Anatomy Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hyper-
above
cubital
elbox
frons
forehead
Crest
hyster
uterus
pi
tender, soft
General Embryology
fun
Oogenesis
 
Ovarian Follicles
= oocyte surrounded by follicle cells

Primordial follicle
= primary oocyte (an oocyte thats stuck in the
first meiotic prophase)

Primary follicle
= primary oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of cuboidal follicular cells.
Secretes estrogen which stimulates changes in the uterine lining.

Secondary follicle
= primary oocyte, many layers of follicular cells, & fluid-filled space(antrum). 
Zona pellucida is a translucent structure that contains glycoproteins.
Corona radiate is the innermost layer of follicle cells. Secretes estrogen which stimulates changes in the uterine lining.

Vesicular follicle= secondary oocyte, #s layers of follicular cells, large crescent-shaped fluid filled antrum.
Secondary oocyte completes meiosis I
and is stuck in the second meiotic metaphase.

Corpus luteum: The remnants of the ruptured vesicular follicle. Does NOT contain an oocyte. Secretes sex hormones progesterone and estrogen.
(only in 1st 3 months of pregnancy, then the placenta does it)

Corpus albicans: White, connective tissue scar that is formed by the breakup of the corpus luteum. Most get resorbed. 
 
Inferior
Below
toward the tail
Arm
der Arm, -e
scapula
Latin, scapulæ, “shoulders, shoulder blades.” Of unknown origin; perhaps originally “spades, shovels” compare to Greek, skaphein “to dig out”, on notion of similar shape, but actual shoulder blades may have been used as digging tools in primitive times.
arousal
parasympathetic stimulation causes dilation of helicine arteries increasing blood flow into erectile tissue; arteriovenous anastomoses are compressed and vemous outflow is inhibited
Location of pharyngeal tonsil?
Nasopharynx
MINERALS
inorganic, necessary for body
serratus anterior
-protraction/abduction of scapula
-superior rotation of scapula
runner passing baton
-shoulder extension-latisimus dorsimus-deltoid
heart
the effector for sympathetic postganglionic fibers leaving the middle and inferior cervical ganglia is the _______.
hypodermis
 
adipose and areolar CT
anchors skin to underlying tissue
thermal insulator
fat storage
 
(1) is also called caudal
inferior
laryngeal ligaments
intrinsic-bind all 9 cartilages
extrinsic-attach larynx to hyoid and trachea
vocal-between thyroid and arytenoid cartilages
vestibular-between thyroid and arytenoid cartilages
prophase
chromosomes appear, the centrioles seperate from each other, begin to move toward opposite sides of the cell that has mitotic spindles with them, nuclear envelope and nuclei have disapproved by end
perimysium
the connective tissue surrounding bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.
List the systems
1. Integumantary
2. Skeletal
3. Muscular
4. Nervous
5. Endocrine
6. Cardiovascular
7. Lymphatic
8. Reproductive
9. Urinary
10. Digestive
11. Respritory
endometrial carcinoma (adenocarcinoma)
derived from uterine glands
area of the digit
fetlock to hoof
Peritoneum
is a moist, two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
elastic cartilage
matrix contains elastic fibersouter ear and larynxflexibility and strength
phagocytosis
cell eating. pseudopod encases the bacteria.
leprosy
-don't feel pain sensation because damage to neurons-->fingers/toes lost
the ___ nervous system regulates voluntary actions such as skeletal muscle contraction
somatic
plasma membrane
flexible, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents and separates them from the surrounding environment
anatomy of nodes
-surrounded by fibrous capsule
-trabeculae extend inward
-afferent and efferent vessels
-hilus
-follicles
diaphragm
a muscular, membranous or ligamentous wall separating the thoracic or chest cavity from the abdominal cavity in mammals
Posterior
Nearer to the back of the body
Cartilage-Hyaline
Location: Forms most of the embryonic skeleton; covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities; forms costal cartilages of the ribs; cartilages of the nose. trachea. and larynx.
cortical granules
contain proteases that are released during fertilization
estrogen, progesterone
ovaries produce the female sex hormones _________ and ___________
Acromioclavicular joint
irregular joint between the acromion process of the scapula and the distal clavicle
Define Osteoclast
Multinucleate cell that secretes acids and enzmes to dissolve bone matrix
the heart is (1) to the breastbone
posterior
Amphioxus has muscles arranged in segments (_) which are seperated from one another by partitions (_)
myomeres, myosepta
Nail Body
visible attached part of the nail
small cells that phagoctyize bacterial cells and cellular debris
microglial cells
endothelium
epithelium of the heart and blood vessels
what is the organ of hearing
the Cochlea
dural sheath
spinal dura mater-potential space b/w the dura and vertebrae from the epidural space
skull
the bony framework of the head, enclosing the brain and supporting the face; the skeleton of the head.
parasympathetic innervation on heart:
decreases heart rate, constricts coronary a's.
Golgi Apparatus
Stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends and associated small vesicles; found close to the nucleus; plays a role in packaging proteins or other substances for export from the cell or incorporation into the plasma membrane and in packaging lysosomal enzymes
dermatitis
inflammation of the skin, can be acute or chronic
auscultation
the act of listening to the heart sounds with a stethoscope is called __________
Where are blood cells created?
skeleton, spleen, liver, kidneys
ileostomy
new opening in the ileum to the outside of the body
See p. 73 for Gas exchange barrier diagram
signs of diabetes mellitus
excessive thirst, excessive urine production, excessive hunger
sural nerve
branch of the sciatic nerve that innervates the more inferior portions of the posterior lower leg
also provides innervation to lateral ankle and lateral maleolus
also small portion of lateral foot
superficial cuts are filled in by reproducing..
epithelial cells
Lateral flexion
The vertebral column moves in either lateral direction along a coronal plane
nervous system
the body system including the brain, spinal cord, and nevers that controls the voluntary and involuntary activity of the human body
hydrostatic pressure
in blood- 33mm Hg-arterial end of capillary, 18 mm Hg-venous end of capillary; in interstitial fluid- 0mmHg
Liver:
1) Location
2) Falciform Ligament
3) Relationship of size of lobes
4) Smooth outer membrane
5) Vital?
6) gallbladder (*stores bile) location
7) Round ligament
 
1) intraperitoneal, except for bare area
2) boundary btwn L/R lobes
3) R>L
4) Viceral peritoneum
5) yes
6) protrudes inferiorly from R lobe of liver.  IN URQ.
7) non functional, remnant of embryologic umbilical vein, attached to anterior wall of abdom cavity
supraspinous ligament prevents ()
() ligament prevents excessive forward flexion
Inspiratory capacity
maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration
Frontal Sinus Relations - Nerve?
Opthalamic - Supraorbital and Supratrochlear
This part of the male anatomy acts as recycling center for damaged sperm
Epididymis
ULNA
longer of the 2 forearm bones on the little finger side(medial side)
shorter than the 3rd but longer than the 4th actual length
5th metatarsal
diffusion
the spreading of particles in a gas or solution with a movement toward uniform distribution of particles
vertebral
of or pertaining to a vertebra or the vertebrae; spinal.
lumbosacral joint the articulation between the L5 vertebral body and the body of the first sacral segment
a symphysis; this articulation is characterized by all of the features of a typical intervertebral articulation which include: an intervertebral disk, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, synovial joints between articular processes, ligamenta fl
what is proliferative phase of menstral cycle?
endometrium rebuilds and secretes estrogen, which stimulates mitosis and blood vessel growth, and progesterone receptors to grow
alar foramen/ notch
cranial edge of alae in atlas; notch in carnivores
Attachements, innervation, and actions of quadratis femoris
Proximally attached to the ischial tuberosity and distally attached to the quadrate tubericle on introchanteric crest of the femur.
Innervated by nerve to the quadratus femoris (L4,L5,S1).
Laterally rotates the thigh and steadies the hip joint.
INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY
renal cortex- outer, renal medulla, dark triangle, renal pelvis- pyramids, collect urine
what are extrinsic factors that can influence CBF
temperature: CBF changes proportionately with temp changesautonomic innervation
sinoatrial node
a small mass of tissue in the right atrium functioning as pacemaker of the heart by giving rise to the electric impulses that initiate heart contractions.


 
I release H + ions,  i donate a proton and i am an electrolyte who am i?


 
I am an acid
Classical compliment vs. Alternative compliment?
c- starts with antibodies binding to antigen. S- Lipid and carobhydrate complexes interact.
What are the 2 major phases in action potential?
depolarization and repolarization.
Describe the difference between superficial and deep.
Superficial is towards the surface of the body.

Deep is away from the surface of the body.
What structures make up the 2nd layer of the eye? 5
1) Iris
2) Constrictor pupillae
3) Dilator pupillae m
4) Ciliary body/muscle
5) Choroid
Where does the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve arise from and what path does it travel?
dorsal divisions of ventral rami S-1,2 and ventral divisions of ventral rami S-2,3
-exits pelvis via greater sciatic foramen, inferior to piriformis muscle and usually posterior to sciatic nerve 
drains 40% of heart directly to chambers
left and right coronary arteries anastomose
the strenghths of sensory stimuli or summated synaptic potentials is often encoded as
the frequency of production of action potentials
Muscles supplied by facial nerve - CN VII
- All muscles of facial expression-Occipitofrontalis-Platysma-Buccinator-Stapedius-Posterior belly of digastric-Stylohyoid
Areas of auscultation of heart sounds
PV - left 2nd ICS
Aortic - right 2nd ICS
Mitral - apex (lateral 5th ISC)
Tricuspid - lower left sternal border (5th ISC)
Name the lobes and fissures of each lung
Left lung - divided into superior and inferior lobes by the oblique fissue. It also has a cardiac notch for the heart and lingula (a flap that corresponds to the middle lobe)
Right lung - divided into superior, middle and inferior lobes by a horizontal and oblique fissures. 
Note: inferior lobe is mostly on the posterior surface
pleur-
around
MAMMARY
BREAST
Sub
Under
trud
thrust
brady
slow
BRONCHO
trachea, windpipe
oid
like, resembling
Collagen
White fibers
Insertion triceps
olecranon process
mylohoid muscle function
swallowing
hyoglossus
muscle under jaw
monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
Away from the Surface
Deep
Nucleus
"brain" of the cell
innervation of sartorius
femoral nerve
brachialis
flex forearm
humerus
coronoid process of ulna
dura mater
outermost layer of meninges
proprioceptors
receptors that provide information concerning body position and movement are classified as __________
muscle structure
 
connective tissue organizes skeletal muscle and attaches it to other structures
each muscle fiber/cell is surrounded by areolar CT called the endomysium

muscle fibers are in groups called fascicles, which are surrounded by perimysium CT
entire muscle surrounded by epimysium CT

tendons are cords of dense regular CT continuous with epimysium

aponeuroses are broad sheet-like tendons


 
NAMEeliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body and regulates water, eletroyle, and acid base-base balance of the blood
urinary system
masseter
muscle found in lower jaw
PNS: Bulbourethral Glands (early)SNS: Seminal Vesicles, Prostate
Erection
epidermis
the outer, nonvascular, nonsensitive layer of the skin, covering the true skin or corium
transverse/horizontal section
separates superior and inferior portions of the body; sections typically pass through head and trunk regions
parakeratosis
cells of corneum retain nuclei, normally occurs in oral cavity, may occur with some skin conditions
Synovial membrane
-produces synovial fluid-attaches to both bones, encloses joint
Malleus
Ear ossicle medial to tympanic membrane
Orbicularis Oris
Origin: Maxilla and mandible. Insertion: Lips. Action: Compresses lips. Innervation: Facial Nerve
types of immunity
passive acquired immunityactive acquired immunitynatural immunity
horizontal cells
-photorecptor talking to bipolar cells-->hortz. cells modify this information
Afferent arterioles deliver blood into capillary networks, called _______________________, which produces a blood filtrate that enters the urinary tubules.
glomerulus
SNS- Accessory glands/ducts contract- Bladder sphincter constricts- Bulbospongiosus muscle contracts rapidly to expel semen- Latent period (min - hrs)
Broad Ligament
diameter regulated by
local factors (adenosine, NO)
sympothetic NS activity (EPI, NE)
disease
disturbance to homeostasis where there are signs and symptoms (signs can be measured, symptoms are subjective and not apparent to observer
Origin Teres Minor
Inferior lateral margin of scapula
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Function: Secretion partiuclarly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
sensory receptors
free nerve endings in epidermismerkel cellsmeissner's corpuscle (tactile)paccinian corpuscle (pressure)
iodine; tyrosine
thyroid hormones are synthesized by attaching ______ atoms to the amino acid _______
Sagittal plane
plane that runs from front-to-back, and divides the body into right and left
olfactory epithelial cell types
 
olfactory epithelium is located in superior part of nasal cavity
cell types:

olfactory receptors
firs-order neurons
have olfactory hairs that are sites of olfactory transduction


supporting cells
columnar epithelial cells
provide support and nourishment


basal cells
stem cells
give rise to new olfactory receptors



 
Opposition
Thumb to the surface of the palm.
NAMEbreaks down food into absorbale units that enter the blood for distibution to body cells and indigestible foods are eliminated as feces
Digestive system
feedback loops
alter the original changes that triggered something like body temp
duodenum
no supporting mesentery because it is retroperitoneal it is fixed in position between L1 and L4
cell body with mitchodria, lysosomes, a golgi apparatus, chromatophilic substance contaning rough endoplasmic reticulum and neurofibrils
neuron structure
Prime Movers that Extend the Leg?
Quadriceps Femoris
Cubital refers to an area on the
Arm
septum pellucidum
separates the lateral ventricles of the brain
colon
the part of the large intestine extending from the cecum, where the large intestine begins, to the rectum
The internal jugular vein drains
Common facial v.
Pterygoid plexus
Pharyngeal v.
Lingual v.
Thyroid v. (sup and middle)
and brain
Cartilage- Elastic
Function: Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibiltiy.
aorta -> right and left coronary arteries -> give off branches which supply heart muscles
coronary circulation
Eustachian tube
middle ear and the nasopharynx are connected by the ___________
primary motor cortex is located on the
precentral gyrus
Body Regions
Axial region- head, neck, torso or trunk
Solutions used in a college lab or hospital are often described in terms of (1) of tthe solute in the solution
percent
the process by which cells receive oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide is
internal respiration
separates nose into right and left cavaties
Internal Nares
the ____ consists of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, peliv gerdle, and lower limbs.
appendicular skeleton
Origin
The point of attachment to the bone that doesn't move
Orbicularis Oculi
O: Medial wall of orbit
I: eyelid
A: closes eyelids (squinting and blinking)
metabolism
the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available.
Proton acceptor that releases OH-
An base defined as an?
respiratory system
delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood
parasagittal plane
A sagittal plane that does not pass through the midline of the body or organ.
convexity of greater tuberosity
caudal to greater tuberosity; smooth portion
Maxillary Sinus Relations - Superior?
Orbit, infraorbital nerve and vessels
In response to tissue damage, microglia transform into ------------
large, ameboid phagocytic cells
attachments of g. minimus
prox: external surface of ilium gluteal lines
dist: greater trochanter
Concentric Isotonic Contraction
If the tension generated is great enough to overcome the resistance of the object to be move the muscle shortens and pulls on another structure such as a tendon to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint.
- 3 months, descend dorsal to Parietal Peritoneum, following Gubernaculum- Vaginal Process of PP also descend, become Tunica Vaginalis- 7 months : descends thru Inguinal Canal into Scrotum
Inguinal Hernia
thorax
the part of the trunk in humans and higher vertebrates between the neck and the abdomen, containing the cavity, enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and certain vertebrae, in which the heart, lungs, etc., are situated; chest.
radioulnar joint, intermediate the articulation formed by the interosseous membrane
a syndesmosis; it connects the interosseous border of the ulna to the interosseous border of the radius; proximally directed forces from the hand pass through the radius and are transferred to the ulna through the interosseous membrane
what are the six essential activities of the GI tract?
ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defecation
incisor teeth
three in each quadrant in both dogs and cats
what is the only gluteal region muscle to recieve innervation from the lumbar plexus?
Obturator externus muscle
attachments of biceps femoris long head
prox: ischial tuberosity
dis: fibula (head)
it was an opening in fetus, that connected right atrium to left atrium. the IVC delivered oxygenated blood from placenta, and it went through fossa ovalis to go to the left atrium
valve of IVC
What is the first step of ingestion?
mastication by mouth(oral cavity)
what do we call an atom that has lost or gained an electron
an ion
What are some examples of unicellular organisms? What does this mean?
bacteria, algae, seaweed, protozoa. All their cells are the same. No specialized cells. Do not form tissue.
What is conduction velocity?
it is how fast an action potential travels down the axon or dendrite.
what is the name of the joint that is formed from the articulation between the occipital condyles and the atlas?
ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL JOINTs
levator ani muscle group and coccygeus muscle
the deep pelvic muscles are the..
In the blood, there is a small amount of ____ oxygen.  ___% of the O2 out of solution is attached to ___ in ____
1.  dissolved
2.  98%
3. hemogoblin
4.  red blood cells 
Comparison of WBC and RBC
nuclei - WBC yes, RBC noMetabolism - WBC full, RBC only glycolysisFree living - WBC yes, RBC noLife Span - WBC Variable .5-200 days, RBC 90-120 daysSize - WBC Variable 8-25 microns, RBC 7.5 microns
The injury of which nerve results in "wrist drop"?
Radial nerve.
 Lose extensors and so wrist remians flexed
whats the difference between the parietal peritoneum and the parietal pleura
the parietal pleura line the walls of thoracic cavity, the parietal peritoneum line the walls of abdominopelvic cavity
What position must the hip be forced into for the more rare anterior hip dislocation to occur?
It must be extended, abducted, and laterally rotated.
synovial inj of hock, watch for, clin corr, what happens if done on other side
sac bw tibia and tallus bog spavin: fluid distentioninj med to tendon of tibialis cranialis and peroneus tertius at lvl of med malleoluscran br of medial saphenous v herecunean tendon resected to relieve pressure in bog spavinhit dranial tibial a if try from lateral side
glyc-
sweet
GLUTEAL
BUTTOCK
Cephal
head/brain
tegm
cover
pain
algia
MACUL
spot, blotch
plasm
form, shape
flexion
bending anteriorly
Nerve Subclavius
subclavian nerve
Fibrous joint class
synarthroses
pectoralis major
torso muscle
polysaccharides
glycogen, cellulose, starch
Away from the Midline
Lateral
organisms with bilaterial symmetry
bilateria
gracillus
adduct thigh
inferior pubic ramus
tibia (via pes anserinus)
located in the neck
thyroid gland
carbon dioxide
carbaminohemoglobin forms when hemoglobin combines with _________.
Maxillary Sinus Relations - Lateral?
Cheek
(1) refers to the abdomen
Abdonimal
triangularis
muscle of the lower jaw
1. Palatoglossal Arch (ant.)2. Palatopharyngeal Arch (post)-b/w them are the Palatine Tonsils
Tonsils
coronal suture the articulation between the frontal bone and the two parietal bones
a suture
frontal/coronal section
separates anterior and posterior portions of the body; coronal usually refers to sections passing through the skull
papillary and reticular
2 layers of dermis
Joint Capsule
-synovial membrane -fibrous connective tissue layer that reinforces the synovial membrane
Cochlea
Most medial structure of inner ear
Medial Rectus
Action: Eye look medially. Innervation: Oculomotor Nerve
Hot spot
area of greater contrast concentration
Sleep
-altered consciousness from which we can be awakened 
-sometimes brain is more active in sleep than in awake state-brain doesn't shut down
There are two brachiocephalic veins but only one brachiocephalic artery.
true
- Deep Transverse Perineal : Urogenital Diaphragm- Superficial Transverse Perineal : Superficial Perineal Space
Glans
tunica media structure
smooth muscle
elastin and collagen
catabolism
part of metabolism, breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones
Action Rhomb. major
adduct adn downwardly rotate scapula
Simple columnar Epithelium
Function: Absorption; Secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus (or reproductive cells) by ciliary action.
subcutaneous fascia
looser CTadiposemovement of skin over underlying structures
contralateral
when sensory impulses enter one side of the spinal cord and motor impulses leave on the opposite side, as in the crossed extensor reflex, the arrangement is called a(n) ______ reflex arc.
Superior
term used to describe that a structure, surface or side is situated nearer the top of the head in relation to a specific reference point. OPPOSITE: Inferior
To make a muscle contract more strongly, the nervous system can activate more motor units in a process called
recruitment
What is the process called when osteoblasts produce new bone matrix
osteogenesis
What is catabolism?
includes the breaking down substances
Reductionism
the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components
ileocecal valve
junction between large and small intestines, controls the flow of material
gather information and convert into nerve impulses
sensory receptors
Prime Movers that Extend the Thigh?
Gluteus Maximus
______ is a diagnostic technique used to show relative metabolic activity of tissues.
PET
potential difference
the separation of opposite charges, requires a barrier that prevents ion migration
femur
the thighbone of the human leg, extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body
Derivatives of the pharyngeal pouches
1st:
Tympanic (middle ear) cavity
Auditory (eustachian) tube
 
2nd:
Palatine tonsils
Tonsillar fossa
 
3rd:
Inferior parathyroid gland
Thymus
 
4th & 6th:
Superior parathyroid glands (related to 4th pouch)
Ultimobranchial body (-->C-cells of thyroid gland)
Smooth Muscle
Location: Mostly in the walls of hollow organs
typical cardiac muscle, conducting cardiac muscle
2 types of myocardium
kidneys; sodium; potassium
principal target organ for aldosterone is the _________, where it stimulates the reabsorption of _______ ions and the excretion of _________ions
information coming from the eye is said to belong to the
special senses
Anatomy
the branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts-their forms and how they are organized
What is energy?
is the capacity to do work
red fibers, smallest of the fiber types
slow twitch
joints that consist of ovoid condyle fitting into an elliptical cavity, permitting a variety of motions(metacarpal and phalnage )
condyloid joint
Plantar flexion
Ankle joint movement whereby the sole of the foot is brought closer to the posterior surface of the leg
Occipital belly of occipitofrontalisis
O: occipital bone-superior nuchal line
A: draws scalp backwards
hallux
the first or innermost digit of the foot of humans and other primates or of the hind foot of other mammals; great toe; big toe.
AB+ CD-> AC+ BD
Which of the following correctly defines an exchange reaction?
nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses
Part of the respiratory system. filter, warm, humidify air; detect smells
anterior
Nearer to or at the front of the body.
scapular/supraglenoid tuberosity or tuber scapulae
on cranial edge of distal angle
Superior Gemellus
O: ischial spine and superior edge of lesser sciatic notchI: anterior fossa at medial aspect of greater trochanter w/ tendons of obturator internus and inf. gemellusA: lateral rotation of thighNS: N. to obturator internus and sup. gemellus from sacral plexus; ventral divisions of ventral rami L5, S1 and S2
Primary granules in a neutrophil contain --------------
hydrolytic enzymes, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin
attachments of rectus femoris
prox: AIIS
dis: tibular tuberosity via patellar tendon
Fast Glicolytic(FG) Fibers
Are largest in diameter and contain the most myofibrils. Hence, they can generate the most powerful contractions.
O: inf margin of thoracic cageI: Central TendonA: contracts during inhalation
What causes Expiration?
pectoral
of, in, on, or pertaining to the chest or breast; thoracic.
pubic symphysis the midline joint uniting the superior rami of the two pubic bones
a symphysis; a fibrocartilage interpubic disk unites the bones; the subpubic angle in the female is greater than the subpubic angle in the male
what is the dartos muscle?
subcutaneous layer of smooth muscle can wrinkle scrotum, and pull it to body when cold by lowering SA and heat loss
pulp chamber
portion of the pulp that is found in the crown of the tooth
its muscle belly lies adjacent to the superior gemellus muscle belly?
inferior gemellus muscle
actions of ant (foot) compartment
dorsiflexion of ankle (all), extension of toes (EDL,EHL), inversion of foot (TA)
reticular layer of dermis
deep, dense irregular CT, attaches to the papillary layer with fibers
What 2 accessory organs aid the small intestines?
Liver and Pancrease
my valence shell is not full and is unable who am i 
a reactive  element
What kind of junctions do epithelials have between them?
occluding junction, gap junction, desmosomes
The wormlike part of the LI that is 5-20 cm long - functions as a tonsil and protects body from bacteria
The vermiform apendix
what happens during osteporosis?
there is a significant amount of bone loss
anterior urogenital triangle and the posterior anal triangle
the pelvic diaphragm can be further divided into the..
Monocytes in blood move to lymph via ____
-diapedesis - squeeze through capillary pores
examples of cell mediated and humoral immunity
cell mediated = measleshumoral = tetanus
Testing dermatomes of the hand
C6 - dorsum of thumb
C7 - tip of middle finger
C8 - tip of little finger
What is different about the anatomical planes of the foot
Right and left sides of foot are reversed compared to rest of body.
What is the effect of the "little valleys" of the synaptic knob?
to inscrease surface area b/w the nerve cell and the muscle cell
When we were born we had about how many different bones? Why?
350; many smaller bones join together as we grow.
inter-
between
CALCANEAL
HEAL
cephalo
head
Obicularis
circle
extremities
acr
dys-
bad, abnormal
pezón (m.)
nipple
pinocytosis
"cell drinking"
olfaction
sensation of smell
endocrine system
releases hormones
vastus latoralis
leg muscle
A or Ab
away, lack
pons & medulla
transmission/relay centers
What buffers tear pH
electrolytes
saclike structues strategically situated to alleviate friction in some joints
bursae
gluteus maximus
butt, supports torso
Endocardium
lines chambers, valves, and tendons
simple squamous epithelium
endocarditis
Digestion
Mechanical and biochemical breakdown of food into a form usable by the body
Innervation to tensor veli palatini
V-3
Tuberosity
large rounded projection of bone
Glottis
Opening btw vocal folds

*airway thru larynx
latissimus dorsi
shoulder/arm extension, adduction, medial rotation
peripheral
loosely associated with polar heads
Intervertebral discs account for ()% of the total length of the vertebral column
25%
subscapular fossa
depression surrounded by muscular lines
Trapezius
Most superior/dorsal muscle of the back
Depolarization
Change in resting membrane potential such that the inside now becomes more positive than it was when at rest.
which has the highest partial pressure of oxygen?tissues or alveoli of lungs
alveoli
Trachea
from larynx to primary bronchii... windpipe, ridged (cartilage rings), and hard
(function)
Regulates body activities by releasing homones; which are chemical messengers thranported in blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to a target organ
steriods
flat molecules formed by interlocking rings
Superficial
toward the surface of the body
phospholipids
75%, hydrophilic head - phosphate group, hydrophobic tail - fatty acid
Spincters 
Rings of muscle which are squeezed shut most of the time.
tubuli rectirete testisefferent ducts
types of intratesticular ducts
reticular activating system
awakening from sleep involves increased activity in fibers known as the ________ that project from the brain stem through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex.
immunoglobin M (IgM) is found in
blood plasma
Deltoid
Origin: spine of scapula, lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion
 
Insertion: deltoid tuberosity
 
Innervation: axillary n.
Spinalis Thoracis
Origin: Spinous processes of inferior thoracic and superior lumbar vertebrae. Insertion: Spinous processes of superior thoracic vertebrae. Action: extends vertebral column. Innervation: Thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves.
peroneus brevus
O- lateral surface of the fibulaI-tuberosity on the metatarsal fo the 5th digitA-eversion and plantar flexion
darkyl staining granules of protein in the statum granulosum
keratohyalin
filtration
occurs as blood pressure forces fluid and dissolved solutes out of the glomerulus into the capsular space
planar joints allow which of the following main types of movement
gliding
Synchondroses
immobile joints with bones joined by hyaline cartilage; costochondral joints & epiphyseal plate
collagen fibers found in most connective tissues are mainly built from macromolecule:
B) proteins
pate
the crown or top of the head.
adrenal glands
ductless glands above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex producing steroidal hormones, and a medulla producing epinephrine and norepinephrine
cadaver
A dead human body used for anatomical study is referred to as a...
The _________ plays a crucial role as an autonomic reflex center involved in maintaining body homeostasis:
Medulla
perforating cutaneous nerve
(S2-S3)innervates the medial aspect of the buttocks-nerve of the inferior lumbosacral plexus
ductus venosus
blood bypasses the fetal liver through a vessel called the _________
loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles mught suggest damage to the
premotor cortex
Muscles of the posterior abdominal wall
Psoas major
Quadratus lumborum
Iliacus
the study of functions of the body's structural machinery
physiology
SATORIUS
longest muscle in the body, located on anterior surface of thigh, rotates so that you can sit cross-legged
Ingestion
Taking food into the mouth, snakes eat whole, alligator tear into pieces, humans into mouth and chew it up
Enclosed regions of the meninges that collect venous blood and drain it to the internal jugular veins of the neck are called_______
dural sinuses
reticular connective tissue
consists of delicate network of interwoven reticular fibers associated with reticular cells which resemble fibroblasts
Referred Pain
-perception that pain is coming from somatic areas like the skin or outer body
ex.- hear attack (arm pain)
middle ear
the middle portion of the ear, consisting of the tympanic membrane and an air-filled chamber lined with mucous membrane, that contains the malleus, incus, and stapes.
systemic anatomy
is the study of the body by systems
Primary Structure
The sequence of amino acids forms the polypeptide chain
 
What are the muscles testing (and their associated nerves) in the H-test?
Inferior Olique (III)                           Superior Rectus (III)
 
Lateral Rectus (VI)                                 Medial Rectus (III)
 
Superior Oblique (IV)                           Inferior Rectus (III)
labial/buccal aspect
outer surface of the tooth nearest the lips/cheek
triangular interval
- area bounded by teres major, long head of triceps, & lateral head of trieps
 
- radial nerve and deep brachial artery found here
What is reduction?
is reactant taking up the extra electron
Hypothetico-deductive method
Fist ask a question and formulating a hypothesis.
4 CARTILAGE OF LARYNX
1- THYROID CART
2- CRICORD CART
3- ARYTENOID CART
4- CORNICULATE CART.
What is blood serum?
Blood plasma without fibrinogen or other clotting factors
knee
the joint of the leg that allows for movement between the femur and tibia and is protected by the patella
venous return
volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins- assisted by the higher pressure to lower pressure gradient, gravity,skeletal muscle pump, and the respiratory pump
what is a radioisotope
these are the heavier isotopes of certain atoms
tends to be unstable
decomposes to more stable isotope
Examples of long bones:
arm & leg bones - phalanges, metatarsals, metacarpals
The ____ lines the body wall in the abdomen
parietal peritoneum
What is tachy-brady syndrome?
Irregular beating of the heart with episodes in which the heart stops
beating. Patient is weak and dizzy.
1. Splenic Vein2. Superior Mesenteric Vein3. Inferior Mesenteric Vein
Fetal vs. Newborn hepatic structures
vocal cords
either of the two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the cavity of the larynx
Name the fluids contained in the eye:
 
1) Aqueous humor
2) Vitreous humor
suboccipital region characteristics
- muscles arranged in the shape of a triangle
 
- vertebral artery and dorsal primary ramus of the 1st cervical nerve (suboccipital) are within the triangle
 
- greater occipital nerve emerges just inferior to the triangle
 
- occipital artery just lateral to the triangle
What is the actions of the splenius? x2
Extend & Rotate head
Posterior Region of the neck
~contains the spinal cord and cervical vertebrae
Contains:
1.Spinous process of vertebra prominens (C7)
2.Ligamentum nuchae – a thick ligament
chemical behavior of an atom
What is determined by the number and arrangement of valence electrons.
What are the major function of calcitonin
inhibits osteclast activity, increases the rate of excretion of calcium ions at the kidneys
What does the epiphyseal line do?
it separtes the diaphysis from the epiphysis
What are the bony landmarks for aspiration of the knee joint?
tip of lateral tibial condyle, lateral epicondyle of the femur, and the apex of the patella
what is the shape of the distal phalanges 2-5
rough flattened heads and bicondylar concave bases
what does the pharynx dowhat are the parts of the pharynx?
connects nasal cavity to larynx & esophagusnasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Adequate diameter of lesser pelvis for vaginal delivery
if 3 fingers can be inserted side by side in the vagina b/w the ischial tuberosities
-algia
pain
CARDIA
heart
mammae
breasts
mal-
bad
-cyte
cell
bio
life, living
LARYNX
voice box
csf
cerebrospinal fluid.
Plasma Cell
p. 71
myofilaments
make up myofibrils
Frontal
Pertainin to the forehead
Cardial
Refers to the heart
nervous tissue
neurons and neuroglia
polymers
formed from many monomers
dendrite
receptive region of a neuron
Inguinal
pertaining to the groin region
DNA
constitutes our genes, gives instructions for synthesizing all of the body's proteins and transfers hereditary information from cell to cell when cells divide and from generation to generation when organisms reproduce
Ventral/Dorsal
Strictly, ventral means “toward the belly” and dorsal means“toward the back.”
dermis
the second layer of skin
stratum corneum
outermost xone protects the skin
How many neurons per muscle fiber?
1
Types of muscle tissue
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
The bladder receives somatic innervation from this nerve, originating in the sacral plexus
Pudendal nerve
NAMEelements that have the same number of protons but differ number of neutrons
istopes
ionizing radiation
high energy radiatino ejects electrons from atoms, converting atoms to ions. Destroys molecules and produces dangerous free radicals and ions in human tissues.
liver
largest visceral organ that provides metabolic regulation, hematological regulation, synthesis and secretion of bile
cytoskeleton
framework of the cell, transportation, provide motion, and aid in cell division
Interosseous membrane
Connects the tibia and fibula
hemophilia
any of several X-linked genetic disorders, symptomatic chiefly in males, in which excessive bleeding occurs owing to the absence or abnormality of a clotting factor in the blood.
Transcription
The copying of genetic information for DNA into RNA is called?
abdominal
Which of these identifies an important body cavity?
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
the pyramids are associated with all of the following except
PONS
Respiration
the process involved in supplying the body with oxygen and disposing of carbon dioxide
Skin
The body's largest organ: in adults covers 1.5-2.0 m^2, and accounts for 15% body weight.
 
Consists of layers: epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis
palato glossus
innervation Xattach soft palate to tongue
What does CD stand for?
Cluster of Differentiation
Breathing Critical times- Unconsciousness occurs- brain damage occurs- death occurs
4-5 minutes7-8 minutes10 minutes
Fracture and dislocation of the posteior lip of the distal radius involving the wrist joint.
Barton's fracture
Allowed reptiles to reproduce on land.
Amniotic egg
Adventitia
Instead of the serosa, this surrounds the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and rectum.Dense network of collagen fibers
fluent aphasia
lesion to wernickes

speech normal and excessive but makes little sense
Decussation occurs in the pyramidal region of the
Medulla Oblongata
cardiovascular
pertaining to or affecting the heart and blood vessels
Antioxidants
What substances are used by the body to help eliminate free radicals?
within the ventral cavity
Where is the heart located?
jaundice
caused by an elevation of bilirubin in the blood-yellow skin
the part of the brain that can directly influence or inhibit the release of hormones from the pituitary is the
hypothalamus
transverse fovea
articulation with the tubercle of the rib ; two-pronged (bifid)
cervical
pertaining to the neck or a necklike portion of an organ
endocrine system (parts)
Pineal gland, pituitary gland, adrenal glands,pacreas, thyroid gland, thymus gland
NAMEis if the first body part is closer to the body trunk
proxmial
The internal ENDOTHELIAL tissue that allows blood to flow and PREVENTS LEAKS.
Endocardium. (Endothelial tissue)
hilus of the liver
porta hepatis-underside entry point for blood vessels and ducts
Function of the oral cavity
-Analyzes material before swallowing-Mechanical processing of food-Lubrication-Limited digestion of carbs
which 2 curvatures are CONCAVE posteriorly?
CERVICAL AND LUMBAR
Are the visceral and parietal pleaura continuous?
is each lung seperately encased?
Does it encase lungs and inner thorax?
All yes
Boundaries of the suboccipital triangle
Obliquus capitis superior= lateral border (transverse process of atlas to occipital bone b/w sup and inf nuchal lines
Obliquus capitis inferior= inferior border (spinous process of axis to transverse process of atlas)
Rectus capitis posterior major= medial border (spinous process of atlas to inf nuchal line)
 
**produce extension and lateral bending of head at atlanto-occipital joint and rotation of head at atlantoaxial joint.
where does esophagus and end?what two layers of smooth muscle does the esophagus have?
cardiac orificecircular (rings)(deep)Longitudinal (superficial)
Regional Anatomy
all structures in a single body region that are examined as a group
What is white muscle like?
lacks mitochondria. Uses glycolosis for energy supply. Capable of sprinting but not prolonged activity. Ambush predators have this.
Muscles of the medial compartment of the thigh
Pectineus
Adductor longus
Adductor brevis
Adductor magnus
Gracilis
Obturator externus
Vastus Mediallus
O- Medial lip of the linea asperaI- PatellaA- extend kneeN- Femoral
Includes all bones that lie on or near the central axis of the body.80 bones, includes the skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum
axial skeleton
the cerebellum is responsible for which of the follwoing
coordinate os muscle movemtens
Bell’s palsy
is a paralysis of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve) resulting in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side
tunica intima
The inner layer of the wall of an artery or vein is the...
abdominopelvic regions (9)
(left to right, top to bottom, 3 across and 3 down)right hypochondriac,epigastric,left hypochondriac,right lumbar,umbilical,left lumbar,right inguinal (iliac),hypogastric (pubic),left inguinal (iliac)
What type of connective tissue is in a tendon?
Dense regular
What is mechinical energy?
is energy directly involved in moving matter
pulmonary semilunar valve
3 thick semilunar cusps that lead to the pulmonary trunk and prevent backflow
A cut that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections is
Coronal or Frontal
Where is the AV node located?
interatrial septum, just superior to the coronary sinus
All the pharyngeal muscles are innervated by vagus. What are the exceptions?
Stylopharyngeus (by CN IX), tensor vali palatini (CN V3), & inferior pharyngeal constrictor (also gets recurrent laryngeal).
where does the perforating cutaneous nerve arise from and describe its path?
dorsal divisions of ventral rami S-2,3
-exits pelvis by piercing the sacrotuberous ligament, usually near the sacrum
-may be a direct course or pass within the ligament for a short distance
-passes inferiorly around the distomedial edge of the gluteus maximus muscl to innervate a small area of skin at the inferomedial gluteal region 
What is the nervous system divided into?
Neurons (transmission) and glia (support)
where does fetal blood get oxygenated?
from placenta and umbilical cord, close to maternal blood
What are the two regions of the body?
Axial Region & Appendicular Region
Transport of respiratory gases is the job of the
cardiovascular system with blood as the transporting fluid.
tibiocalcaneal ligament part of the deltoid ligament connecting the medial malleolus of the tibia with the sustentaculum tali
it is a ligament that reinforces the ankle joint
Length and parts of the male urethra
18-22 cm long from internal urethral orifice to external urethral orifice
4 parts:
Intramural (preprostatic) part
Prostatic (widest and most distensible)
Intermediate (membranous and passes through perineum - shortest and least distensible)
Spongy (15-16 cm)
The subarachnoid space :(spinal cord meninges )
is a real space filled with cerebral spinal fluid.
What type of ions do passive ion channels govern?
Either sodium OR potassium but not both at same time.. liek voltage.
How do they test babies for neuron development when they're born?
they see if the baby can grab your finger
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Term:
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