Anatomy Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-tomy
cutting
BUCCAL
CHEEK
Infra
below
plegia
paralysis
lipo
fat
CHOLE
bile, gall
mania
obsession, compulsion
Nail
Hard keratin
Nerve Lats
Thorcodorsal nerve
Epiphysis
Ends of bone
digastric
muscle under jaw
intermediate
between two structures
During endochonral ossification, secondary ossification centers prodcue the
epiphyses
pacinian corpuscle
responds to pressure
innervation of iliopsoas
femoral nerve
gastrocnemius
plantar flex foot
femoral condyles
calcaneus (via calcaneal tendon)
left lung
lung has two lobes
chemoreceptors
hypercapnia and severe hypoxia stimulates _____ located in the walls of the carotid sinus and aortic arch.
carrier-mediated transport
 
require transmembrane carrier proteins embedded in plasma membrane for transport

facilitated diffusion
passive transport- no ATP required in addition to carrier


active transport
requires ATP in addition to carrier

 
Digital refers to the (1)
fingers
pancreatic enzymes
lipases, carbohydrases, nucleases, proteolytic enzymes including proteinases and peptidases
Marks end of Pharynx
Palatine muscle
extrinsic
originating outside the anatomical limits of certain muscles or nerves
anabolism
the synthesis of complex molecules from simple ones
hair follicle
accessory structure derived from epidermis
Pharynx
connects nasal and oral cavities; respiratory functions in breathing. digestive functions in chewing and swallowing
Posterior(dorsal)
Toward the back of the body
Genioglossus
Origin: Medial surface of mandible around chin. Insertion: Boy of tongue, hyoid bone. Action: Depresses and protracts tongue. Innervation: Hypoglossal Nerve
leukorrhea
white yellowish pus filled vaginal discharge
hippocampus
-main thing associated with memory along with amygdala 
-if hippocampus damaged, STM can't convert to LTM

The __________________ is a lymphatic organ that is found within the villi of the small intestine.
lacteal
Nasal boneEthmoid BoneMaxillary BoneVomer
Nasal Cavity boundaries
internal jugular
recieves blood from dural sinuses
mediastinum
between two lungs in thoracic cavity
Origin Pec Major
medial half of clavicle
sternum
costal cartilage
aponeurosa of external ab. oblique
Stratified squamous Epithelium
Description: Thick membrane cmoposed of several cell layers; basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattend (squamous); in the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superfilcial layers.
stratum lucidum
distinguished as separate layer only thick skinloss of organelles, cells die
ipsilateral
when a sensory nerve impulse enters the spinal cord on the same side that the motor impulse leaves it, the arrangement is called a(n) _____ reflex arc.
Proximal
near the articulation of an extremity with the trunk; on the trunk the point closest to the midline
cranial nerves


some are sensory, motor or mixed
part of the PNS
carry out sensory and motor impulses between brain and body
define hydroxyapatite
crystals formed from calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide
a structures (1) depends on its form
function
organelles
microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions
median umbilical ligament
aka urachus-peritoneal fold that extends from the anterior and superior border to the umbilicus
made up of bundles of nerve fibers
nerves
Prime Movers that Extend the Forearm?
Triceps Brachii
The techinque a physicians uses to listen to your heart sounds
Auscultation
rubrospinal tract
an extrapyramidal tract that maintains subconscious motor control and motor tone; cross at mesencephalon
tonsil
a prominent oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
dorsal primary rami innervate?
-go posteriorly
-innervate the deep muscles of the back and the dermatome on back
Simple Squamous Epithelia
Description: Single layer of flattened cells with dis-shaped central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; the simplesg of the epithelia.
cardiac muscle cells
mediate the rapid and synchronized contraction of the heart
incus, stapes, malleus
the auditory ossicles are the __________, _______, and the _________
loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the:
 
premotor cortex
Vital Signs
among the more comon observations made by physicians and nurses working with patients. Assessment of vital signs includes measuring body temperature and blood pressure and monitoring rates and types of pulse and breathing movements. There is a close relationship between these signs and the characteristics of life, since vital signs are the results of metabolic activities.
What is kinetic energy?
is the energy of motion
responsible for most food and water absorption
small intestine
Herbivores (herbivorous organisms)
plant eaters ex: deer and cattle
convex surface fits into a concave surface, movement in one plane only(joint)in the elbow and finger
hinge joint
Functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Body movementMaintenance of postureTemperature regulationStorage and movement of materialsSupport
External Oblique
O: Lower 8ribs
I: iliac crest, linea alba
A: increase intra-abdominal pressure during: defecation, urination, vomiting, expiration
organelles
a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
Adenine and Guanine
Which of the following bases are purines?
abdominopelvic region
one of nine divisions of the abdominal surface
ilium
flat bone of the ox coxae that extends cranially and laterally
Sphenoid Sinus Relations - Lateral?
Cavernous sinus, Internal Carotid Artery, 3, 4, 6, V1, V2
Mast cells are involved in which type of hypersensitivity reactions?
Type 1
actions of deep-posterior compartment
plantarflexion of ankle (all), flexion of toes (FHL, FDL), inversion of foot (TP)
One of the three major muscles that close the reptilian jaw; developed into the masseter and temporalis muscles in mammals.
External adductor
1. Cardiac Notch2. Lingula3. No Middle Lobe4. No Horizontal Fissure (only Oblique)
Right Primary Bronchus
macule
a blur in printing, as from a double impression.
infrapatellar bursa, deep the bursa lying between the patellar ligament and the tibia
synovial membrane, the deep infrapatellar bursa reduces friction between the patellar ligament and the tibia
what does the liver do?
stores and breaks down glycogen, breaks down glycogen, makes sugar or fat from proteinstores fats and vitaminsgets rid of biliruben from hemoglobinmakes biletraps and breaks down toxins
alveolar bone
bone in which the roots of the teeth lie
the smallest of the 3 gluteal muscles is?
gluteus minimus muscle
attachments of medial compartment mm
prox: pubic bone
dis: lineral aspera (gracilis: medial side of proximal tibia)
only vessel that is venous and has coronary in itdrains 60% of heart to IVC
venae cordis minimae
What is the substructures of the oral cavity?
teeth, toungue, pharynx
where do fibrous proteins appear?
appear in the body structures (bind them together)
What is an exocrine gland?
makes a substance and sends it directly to the target. Have ducts. Sweat. Salivary.
What is lastatory conduction?
this is conduction from one node of ranvier to another.
_______ of the ________ articulates with all other cranial bones
keystone of the cranium articulates with all other cranial bones
superior and inferior vena cava
all veins of the body ultimately drain into the..
Myoglobin binds to ____. there is a ____ affinity for O2, (___).  It is found in ____
Myoglobin enhances diffusion of O2 through ____ to mitochondria
-it also acts as a store of O2 when demandexceeds diffusion rate. at the start of ____. during ___ when
-only one heme
-high
-to the left
-striated muscle cells
-cytoplasm
-exercise
-systole 
Thickens into Int. Urethral Sphincter at Inf. Angle of Bladder; Smooth muscle
Where is the Ext. Urethral Sphincter located? What kind of muscle is it?
What makes up a spinal nerve?
What does a spinal nerve split into?
Dorsal root (sensory) + ventral root (motor)
 
Spinal nerves are very short; after 1 cm they divide into dorsal primary ramus and ventral primary ramus (both of those are mixed nerves - motor and sensory)
The function of the mitochondria is.....
supplying most of the ATP in the cell
What is more common, a femoral head dislocation or a femoral neck fracture? What may be endangered in each case?
1.) femoral neck fracture is more common2.) medial & lateral circumflex arteries along with branches of obturator artery (blood supply to head and neck of femur) in either case (medial circumflex femoral most important).
why is elbow flexion more diff than ext
coll ligs placed caudal to axis of rotation
Brachi
arm
HEPATO
liver
anan
without
-oma
tumor
af
to
fused clavicle
furcula
Graves disease
hyperthyroid
menarche
first period
condyloma acuminatum
venereal warts
Mast Cell
p. 70
Chrondocytes
Mature cartilage cells
PATELLAR
ANTERIOR SURFACE OF KNEE
Gastro
Refers to the stomatch
myology
muscle form and function
hyperextension
going back to far
Anterior
ventral front of body
body
largest part, roughly cylindrical, anterior section
Meniscus
Interarticular cartilage of cresent shape; gristle-like cartilage
Where are these vertebrae found?
 
Cervical
GLUMERULUS
urine making structure- formation, filter 180 lt/day 178.5 reabsorbed- tubular, 1.5 lts waste
Diarthroses
(Cavitated Joints)1. Synovial Joints:PlanarGinglymus (Hinge)Trochoid (Pivot)CondyloidEllipsoidSellar (Saddle)Spheroidal (Ball-and-Socket)
Glands (eccrine sweat) through ducts:
exocrine
antioxidants
are substances that inactivate oxygen derived free radicals
Transitional Epithelium
Description: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; basal cells cuboidal or columnar; surface cells dome shaped or squamouslike, depending on degree of organ stretch.
Superficial(external)
Toward or at the body surface
Dermis
(2 layers)
1)Papillary Region- under the epidermis (responsible for fingerprints)
2) Reticular Region- next to hyperdermis
Innervation to extensors of forearm
Mostly radial
Water is the body's (1)
chief solvent
PERICARDIUM
stringlike structure that supports the heart
nephron
basic structural and functional unit of the kidney
skeletal muscle tissue
longest, striations, voluntary control
rectus abdominus
flexes back
ribs and xiphoid process
pubic symphysis
protein
organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and required in all animal diets and nonphotosynthesizing organisms
dorsal root
Enter your back text here.
exocrine glands
Glands that secrete their products through a duct system only are the...
edema
an excessive accumulation of fluid in the body tissues
atom
The smallest portion of an element that retains its chemical properties.
rostral maxillary sinus comm with
ventral conchal sinus
papillary layer
thin areolar tissue near/in dermal papillae
 
allows defense against organisms
Distal
further from a point of attachment; opposite of proximal
In the 3-8th weeks, fetal erythropoiesis occurs in
Yolk sac
gamma knife
device using high energy radiation beams to destroy deep tumors without incisions
The spinal nerves consist of ______ pairs.
31
occipitalis
muscle covers the occipital region of the skull.
thoroughfare channel
direct flow between metarteriole and venule, bypass
Thyroid attachment
Superior to hyoid by cricothyroid ligament, inferior by cricoid cartiladge
Joint Innervation
-every joint capsule recieves sensory branches from several nerves
-hiltions law
adrenal glands
ductless glands above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex producing steroidal hormones, and a medulla producing epinephrine and norepinephrine
dynamics of capillary exchange
hyrdostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, net filtration pressure, filtration, reabsorption
twelve
The number of pairs of cranial nerves is...
Ependymal
glial cells of CNS that line central cavities of the brain and spinal cord/help circulate cerebrospinal fluid
amphipathic regions (2)
The regions of phospholipids: polar (can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules) and non-polar (fatty acid tails that only react with other lipids).
vertebral canal
through which spinal column runs; made of vertebral arches
Superior Omohyoid : Action
Depresses Larynx and Hyoid Bone
Visceral Pleurae
inner membrane lining of sac that adheres to the surface of the lung
NAMEis the study of the different systems of the body
systemic anatomy
water that enters the pharynx passes through the pharyngeal slits and exits the body via the _ in the posterior portion of the _
atriopore, atrium
Pulmonary Circuit
carbon dioxide rich blood from heart to lungs and returns oxygen rich blood to heart
What is prolactin?
Protein hormone stucturally similar to growth hormone; breast milk for a child.
Dehydration Synthesis
double sugars fom when two simple sugars are joined by this
INTERNALLY, what separates each atrium from its ventricle?
an AV valve
marrow
a soft, fatty, vascular tissue in the interior cavities of bones that is a major site of blood cell production
Left Atrium inside
1.Structures
1. -no pectinate muscle (smooth), but the left auricle does have the pectinate muscle
-
where is the DRG (dorsal root ganglion) found?
the intervertebral foramen
Condyle
A rounded part of a bone that forms part of a joint
(i.e. capitulum [radius] and trochlea [ulna] for the humerus)
functions of intervertebral disks
absorb shock, limit friction between bones, and facilitate movement of body.
Attachments, innervations, and actions of the superficial group of muscles in the posterior compartment of the leg
Gastrocnemius: proximally, lateral and medial heads attached to the lateral and medial condyles of the femur. Distally attached to the calcaneous via achilles tendon. Plantarflexion and knee flexion.
Soleus: proximally attached to soleal line of the tibia, distally attached to achilles tendon (soleal tendon joins w/ achilles tendon). Plantarflexion.
**does not cross the knee joint
Plantaris: proximally attached to lateral aspect of the femur, distally attachment blends w/ achilles tendon on medial side. Assists in plantar flexion.
 
All innervated by tibial nerve.
 
flexor digiti minimi
O- calcaneusI- prox. phalnx of 5th digitA- Flexes at MTP jointN- lat. plantar
Which is located in testes?Stimulated by FSH?Located in semiferous tubule?Produces hormone?Produces inhibin?Testosterone?LH stimulates?
Leydig, Sartoli and SpermatogoniumSartoli and SpermatogoniumSartoli and SpermatogoniumLeydig and SartoliSartoliLeydigLeydig
The terminal portion of pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord also forms the _________________, which in turn also forms part of the coccygeal ligament that anchors the cord to vertebra L2.
terminal filum
The diameter of the pupil is determined by two sets of muscles
1.Sphincter pupillae muscles
2.Dilator pupillae muscles
Achilles tendon
the tendon joining the calf muscles to the heel bone
1. Heart sits on the anterior surface of?
1. the esophagus
site of final maturation of sperm and they acquire forward motility
fxn of epididymis
Embryonic Period - Week 1
the zygote (fertilized oocyte) moves toward uterus
blastomeres - daughter cells are formed creating the 4-cell
morula - solid cluster of 12-16 blastomeres
early blastocyst - around 60 cells
late blastocyst - implants to uterus
What are the reactants?
the begining products of a chemical reaction
glucose utilization C6H12O6+ 6O2+ 36 ADP + P--> 6CO2+ 6H2O+ 36ATP
Structural Component of Respiratory System
Three bony prominences of the arm
1.Lateral epicondyle of the humerus
2.Olecranon of the ulna
3.Medial epicondyle of the humerus
1) Left atrium
1.seen from
 
2) Left Auricle
1. -only seen from the posterior surface
-forms the base of the heart (not inferior)
 
2. not the same as atrium it's an extention of the atrium, the lumens are continuous.
Medial and lateral pectoral nerves
Medial - from medial cord; innervates pectoralis major and minor
 
Lateral - from lateral cord; innervates pectoralis major
Contents of female superficial pouch
Crura of the clitoris and covering muscle (ischiocavernosous muscle)
bulbs of vestibule and covering muscle (bulbospongiosus muscle)
superficial transverse perineal muscles
greater vestibular glands
branches of internal pudendal vessels
branches of pudendal nerves
generation of impulses...
-GP has to generate AP or we won't feel it-->AP goes to CNS
-1st order neurons are neurons that can do this (sensory neruons)
PNS--->CNS
radioulnar joint, distal the articulation between the head of the ulna and the ulnar notch of the radius
a synovial pivot joint; this joint has a fibrocartilaginous articular disk that attaches to the styloid process of the ulna and the medial side of the distal radius
A nerve cell and a lymphocyte are presumed to differ in...
Specialized structure and suppressed genes and embryonic history.
Name for the row of tissue in back of the tongue
The lingual tonsils
What are the functions of the salivary glands?
moisturize, acts like stomach acid
T/F: Great cardiac vein goes directly into right atrium
F-- GCV goes into coronary sinus first
what does the MANUBRIUM of the thoracic cage attach to?
the clavicles and ribs 1 and 2
The body shaft of the male anatomy consists of what three tissues?
2 corpora cavernosa and 1 corpos spongiosum
what type of charge does a neutron have and where is it found?
it has a neutral charge and it is found in the nucleus
Ir
Iridium
den-
tooth
steno-
narrow
Depressed
Skull
phag-
to eat
Aneurism
weak pipe
masseterelevates mandible
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-Gen-Genesis
create, produce
-itis
swelling or inflamation
VOCAL CORDS
produces sound
term for forearm
antibrachial
pase
Breaks down simple sugars.
Scalenus Medius : Innervation
C3-C8
Menscus
medial -c shapedlateral-almsot complete circle
Histology
The study of tissues
movement
motion of the whole body
bulbourethral glands
mucous-secreting tubuloacinar, ducts empty into penile urethra
erythema
redness of skin
 
occurs from sunburn,  hot weather, anger, etc.
Most ionic compounds are (1)
salts
Gluconeogenesis
synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate materials, such as amino acid molecules.
AV Node
conducts impulse to ventriclesLocation: In AV Septum near coronary sinus and septal cusp of Tricuspic Valve50/min
Muscle used to Masticate (Chew)
Massetuer
Insertion Rectus Cap. Post. minor
occipital bone
reproductive cycle?oogenesis?
sequence from fertilization to birthproducing haploid gametes with meiosis
median
carpal tunnel syndrome usually results from the compression of the ______ nerve.
comparitive anatomy
studying structure/form by "comparing" species similarities and differences
Hering- Breuer reflex
-stretching during inspiration inhibits the inspiration centers in the medulla
-lack of stretching during expiration inhibits expiratory centers 
the palmar refers to the (1)
palm
Most control mechanisms are ___ feedback mechanisms which will shut off or reduce the intensity of the original stimulus
negative
whats another name for cell membane?
sarcolema
Nasalis
Elevates corners of nostrils ("flares" nostrils)
osteoclast
resorbs bones and destroys old osteocytes
What is they etym of ad?
toward
eponychium
the proxima lnai lfold projects onto the nail body
urethra
Part of the male reproductive system. accessory organ. conducts semen to exterior
endoplasmic reticulum
Network of flattened sac membranes. Can be rough (ribosomes on surface) or smooth (which extends from the rough). Transports substances, synthesizes and packages molecules and stores them, detoxifies chemicals, and releases calcium ions.
Name parts of sternum
Manubrium (suprasternal/jugular notch on top) - articulates with clavicle and first rib
Body  - joint between manubrium and body forms the sternal angle (landmark for rib 2 and aortic arch)
Xiphoid - cartilaginous in young people
 
dens
the axis is also unlike other vertebrae in that cranially the body projects forward in a peglike eminence, the . . .
insertion
the more movable attachment of a muscle usually more distal
In the stomach,  there is some digestion of ___ and ___.  Absorption is limited to ___ and ___.
-proteins
-fats
-alcohols
-aspirins 
muscle on the anterior of the scapula
subscapularis
MYOCARDIUM
thick middle layer of the heart, responsible for contration
breathing in. gentle: disphragm contracts and flattens. not gentle: external intercostals contract to force ribs up and out. result is volume of lung increases. pressure inside decreases. below atmospheric pressure air enters via respiratory tree
Lower esophageal sphincter
SuperficialO: Pubis, Pubic and Ishcial RamiI: Medial aspect of TibiaA: Adducts, **Flexes knee and med rotates legInn: Obturator n.
Adductor Brevis
elasticity
ability to recoil and resume resting length
what is the shape of short bones?
cubelike
Areolar Tissue
Loose arrangement of collagenous and elastic fibers, scattered cell types (mainly fibroblasts) & abundant ground substance
Underlying all epithelia forming passageway for nerves & blood vessels; fascia between muscles
hypo-
a prefix appearing in loanwords from Greek, where it meant "under" (hypostasis); on this model used, especially as opposed to
Microscopic anatomy
concerns structues too small to be seen with the naked eye
Caput medusae
In cirrhosis of the liver, venous flow
Anastomoses with vessels around umbilicus to get to IVC. we see vericose veiins in stoomach around umbilicus
nuclear membrane
~ forms barrier of the nucleus~ consists of a double phospholipid membrane~ contain nulcear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell
Vasculature of thoracic wall
 Aorta --> posterior intercostal arteries
Subclavian --> internal thoracic --> anterior intercostal arteries
 
Anterior and posterior intercostal arteries anastomose (useful when have coarctation of aorta)
 
Note: internal thoracic arteries continue into the abdomen as superior epigastric arteries
Skeletal System Functions - Link to All Other Systems (1)
Protection, Support
Each muscle fiber has a sleeve of areolar connective tissue around it called the
endomysium
The voltage difference across the plasma membrane are _______ ions and _________ ions.
sodium and potassium
ULTRASTRUCTURE
REFERS TO FINE DETAILS DOWN TO THE MOLECUR LEVEL, REVEALED BY THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
Dense Bodies
In smooth muscle fibers, the thin filaments attach to structures.Functionally similar to z discs in striated muscle fibers .
The portion of the anatomical root that is visible, subject to variability over time
Clinical Root
Adrenal medulla
~the internal region of adrenal gland that releases hormones within the bloodstream to help promote fight-or-flight response
~~The hormones are epinephrine and, to a lesser degree, norepinephrine.
cranial
of or pertaining to the cranium or skull.
sweat gland
one of the minute, coiled, tubular glands of the skin that secrete sweat
acetabulum
The socket of the hip joint is called the...
stratified columnar epithelium
Rare tissue. Protects and secretes. Found in part of male urethra, esophageal glands, part anal mucous membrane and conjunctiva of eye.
cardiac tamponade
buildup of fluid or blood in the pericardial cavity leads to compression of the heart known as _________
nervous tissue
made up of neurons and lots of neuroglia/glial cells
myofibrils are composed of two types of filaments
thick and thin
Endothelial Does what?
Lines blood vessels and makes up lymph system *Simple squamous shape lines blood vessels to provide smooth surface for ease of blood flow. *cubodial shape make sup lymph nodes since it's shape allows secretion
abs, for sit ups. all the way to below
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Paraxial Mesoderm.
On either side of the notochord. This is our region of concern,for the paraxial mesoderm gives rise to the Somites.
T-cells account for ___ of lymphocytes and are produced in the ___.
80%; lymph nodes
peripheral nervous system
the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
Duct system of Liver/Pancreas/Gallbladder:
1) R & L hepatic ducts form...
2) Common hepatic duct drains...
3) cystic duct: function of origin organ.
4) Common Bile duct formed by...
5) pancreatic duct joins...enters....
6) bile flows...
 
1)from liver.  Join to form common bile duct.
2) drains entire liver of bile
3) from gall bladder ( stores bile, making it more concentrated).
4) cystic and common hepatic ducts uniting
5)common bile duct....part 2 of duodenum at hepatopancreatic ampulla
6) both ways
What do the following innervate: femoral nerve, obturator nerve, sciatic nerve, tibial nerve, common fibular nerve, superificial fibular nerve, & deep fibular nerve.
anterior thigh; medial thigh; posterior thigh; posterior leg and plantar of foot; trick question--nothing; fibularis longus and brevis; anterior leg and dorsum of foot.
CNV-3- general sensory innervation
Lower 1/3 of face (including lower teeth and anterior 2/3 of tongue)
layers of protection of spinal cord.
dura matter- outer protection, toughest, thickestarachnoid- shiny, delicate surface.....arachnoid space...under arachnoid where cerebrospinal fluid is, which protects cordPia matter- connected to cord, indistinguishable from cord. Detante ligaments-alternate with spinal nerves......attach pia to the dura matter....provice structure all along spinal cord and vertebral column.
___ are closed off by clots covered by scabes and eventually filled in by fibroblasts making connective tissue.
deeper cuts
major differences Between the Female and Male Pelvis
1.The female’s ilium is laterally flared to provide a wider pelvis
2.The female’s pelvic inlet is wider and oval. The male’s inlet is heart shaped.
3.The subpubic angle in the female is wider in the female (>100º vs <90º in males)
Quadratus Lumborum
1) location
2) bony attachments
3) shape
4) function
1) lateral to psoas major in lumbar region, posterior to lumbar curve
2)  to 12th rib, iliac crest, vertebre
3) broad and flat
4) extensor of lumbar vertebral column, works with erector spinae group
 
-TA are more lateral
 
cranial nerve - passage through cranium
9 glossopharyngeal
jugular foramen and tympanoocipital fissure
In Nissl stain, oligodendroglia appear as -------------
small nuclei with dark chromatin and relatively little cytoplasm
which type of joint allows the most types of movements
ball and socket joints
1. Cartilage on inferior trachea
2. Primary bronchi
1. Carina- point where the trachea divides
2. each one takes air in and out of one lung
-have hyaline cartilage for support
Which of the following describes the bonds that attach the hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom in a water molecule?
 
they are polar bonds
they are covalent bonds
they are hydrogen bonds
a and b
b and c
 
they are polar bonds
they are covalent bonds
they are hydrogen bonds
a and b
b and c
 
ANS Parasymp system neuron over look
-sensory info comes in, sym w/ parasymp pregang neuron (MYELINATED) and release ACh at autonomic ganglia to parasymp postgang neuron (UNMYELINATED) which releases ACh AGAIN to effector cells

what are the Z discs attached to?
They are attached to the sarcolemma, so as the Z discs come closer together, they pull on the sarcolemma to shorten.
How is water's ability for chusioning important?
helps protect the body from physcial trauma
SA Node or Sinuatrial Node
1. description and location 
2. ANS's affect
1. pace maker, located in the wall of the right atrium
2. Stimulate or not stimulate the SA node to speed or slow heart
Factors that change 02-Hb dissociation curve
1. temp - increase temp = 02 delivered to tissues, which decreases affinity but increases ease of dissociation2. pH - decreased pH = decreased 02 affinity in tissues (opposite in lungs)
5 Levels of Organization of the Body
1) Chemical 2) Tissue 3) Organ 4) Organ System 5) Organism
Cl
Chlorine
myo-
muscle
andro-
male
axilla
armpit
Chol/e
gall bladder
-osis
process, condition
humerus
arm bone
-rrhaphy
to suture
capni
smoke, carbon dioxide
LORDOSIS
exaggerated lumbar curvature(swayback)
diaphysis
shaft of long bone
External Intercostals : Innervation
T1-T11
Condyle
rounded process of bone
anatomy
the study of structure
arousal, emission/ejaculation, remission
male sexual response
cardiac muscles
in the heart
 
striated
 
short cells, called myocytes
 
1 nucleus in center
What is molarity?
moles per liter
deep
further away from body surface
lunula
pale crescent of blood vessels
Goiter
iodine deficiency restricts synthesis of thyroid hormones, in 1920s added to salt
Action Infraspinatus
laterally rotate arm
aids inferior glide of humeral head during abduction
what does ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
aqueous humor
intraocular pressure is produced mainly by _____
Vasodilation?
Smooth muscle relaxes, increase in lumen diameter
Circulation
transportation of gases between the pulmonary capillaries in other tissues of the body.  Bulk flow
NAMEblood clotting is a ex
postive feedback
_ feeders (sharks) were dependent almost totally on their jaws for capturing food.
predatorial
Plantaris
Superficial (absent in some ppl)O: Post femur, above lat condyleI: Calcaneous A: Plantar flex foot, helps knee flexionInn: Tibial n.
Tendon
Cord of dense regular connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
alveoli
the air sacs of the lungs
What is they etym of lymph?
water
saddle joints
forms where articulating surfaces have both concave and convex areas\
hair follicles
Part of the integumentary system. produce hair; innervation provides sensation
smooth ER
functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism and deoxyfication of drugs
What kind of control is orgasm/ejaculation under?
sympathetic control
cell body
contains nucleus and most of cytoplasm
Integumentary System  
Forms the external body covering; protects deeper tissue from injury; synthesizes vitamin d; location of cultaneous(pain,pressure etc) receptors; and sweat and oil glands
amino acid that is inhibitory to muscle contraction
GABA
CALCANEUS
heelbone, supports most of the body weight
fundus down to tapered region
merges with duodenum
Muscles of Posterior Compartment of the Leg
7 Muscles
The surface closest to the midline
mesial surface
Connective Tissue: Function
-Connect TISSUES and ORGANS
-forms SKELETAL TISSUE (bone & cartilage)
-carries and stores nutrients (blood)
-supports vessels & nerves
metaplasia
changing from one type of mature tissue to another
lact-
a combining form meaning "milk," used in the formation of compound words (lactometer); specialized in chemical terminology to mean "lactate," or "lactic acid."
protraction
movement of a part of the body anteriorly
Diaphragm origin and insertion
O: Inferior thoracic aperature
I: central tendon
 
gland
A single cell or mass of epithelial cells adapted for secretion.
Layers of pericardium
Fibrous - outermost
Serous - parietal on inner side of fibrous and visceral on the surface of the heart
Coronal Plane
imaginary plan that separates the body into front and back. SYN: frontal plane
Tendons, which resist tensile stress in a single direction, are composed of ______ tissue
 
skeletal
areolar CT
dense irregular CT
elastic
dense regular CT
 
 
skeletal
areolar CT
dense irregular CT resists stretching in all directions 

elastic
dense regular CT
 
Abduction
moving away from the center of the body
what are mechanoreceptors?
sensory receptors that respond to pressure touch. IN fingers for example. Some proprioreceptors are also mechanoreceptors.
RNA substituted base pair
uracil in place of thymine
Isotonic contraction
The tension developed by the muscle remains almost constant while the muscle changes its length.
Physiology
The study of the functions of an organism and its parts
Pulmonary Plexus:
~Axons project to bronchi and blood vessels of the lungs.
~Parasympathetic stimulation reduces bronchial diameter (bronchoconstriction) and increased mucous gland secretion in bronchial tree.
~Sympathetic innervation causes bronchodilation (increase bronchial diameter
maw
the mouth, throat, or gullet of an animal, esp. a carnivorous mammal.
sublingual
situated under the tongue, or on the underside of the tongue
have three tunics
The large lymph vessels and larege veins have a common factor in that they both...
gap junctions
Type of cell junctions that leave a tiny intracellular space between adjacent plasma membranes that is bridged by connexons (transmembrane protein channels), enabling nerve or muscle impulses to spread rapidly between cells.
residual volume
air that remains in the lungs even after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled is called the __________
What is an Antigen?
Foreigner that provokes the immune system
What is this part of the vertebrae?
 
Inferior articular facet
internal membrane proteins; actin
contractyle protein (also known as filaments) allows it to move.
Stratum Basale
consists of a single layer of cuboidal to low columnar stem cells and keratinocytes resting on basement membrane, includes melanocytes tactile cells and stem cells, make keratinocytes that migrate toward the skin surface & replace epidermal cells
Woven (Nonlamellar) Bone:
Typically young compact bone that has not yet developedHaversian systems. Associated with greater amounts of collagen.
right lymphatic duct
-found in 20% of people
-union of right jugular,subclavian,and bronchomediastinal trunk
-if not present trunk drains into separate veins
femur
Latin, thigh. Anatomy, a bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
Diaphragm:
1) serous membrane of superior part
2) muscle composition
3) domes
4) associated thoracic recess?
5) x sections involve what cavities?
6) forms part of...
1) covered superiorly by parietal pluera and parietal peritoneum
2) thin voluntary skeletal muscles inc post. diaphragm
3) R and L dome, not at same level, R higher
4) costodiaphragmatic recess
5) x sections involve thoracic and abdominal cavity
6) forms part of posterior abdominal wall
 
Central Nervous System
brain & spinal cord; command center of nervous system that integrates and processes nervous info
Planes of section
to study the individual organs or the body as a whole, it is often subdivided into smaller segments
What are motor neurons?
They are Efferent, they carry info from CNS to muscles and glands
_______ in the cns is due to myelin sheaths in this area
white matter
give 2 characteristics of AV valves.
-LARGE
-ALLOW VENTRICLES TO FILL EASILY
1-function of the femur
 
2-direction of the femur
1-directs the body weight down to the leg
2-not straight up and down, run in a medial direction
What is a cation?
is the electron donor that has a postive charge
The course of complexity in the human organism involves which of the following sequences?
cell, tissue, organ, system
Fibular artery
-is a branch of
-supplies what compartment
-is a branch of the posterior tibial artery and it supplies the lateral comprtment
Wall of Orbit & Related Space - Posterior?
Space is Middle Cranial Fossa
Sources of digestive fluids in small intestine
mucosa prduces enzymes, acini of pancreas produce enzymes, production of bile by liver for emulsification of fats
Bone marking: eminence superior to a condyle ex?
epicondyle - lateral epicondyle of the humerus
What are three examples of negative feedback?
(1)regulation of the body temp (2)the withdrawl reflex (3)reglation of the blood glucose levels
Describe the path of the Great cardiac vein:
Originates on the anterior surface of the heart, near the apex and ascends with the left anterior interventricular coronary artery.
the pelvic girdle consist of what? and what does it do?
it consist of the 2 hip/coxal bones.

it attaches lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
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