Anatomy Exam II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
spinothlamaic
Posterior TriangleLymph Nodes
OccipitalSupraclavicular
fasciculus cuneatus
carries proprioception/2-point discrimination info from upper extremities ("cuneatus" means "wedge-shaped")
Head Movement:Sternocleidomastoid
Major Head Flexor
lateral horn
T1-L2 Sympathetic; S2-4 Parasympathetic;Lower lumbar region does not have a lateral horn, neither does cervical region
hydracephaly
internal swelling in lateral ventricles (1st and 2nd) impact function of basal nuclei
Head Movement:Semispinalis Capitis
Synergist with sternocleidomastoid
2 divisions of the fascia
SuperficalDeep
midbrain
also known as mesencephalon; visual system consisting of tectum (roof) and colliculi; uppermost part of brain stem
anterior horn
motor information (contains cell bodies of motor neurons)
Which organs are retroperitoneal?
Kidneys, adrenal glands
Anterior Triangle Muscles
Sternohyoid m.Superior omohyoid m.Sternothyroid m.Stylohyoid m.Mylohyoid m.Geniohyoid m.Digastric m.Thyrohyoid m.Pharyngeal constrictor muscles
herozygous
two different alleles for a gene.
Capillary Types
1. continuous capillaries - uninterupted w/ lining, tight junctions, usually incomplete and leave gaps. LEAST permeable, BBB2. Fenestrated - more permeable, more oval pores3. Sinusoidal - leaky, in liver & spleen
What is Cranial Nerve VII
Facial Nerve
What supplies the GSA (sensory) information to the ANTERIOR 2/3 of the Tongue
LINGUAL
spinoreticular tract
pain pathway; terminates in reticular formation and thalamus
The appendix lies in a retrocecal position in what portion of people?
2/3
Which artery supplies the uterine tubes and fundus of the uterus?
Ovarian artery
What muscles superficially cover the crura of the penis?
Ischiocavernosus muscles
Palpating the spleen below the left costal margin in an adult usually indicates what?
Splenomegaly
Sternothyroid
Action - Pulls larynx & hyoid inferiorInnervation - Cervical Nerves C1-C3
Site of Herniation?
Annulus Fibrosus, in post. direction
PTH
- most important hormone in Ca2+ homeostasis, raises Ca2+ level in blood
What nerve passes ontop of the Anterior Scalene
Phrenic
Facial Vestibule of the Mandible -Superior and Inferior Borders
Sup:Infratemporal AreaInf:Mandible
Hypoglossal Nerve gives what to the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Innervation
lentiform nucleus
putamen = lateral reddish part, globus pallidus = medial pinkish part
colliculi
4 on dorsal surface of midbrain; 2 superior involved in visual reflex and contain spinotectal and tectospinal pathways
hypothalamus
most important function is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland
esophagus
typically to the left of the trachea as it courses to the thoracic inlet
Which kind of hernia lies within the inguinal triangle?
Direct
What type of joint is the pubic symphysis?
Cartilaginous
Which ribs mark the areas where the right lung overlaps the liver?
4-6
Posterior TriangleNerves
CN XI – Spinal accessory n.Cervical plexus Brachial plexusPhrenic n. (C3,4,5) (important for breathing)
Inversion
an entire section of the DNA is reversed
Arteries
- are deep and protected by tissues- blood pumped into single, systemic artery (aorta)
Muscles of the Esophagus
1. Suprahyoid (digastric, mylohyoid, stylohyoid)- helps push back food, elevates hyoid and larynx during swallowing2. Infrahyoid muscles (sternohyoid, omohyoid) - depresses the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speech.
What is the Major Artery of the TongueWhat are its branches
Lingual-Dorsal:Posterior-Deep:Anterior-Sublingual:Sublingual Gland
The Lateral Posterior Superior Nasal Nerves carries what type of fibers
GSA and GVE
The Auriculotemporal Nerve has what type of fibers?
GSA and GVE
cerebellar comparator function
1. cortex sends signal to skeletal muscle to move2. LMN triggers skeletal muscle movement3. cortex also sends signal to cerebellum4. skeletal muscle sends signal to cerebellum5. cerebelllum compares cortex intention with actual movement, sends signal to red nucleus6. red nucleus relays modifying signal back to skeletal muscle7. cerebellum also sends inhibitory signal to thalamus, then up to cortex.
longus capitis muscle
in the cranial part of the neck
What is a procedure called that is used to drain urine from a swollen bladder?
Suprapubic cystotomy
The pelvic splanchnic nerves provide what kind of innervation to the smooth muscle of the bladder and the internal sphincter?
Detrusor muscle- preganglionic parasympathetic motor innervation.Internal sphincter- inhibitory
What does the deep perineal space contain in the male?
UrethraExternal urethral sphincterCompressor urethraeDeep transverse perineal musclesBulbourethral glands
The erectile tissues and associated skeletal muscles in the male are all located in what space?
The superficial perineal space
What is inflammation at the cellular level
cell damage response
Which ones are the smallest, lightest vertebrae?
C1 - C7
Dermatomes
C2 - superior to the headC4 - superior to clavicleC6 - thumb (1st finger)C7 - third fingerC8 - 5th finger
What is the pretracheal space between
Trachea and the Esphogas
The 3rd Branch of the Nasociliary Nerve is called the LONG Ciliary Nerves (2-3), They carry what type of fibers?
GSA and GVE
Surface Antomy: Define-Philtrum-Nasolabial Sulcus-Tubercle of Superior Lip-Mental Protruberence-Commisure of Lips-Labimental Groove
P- depression between your upper lip and noseNLS- depression from your nose to your lipTSL-Mid Line of the Upper LipMP- Outer most portion of the chinCL-Angle where the lips come togetherLMG-Groove between lower lip and the chin
The Medial Posterior Supeior Nasal Nerve has what fibers?-What is its associated foramen?
GSA and GVE-Sphenopalatine Foramen
Lymph from the middle third of the vagina drains where?
Internal iliac nodes
What is the sacral plexus?
Arises from the lumbosacral trunk (anterior rami of L4 and L5) and the anterior rami of S1, S2, S3, and part of S4
The secretion of what glands contribute to vaginal lubrication during sexual arousal?
Bartholin's glands- lie immediately posterior to the vestibular glands, the ducts open into the vaginal orifice.
What is the perineum?
Consists of the external genitalia and the anal canal.
What forms the floor of the inguinal canal?
The inguinal ligament
What is the inguinal canal?
Passageway in the inguinal region through which the spermatic cord in the male and the round ligament of the uterus in the female traverse the abdominal wall.
Autosomal recessive disorder
when the deiase casuing gene is a recesive allele.
Structure of Vertebrae
1. Body - ant. weight bearing region2. Vertebral Arch - pedicles (short, bony pillars that project post.) and laminae (flattened plates that fuse at medial line) 3. Vertebral Foramen - make up vertebral canal for spinal cord4. Intervertebral foramen - lateral openings b/w adjacent vertebrae for spinal nerves. *** body and arch enclose foramen
Post. Triangle Contents
1. Nerves - CN XI (spinal accessory n.)- cervical plexus- brachial plexus- phrenic nerve (C3,4,5), for diaphragm2. Vessels- Subclavian a. - transverse cervical a. - suprascapular a. - external jugular v.3. Lymph nodes- occipital - supraclavicular
Larynx Functions
- located at level of C3-C6, cont. w/ trachea1. provides a patent airway2. routes air and food to proper channels3. voice production
Submandibular Triangles border and contents
Anterior and Posterior Digastric and Inferior Border of the MandibuleContents: Submandibular Gland and Lymph NodesCN 12Mylohyoid NerveFacial Artery and Vein
What is the Palatine Tonsil
Lymphoid Tissue covered by Mucous Membrane
The 2nd branch of the Nasociliary Nerve is a PRE GANGLIONIC Parasymphathetic Root carrying ___ fibers. These fibers go through ____ to form the _____.
GVECiliary GanglionSHORT Ciliary Nerves
Now I'm at the doctor b/c I got SICK so when the doctor puts the Wooden stick in my mouth and checks out my throat the depression of my tongue is due to what muscles
GenioglossusHyoglossus
The GVE fibers of the Auriculotemporal Nerve are ____ fibers from ____.
Parasympathetic Fibers(GVE) from the Lesser Petrosal branch of CN IX (Glossalpharyngeal)via the Otic GanglionThey travel w/ the Auriculotemproal Nerve and provide Secretomotor Innervation to the Parotid Gland
As the Alveolar Mucosa approaches the teeth it changes __ and ___ and becomes what?
Color and TextureAttatched Gingiva
Palate forms what
Roof of the Oral Cavity Properand the floor of the Nasal Cavity
Whatis the Medial and Lateral Border of the Lateral Phayngeal Space?
Medial:Superior Constricter and Buccopharyngeal Fascia Medial Pterygoid Muscle (head) and SCM (neck)
What is the Anterior and Posterior borders of the Prevetebral Fascia?
Anterior: Alar FasciaPosteror: Prevetebral Fas cia
identify one muscle of mastication and its movements (elevation, depression, protrusion, retraction)
masseter muscle - elevation, protrusion
lateral pterygoid muscle - protrusion
temporalis muscle - elevation
medial pterygoid muscle - elevation
What are the three muscles associated with the vulva?
Pair of bulbospongiosus muscles- overlie the vestibular bulbs and greater vestibular glands.Pair of ischiocavernosus muscles- superficially cover the cruris of the clitoris.Pair of superficial transverse perineal muscles- originates from the ischia tuberosities, extend medially behind the vagina and insert onto the perineal body->stabilizes perineal body.
What makes up the pelvic outlet?
1) Anteriorly- pubic arch2) Laterally- ischial tuberosities3) Posteriorly- sacrotuberous ligaments and tip of the coccyx.
What is included within the spermatic cord?
Vas deferensTesticular cremasteric Vas deferens arteriesPampiniform plexusLymphaticsNerves*passes from the scrotum to the abdomen via the inguinal canal.
Lymph from the cervix and body of the uterus drains where?
Internal iliac nodes
What does the posterior division of the internal iliac supply?
The sacral vertebrae, posterior abdominal wall muscles, and gluteal regions.
What are the major ligaments of the bony pelvis?
Sacrotuberous ligament- bilaterally bind the ischial tuberosity to the sacrum and coccyx.Sacrospinous ligament- bilaterally binds the ischial spine to the sacrum and coccyx.
What arteries supply the prostate?
Inferior vesical and the middle rectal arteries.
What are the branches of the gastroduodenal artery?
R. gastroepiploic, superior anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery, and superior posterior pancreaticoduodeal artery.
The cremasteric fascia is continuous with what abdominal wall layer?
Internal oblique; the vaginal process with the internal spermatic fascia passes beneath the lower free border of the tranversus abdominis
Digastric m. Posterior belly
Origin – mastoid process of temporal boneInsertion – hyoidAction – open mouth & depress mandibleInnervation – CN VII
What ius a mutation?
A inherited change in the genetic code of the gene.
Name the important bony landmarks of the facial nerve?(7)
Petrous Portion of Temporal Bone-Internal Acoustic Meatus-Greater Hiatus-Facial Canal-Stylomastoid Foramen-Posterior Canaliculi-Anterior Caniliculi-Tymapanic Fissure
What are types of fibers are carried by the facial nerve(Cranial Nerve Modalities)
GSA (Trigeminal)SVA (Solitary)GVE (Salvitory + Glands)SVE(Motor + Facial Nerve)
What doe the Auriculotemporal Nerve pass between?Where does it emerge?What does it asend w/
Lateral Pterygoid Muscle and emerges behind the TMJAsends w/ the Superfical Temproral Artery and Vein(Vein to the Parotid and Temporal Regions)
What does the Internal Branch of the Anterior Ethmoidal Nerve innervate
Nasal Mucosa (GSA)Anterior Superior(medial/lateral)
How are you going to remember the components of the Pretracheal Fasicia
TracheaEsphogusThyroid Gland Pharynx and Larynx
What passes between the Anterior and Middle Scalene
Brachial Plexus and Subclavian ArteryIf scalenes get tight you will get Throacic Outward Syndrome
describe the results of a hemisection of the right side of the spinal cord
This is known as Brown-Sequard syndromeright side of lower extremity: spastic paralysis (UMN not functioning), loss of proprioception and 2pt discriminationleft side of lower extremity: loss of pain and temperature
Where can the dartos muscle be found?
Within the superficial fascial layer of the scrotum.
Where are two locations that functionally inadequate anastomoses are often encountered?
1) The anastomoses near the ileocecal junction between the descending branch of the right colic artery and the colic branch of the ileocolic artery.2) The anastomses near the splenic flexure between the left branch of the middle colic artery and the ascending branch of the left colic artery.
What muscles of the deep perineal space control the timing of micturition in the female?
The external urethral sphincter, the urethrovaginal sphincter, and the compressor urethrae.
Describe the innervation to the rectum and anal canal.
The pelvic splanchnic nerves provide preganglionic parasympathetic innervation and the lumbar splanchnic nerves provide preganglionic sympathetic innervation for the rectum and upper half of the anal canal. Sensory fibers from the rectum and upper half of the anal canal enter the spinal cord at L1, L2, S2, S3, and S4. The left and right pudendal nerves provide sensory innervation for the lower half of the anal canal.
Describe the fetus during engagement.
The face of the fetus is ideally facing directly to the right or to the left side of the mother.
Spinal Nerves connect to spinal cord via
2 roots: Anterior (Ventral) and Posterior (Dorsal)
How does one numb the Superior Alvolar Nerves (Anterior, Middle and Posterior)
Via the Terminal Branches (injection is given to tissues surrounding the root of the tooth)
What nerve emerges from the Mental Foramen
Mental Nerve-Supplies the Skin of chin, lower lip,labial mucosa and labial gingival tissue
What Foramen do the branches of CN V go through
V1-Superior Orbital FissureV2-Foramen RotundumV3-Foramen Ovale
What is the Lingual Frenulum
Attaches tongue to the floor of the mouth
What makes a muscle of the tongue Extrinsic or Intrinsic
Extrinsic-begin outside and will insert on the tongue-Control Mov'tIntrinsic-begin and end inside of the tongue-Control Shape
Where do the GVE fibers of the Pterygopalatine Ganglion come into play?
Leave the Pterygopalatine Ganglion and Travel w/ the Zygomaticotemporal Nerve>> Lacrimal Nerve>>> Lacrimal Gland
What is the origin of the ovarian arteries?
Abdominal aorta below the renal arteries. As it descends into the pelvis, it is closely associated with the uteter.
What represents the functional right side of the liver?
Right lobe plus part of the caudate lobe
Describe the fetus during internal rotation.
The face of the fetus ideally faces directly posterior relative to the mother.
Why is the sacral plexus important?
Gives rise to almost all the nerves that innervate the pelvic wall muscles and the muscles of the perineum.
What is the narrowest diameter near the pelvic inlet?
Obstetric conjugate diameter- it is an anteroposterior diameter; it is the distance between the midpoint of the sacral promontory to the closest point on the posterior surface of the pubic symphysis. Cannot be measured directly.
What nerve is the major motor and sensory nerve of the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerve, receives fibers from C3-C5. C5 alive, C4 breath no more
The Long Ciliary Nerves innervae what?
GSA fibers to the Iris, Cornea, and Ciliary Body(like short ciliary nerves)
What is the pretracheals superior and inferor borders
Superiorly it is delimited by the infrahyoid to the thyroid cartlages and the hyoid boneInferiorly it goes into the Thoracic Cavity
The GVE fibers of CNVII do what?These are aka ___
Supply MOTOR to the Submandibular, Sublingual, and LacrimalNervous Intermedius-b/c this emerges between the motor root and the vestibular cholcher
SVE fibers innervate what type of muscles?-Where are they derived from embryologically?Just for kicks what are the fibers that innervate the same thing but are not brachial/pharyngeal arch derivatives?
Striated Muscles of the 2nd Brachial ArchGSE
Where does the main pancreatic duct run?
From the tail, through the middle of the body, neck, and head.
Disease or injury to the cervix or upper part of the vagina cause what kind of pain?
Visceral pain that is poorly localized to the lumbosacral region.
What portion of the vagina is covered with peritoneum?
The upper quarter of the posterior surface.
What are the dimensions of the mesosalpinx?
The part of each broad ligament which lies below the uterine tube but above the mesovarium and the round ligament of the ovary.
CNV emerges from the brain stem as a large ___ root and small ___ root.
GSA (Mainly Sensory)SVE (Goes to Muscles of Mastication)
T or F. After giving off its first 2 branches V3 divides into an ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR division-How many branches of the Anterior and Posterior Divisions exsist
TrueAnterior: 4 BranchesPosterior: 3 Branches
Take Home Points about the GVE fibers of the Nasociliary Nerve
Orginate in the EW NucleusTravel w/ CN IIISynapse in the Cilary GanglionLeave via the Short Ciliary NervesInnervate Sphicter of Pupil
What forms the roof of the inguinal canal?
The lower free borders of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
Where are the uterosacral ligaments? What do they do?
They arise from the lower end of the sacrum and extend anteriorly around the rectum to attach to the cervix and vagina. Contains a muscle called the rectouterine muscle->forms a fascial shelf that is covered by a fold of peritoneum called a rectouterine fold. The uterosacral ligaments securely tether the cervix to the sacrum and help stabilize the anterior 90 degree angle between the longitudinal axes of the vagina and uterus.
What is unique about the Mandibular division of CNV
It is the ONLY division w/ a MOTOR ROOT (SVE)!
identify one date on which eruption takes place in the horse lower incisors (deciduous)
I1 - 6 days
I2 - 6 weeks
I3 - 6 months
Where does CN V emerge from in the brainstem
Out of the Ventral Lateral Aspect of the Pons
Infrahyoid Muscles
SternohyoidSternothyroidOmohyoidThyrohyoid
FASCIAL SPACES
FASCIAL SPACES
fasciculus gracilis
carries proprioception/2-point discrimination info from lower extremities ("gracilis" means "thin")
anterior corticospinal
15% of voluntary movement
epithalamus
dorsal posterior segment of diencephalon; connection between the limbic system to other parts of the brain
The puborectalis interdigitate extensively with the muscle fibers of the deepest part of the external anal sphincter to form what prominant muscular ring?
Anorectal ring
Phenotype
An individuals observable features/ mesaning of the gene.
Name this Fascia:-Surrounds the scalens, deep muscles of the back, nerves of the brachial plexus and the vetebral column
Prevetebral
rubrospinal tract
movement coordination; originates in red nucleus, terminates anterior horn of spinal cord
peduncles
pathway between the cerebral cortex and the pons
Peyer's patches are found primarily where?
Ileum
SCM
Origin – sternum & clavicleInsertion – mastoid process of temporal boneAction – Flexes & laterally rotates head (so one flexes and head goes to other side)Innervation – CN XI
Insertion
Addition of 1 or more nucleotides
Baroreceptors
- respond to arterial pressure- located in carotid sinuses, aortic arch (highest, 1st bp), walls of large arteries of neck and thorax.
What are the Infrahyoid MusclesWhere does there innervation come from?
OmohyoidSternothyroidSternohyoidThyrohyoidAll get there innervation from the Ansa Cervicalis (C1-C3) except for Thyrohyoid which is oly innervated by C1
Functions of the Superfical Fascia
StorageConductionProtective CushionThermal Insulation
amygdula
tail end of caudate nucleus; fear center
What spinal nerve innervates the skin around the umbilicus?
T10
What spinal nerve innervates the skin over the pubic crest?
L1
The rhythmic contraction of what muscles are responsible for the propulsion of semen through the penile urethra during ejaculation?
Bulbospongiosus muscles.
Is the stomach a retroperitoneal organ?
No- intraperitoneal
Mylohyoid m.
Origin – mandibleInsertion – hyoid boneAction – forms the floor of the mouthInnervation – CN V, mandibular branch V3
Chromosomal abnormalities
Change in chromosome # or structure.
Intervertebral discs
1. Nucleus Pulposus - inner, gelatinous nucleus, gives disc elasticity and compressibility2. Annulus Fibrosus - outer - limites expansion of pulposus when spine is compressed, composed of collagen and fibrocartilage
Which triangle is important clinically in taking someone's pulse
Carotid-Post Digastric-Superior Omohyoid-SCM
GSA and SVE are called ___.
Resident fibers
Which TWO of the Postganglionic Parasympathetic Ganglions recieves Preganglionic Fibers from CN VII (Facial)
Pteryogopalatine GanglionSubmandibular Ganglion
Which fibers run is close association w/ the GVE fibers?
GVA
substantia negra
Has melanin in it (byproduct of dopamine; lack of dop results in parkinson's disease)
lesion in basal nuclei
resting tremor, difficulty starting, balance, rigid-spastic (Parkinson's)
microglial cells
actually are macrophages; only kind of glial cell that is not a product of the nervous system: originate in bone marrow; not restricted to nervous system
medulla oblongata
lower half of brainstem; deals with autonomic functions
nuchal ligament
inserting on the spine of the axis
Which peritoneal ligament suspends the liver from the diaphragm?
The coronary ligament
The sigmoid colon is suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by what peritoneal ligament?
Sigmoid mesocolon
The compressor urethrae and the external urethral sphincter are innervated by what nerve in the male?
Paired pudendal nerves
Dermatome Facts
definition: area of skin innervated by the cutaenous branches of a single spinal nerveAll spinal nerves except C1 participate in dermatomes-Most overlap, so destruction of a single spinal nerve will not cause numbness
What can be used to identify and individual?
Genotype
Single base-pair change
chemical changes in the nucleotide (a--->c).
Pharyngeal constrictors
- muscles contract, forcing food into esophagus inferiorly. Innervated by CN X1. superior m - contracts, then closes after entry2. middle m.3. inferior m.
V2 exits the cranium via this foramen?
Foramen Rotundum
The Pterygopalatine ganglion is a ____ ganglion so it recieves ______fibers.
Parasympathetic GanglionPreganglionic Parasympathetic Fibers
Oral Mucosa:When the mucous membrane of the lip reflects on the alveolar bone it its called ___ . The actual reflection is termed what?Anteriorly to Posterior this fold changes names, what are its other names?
Alveolar MucosaVestibular FoldMucolabial AnteriorlyMucobuccal Posteriorly
bipolar neurons
rare type of neuron; exist in CN I
appendices colli
paired tassels may be seen on the ventral neck of goats
What structure forms the crossbar of the H on the liver's visceral surface?
The porta hepatis
What are haustra?
Sacculations that are made up of circumferential gatherings of large intestine wall.
What is the largest lymph organ of the body?
Spleen
Where do the pelvic splanchnic nerves arise from?
S2, S3, S4
Muscles in the Posterior Triangle
SCM, Trapezius, Levator Scapulae, Scalenus Posterior, Scalenus Medius, Scalenus Anterior
Spinal Nerves
- 31 pairsa) 8 cervical (C1-C8)b) 12 thoracic (T1-T12)c) 5 lumbar (L1-L5)d) 5 Sacral (S1-S5)e) 1 coccygeal(co1)
Circle of Willis
1. Internal Carotid a. (L,R)2. Ant. Communicating a.3. Post. Communicating a. (L,R)4. Ant. cerebral a. (L,R)5. Post. cerebral a. (L,R)** unites brain's ant. and post. blood supply and equalizes bp in both areas. Internal Carotid feeds circle of willis.
Thyroid
- Isthmus connects 2 lobes- If T4 is high, TSH is low = hyperthyroidism- If T4 is low, TSH is high = hypothyroidism
The PREGANGLIONIC Parasympathetic Fibers (GVE) of the Nasociliary Nerve orginate from where and travel w/ what?
Edwinger Westphal Nucleus CN III (Oculomotor)
The Posterior Division V3 has 3 branches. Name them?
AuriculotemporalLingual NeveInferior Alveolar
What formamen is associated w/ the Lateral Posterior Superior Nasal Nerve?
Sphenopalatine Foramen(Like Nasopalatine Foramen)It then enters the Posterior Superior Nasal Cavity
Define Fascia
A sheet of Fibrous Tissue that closes off the body beneath the skin -encloses the musces and seperates their layers and groups
The zygomatic nerve carries what type of fibers?
GSA and GVE
Where are the Circumvallete Papillae
Behind the Sulcus Terminalis-Large Projections HAVE TASTE BUDS!
Nasociliary Nerve enters the orbit via the Superior Orbital Fissure.This nerve travels deep to what
Frontal NerveLacrimal NerveLevator Palpebrae Superioris Superior Rectus(Frontal and Lacrimal Nerves run ontop of the two muscles)
deep cervical lymph nodes
occasionally found in the vicinity of the thyroid gland and trachea
Kidney and ureter pain can refer to which dermatomal regions?
Kidney: T10-L1Ureter: T10-L2
Which artery supplies the cecum?
Anterior and posterior cecal arteries- branches of the superior mesenteric artery
What is the pampiniform plexus?
Highly anastomotic venous plexus that drains the testes->eventually forms the testicular vein.
Function of Suprahyoid Muscles
Involved in swallowing (They move the hyoid and larynx)-Form the floor of oral cavity-Anchor the Tongue-Move the hyoid bone and the larynx
Autosomal dominat disorder
when the diease causing gene is a dominat allele. Nees only one dominat allele to have the gene.
loss of function mutation.
gene product having less or no function
Chemoreceptors
- respond to rise in CO2 or drop in pH/O2- located in: carotid sinus, aortic arch, large arteries of the neck
Vertebral Column Curvatures (normal)
Lordotic - 2 post. concave (cervical, lumbar)Kyphotic - 2 post. convex (thoracic, sacral)
What is in the Posterior Triangle
External Jugular VeinCervical and Brachial PlexusTransverse Cervical ArteryCervical Lymph NodesSubclavian Artery and VeinSuprascapular ArterySuprascapular Lymph Nodes
Fimbriated Fold is related to what?
Landmark related to early embryological development
What are the two parts of the palate
Hard and Soft
Oral Cavity Proper has two components. What are they?
Vestible-space between teeth and mucosal lining of the lips-SmallerOral Cavity Proper- space between the upper and lower dental arches-Buccinator Functions to keep bolus of food in between teeth
What muscles of facial expression does the Temporal Nerve Innervate
FrontalisOrbicularis OculiNote It is not the temporalis!
What is the Alar Fascia
Continuous w/ the Prevetebral Fascia -Divides Prevertebral from PretrachealIt is from the TRANSVERSE Process of the Vertebra to the Base of the Skull
anterior and posterior lobes of cerebellum
oldest and least developed in anterior; newest and most developed (only present in mammals) in posterior lobe
What is the pectineal line?
The anal valves collectively form this transverse fold which encircles the anal canal at the border between its upper and lower halves.
What are the most posterior muscles of the pelvic floor?
Left and right coccygeus.
Where is the greater omentum?
It arises from the greater curvature of the stomach and the lower border of the proximal half of the first part of the duodenum.
Where is the lesser omentum?
It extends from the liver's visceral surface to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the upper border of the proximal half of the 1st part of the duodenum.
Which artery anastomoses with the terminal end of the superior mesenteric artery?
Ileal branch of the ileocolic artery.
What is initiation of an Inflammatory response
a stimulus physical, chemical, bioligical
Atlas and Axis
C1 (atlas) - ant. and post. arches and 2 lateral masses. No body or spinous process. Occipital bone touches itC2 (Axis) - has body and dens (projections into ant. arch of atlas) The dens is a pivot for rotation of the atlas .
GSA information of the Nasopalatine Nerve is from what structures?
Post. Inferior Medial wall (Septum) of the Nasal CavityAnterior Hard Palate
When the Infraorbital Nerve goes out onto the Anterior Face via the Infraorbital Foramen What 3 branches does it terminate into and What structures do these branches innervate?
ALL GSAPalpebral:Skin of Lower EyelidNasal: Lateral Nose and Anterior Nasal SeptumSuperior Labial:Skin of the Cheek, Upper Lip, and Labial Mucosa
The Supratrochlear Nerves provides GSA from what 2 things
Skin and Conjuctiva of the Superior Medial EyelidSkin of the Anteromedial Forhead
The aquired components of CN V are __ and __.
SA (Taste)GVE (Parasympathetic/Sympathetic Glands, Sphicter// Dilator of Pupil)
What muscles of facial expression are innervated by 2 nerves of CN 7
Depressor Angli OrisDepressor Labii Inferioris-Buccal -Mandibular
What are the teniae coli?
3 longitudinal bands made up of smooth muscle gathered around the circumference of the large colon.
Lymph from the upper third of the vagina drains where?
External and internal iliac nodes
What are the posterior and lateral attachments for Colle's fascia?
Posteriorly- attached to the posterior margin of the perineal membrane.Laterally- ischiopubic rami*In males, Colle's fascia extends inferiorly into the penis and scrotum.
On both sides, which are the major arteries in the median region of the anterior abdominal wall?
Superior and inferior epigastric arteries
As each renal artery extends through the renal hilum, they divide into what?
Anterior and posterior rami, which each give rise to one or more segmental arteries (anatomic end arteries).
What makes up the pelvic brim?
1) Anteriorly- pubic crests of the coxal bones.2) Laterally- iliopectineal lines of the coxal bones.3) Posteriorly- sacral promontory of the first sacral vertebra.
What is the pair of muscles that contracts at the termination of micturition to empty the penile urethra of urine?
Bulbospongiosus muscles. Innervated by the pudendal nerve. It superficially covers the bulb of the penis.
Spinal Nerves: How many of each Type?
31 Pairs total---8 cervical (C1-C8)12 Thoracic (T1-T12)5 Lumbar (L1-L5)5 Sacral (S1-S5)1 Coccygeal (Co1)
What are the attachment sites for the muscles that move the vertebral column and ligaments that stabilize it?
- spinous process- transverse process
The 3 SVE Nerves of the Anterior Division:Name the Nerve and its associated Structures/
Masseteric Nerve: Moves the Massenteric MuscleDeep Temporal Nerve: Move the Temporalis MuscleLateral Pterygoid Muscle: Moves the Lateral Pterygoid Muscle
What is the relationship between the Submandibular duct and the Lingual Nerve
Submandibular Duct goes under the Lingual
What is the Lateral and Medial Border of the Retropharyngeal Fascia?
Lateral: Fascia that extends POSTERIORLY from the Caroid Sheath*Can be continuous w/ the Lateral Pharyngeal SpaceMedial-Pharyngeal FasciaMedial
What is the importance of the Labrinthyne Artery
Comes off Basillar Artery and supplies the inner ear
Which of the two things in the posterior triangle are from the thyrocervical trunk
Suprascapular Artery and Transvers Cervical
Whats another name for the Infrahyoid MusclesWhat is there purpose
Strap MusclesDepress the Hyoid and larynx during swallowing
How does the puborectalis group of muscles within the levator ani work?
They form a U-shaped muscular sling around the posterior and lateral surfaces of the anorectal junction. Tonic contraction of the puborectalis draws the anorectal junction forward and thus increases the curvature at the anorectal junction-> helps prevent unwanted passage of feces from the rectum into the anal canal.
What are portal-caval anastomoses? Where are they located and why are they important?
These are found in 'border regions' in the esophagus and the anal canal. Some of the veins in these regions which drain toward the portal vein anastomose with veins draining towards the superior or inferior vena cava. These are important because portal hypertension can cause these to rupture.
What is the linea alba?
The seam on the midline of the tendons of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominus that cover the rectus abdominus.
What structures extend through the extraperitoneal space sanwiched between the ascending and descending layers of the broad ligament of the uterus?
Round ligament of the ovary and round ligament of the uterus.
As the bladder fills with urine, which part primarily becomes distended?
The superior surface bulges upwards (can elevate above the pelvic inlet).
What are the four bodies of erectile tissue associated with the clitoris?
The paired vestibular bulbsThe paired corpora cavernosa
Describe the pathway of the pudendal nerve.
The pudendal nerve extends from the pelvis into the gluteal region through the greater sciatic foramen.It extends inferiorly through the gluteal region by coursing past the lateral side of the sacrospinous ligament.It then extends from the gluteal region into the posterior part of the perineum by passing through the lesser sciatic foramen.
What constitutes the left and right cura of the penis?
The proximal portions of the corpora cavernosa- attached to the sides of the pubic arch.
What is the structure of the extrahepatic bile ducts?
The left and right hepatic ducts emerge from the liver and combine to form the common hepatic duct; these join the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
What does the Lingual nerve pass between?
Between the Tensor Veli Palatini and Lateral Pterygoid MuscleBelow the Lateral PterygoidBetween the Medial Pterygoid and Ramus of the Mandible, Inferior Alveolar Nerve
Summary: What are the GVE fibers of the Opthalmic (V1) of Trigeminal
Lacrimal via CN VII (communicating branch of V2 Zygomaticotemporal)>> V1Nasociliary-EW via CN III>>> Short Ciliary-Long Ciliary Sympathetic FibersEverything else is GSA!
What is often found in this space? What does this have to do w/ Infection?
Lymph NodesInfections can spread to the Mediastinum
Disease or injury to the uterus will cause what kind of pain?
Visceral pain that is poorly localized to the hypogastric region.
What does the superior rectal artery supply?
The mucosa of the rectum and upper half of the anal canal.
When is the tail of the pancreas specifically at risk?
When the splenorenal ligament is cut during a splenectomy.
Posteriorly, the vagina is in direct contact with what structures?
The perineal body and the lower third of the rectum.
2 Groups of muscles in Ant. Neck
1. Suprahyoid - move hyoid and larynx (swallowing), form floor of oral cavity, and anchor tongue- Digastric- stylohyoid- mylohyoid- geniohyoid2. Infrahyoid - sternohyoid- sternothyroid- omohyoid- thyrohyoid
How are you going to remember what is in the Investing Fascia?
"Try Investing in Apples and Peaches"
In relation to the to the pubic tubercle, where is the superficial spermatic ring?
Immediately above and medial to the pubic tubercle.
Give some clinical signs of Bell's PalsyWhat CN is this associated w/
Droop on one side of the face-due to Paralysis on 1 side of the face-Damage to Stylomastoid ForamenFacial Nerve (CN VII)
identify a year in which the significant event in aging the horse is disappearance of a cup
I1 - 6 years
I2 - 7 years
I3 - 8 years
if the parents are _1_or_2_ what is the percent chance the child will have the diease?

1. Dn nn
2. Dn Dn
1. 50% chance bc the childern will be Dn Dn nn nn2. 75% chance bc childern will be DD Dn Dn nn
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