from tibia and fibula acts on ankle only-plantor flexion, its tendon  joins the achilles also crosses the ankle joint and then connects to the calcaneus
bone growth (length)
Grows in 4 zones (resting, proliferation, hypertrophic, and calcified). Diaphysis is indreased in length due to activity of the epiphyseal plate.
Satellite cells
yellow thing there to maintain and repair the muscle cells because they do not mitose
Myelography
using a contrast medium like iodine or Barium Sulfate to view softer tissue in x-ray.
CNX- name and exit from skull
 Vagus, jugular foramen
The oviduct is the most common site for what?
fertilization
bone scan
tracer bond to phosphorous labels its uptake in bones
what creates larger generator/receptor potential?
-more frequent AP
-amplitude does not change!!
-Talus-Calcaneous-Navicular-Med Cuneiform-Intermediate Cuneiform-Lat Cuneiform-Cuboid
the cat needs milk, I like cream
surface anatomy
study of the general form and superficial anatomical markings
Appendicular portion of body:
B) includes arms and legs
femoral
of, pertaining to, or situated at, in, or near the thigh or femur.
middle ear
small air filled cavity in temporal bone, auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)--- connected by synapse joints
What is Interstital growth?
Chondrocytes expand the cart. from within.
Appendicular Skeleton
includes the bones of the limbs, the pelvic and pectoral girdles including the scapular, clavicle, and pelvic girdles.
CN Carrying both Motor & Sensory Fibers
Trigeminal (V)
 
Facial (VII)
 
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
 
Vagus (X)
sagittal body position
refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions
Cellular Level
Cells are the smallest living unit of the human bodyOrganelles (defined as the functional subunits of cells) are internal structures which are composed of complex chemicals or molecules
ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
nose, pharynx, larynx. trachea. bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs
neck of tooth
marks the boundary between the root and the crown
Prime Movers that Extend the Arm?
Latissimus Dorsi & Deltoid
Efferent Divison
division of the PNS that carries motor commands to muscles and glands.
gray matter
nerve tissue of the brain and spinal cord that contains fibers and nerve cell bodies and is a dark reddish-gray color
Rhomboid major - origin, insertion, action, innervation
origin: spinous processes of T2-T5
Insertion: medial border of scapula from spine to inferior angle
INnervation: dorsal scapular nerve
Action: retract scapula and rotate to depress glenoid cavity, fix scapula to thoracic wall.
What does the coronoid process of the mandible attch to?
Muscles of mastication/chewing
Attachments, innervation, and actions of the Satorius muscle
Proximally attached to ASIS, distally attached to the medial aspect of the tibia
Innervated by the femoral nerve
Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates the thigh; flexes the leg at the knee
Smooth Muscle FX and MO
Long fibers without bands Involuntary Movement (stomach, intestines) Wave like contraction (digestion)
Compact (Cortical or Lamellar) Bone:
Solid structure associated with the shaft or the ends.Typically remodeled with Haversian systems.
tibia
the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle and articulate with the femur and the talus; shinbone.
what are the two layers of endometrium?
stratum functionalis- shed in periodstratum basalis- deep, regenerates new layer
What are skeletal muscles and what functions do they perform? (Ch. 9 pg. 238)
Skeletal muscles are contractile organs directly or indirectly attached to bones of the skeleton.
Functions:
Produce skeletal movement
Maintain posture & body position
Support soft tissues (ab wall & pelvic cavity support visceral organs)
Regulate  entering and exiting of material (muscle at orifices)
Maintain body temp (muscle use releases heat - shivering)
What is the nervous system?(2)
(1)fast acting control system of the body (2)responds to internal and external by acitivating appropiate muscles and glands
1. Aorta2. Left primary bronchus3. Diaphragm--these areas burned by swallowing caustic liquids
Celiac Trunk and Stomach arterial supply
testicular nerves come from what segment of the spinal cord?what do they do?
T10 and T11carry sensory fibers for pain, and motor fibers for blood flow
The membranous parietal and visceral pelvic fascia become continues when..
the organs penetrate the pelvic floor (pelvic diaphragm) - the tendinous arch
The correct number of the various kinds of vertebra is
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar
Name the structures associated w the optic nerve:
 
1) Macula lutea w fovea
2) Optic nerve
3) Subarachnoid space
4) Dura
5) Optic disk
Rig or MORtis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is
excessive ATP which prevents muscle contraction
What is on the posterior of the sacrum?
the median and lateral sacral crests (which are a fusion of the S1-S5 spinous processes)
1. right lung shape
2. left lung shape
1. short and wide, due to the r. diaphramatic dome extending higher
2. long and skinny (attenuated) due to the heart imposing medially
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