Anatomy Final - Muscular System Flashcards

Terms Definitions
respiration
diaphragm, intercostals
Rhomboideus
brings scapula together
occipitalis
not in book/notes
Example of extensor
Triceps branchii
frontalis
cranial aponeurosis/skin of eyebrows/raises eyebrows
gastrocnemius
distal femur/calcaneus/plantar flexes foot and flexes knee
PERIMYSIUM
TOUGH CONNECTIVE TISSUE BINDING TOGETHER FASCICLES
osteoclasts
bone break down
 
found in endosteum
 
 
 
Acting on Elbow joint
Extensors, Flexors,
extensors
Brachiocephalicus head to arm
-supraspinatus
Epimysium
Connective tissue surrounding the whole muscle
extensor carpi ulnaris
not in book/notes
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, Involuntary, Cannot Regenerate
DEEP FASCIA
FASCIA AROUND MUSCLE AND BONE
osteocytes
main cells in bone tissue
maintain daily metabolism 
how are smooth muscle cells shaped?
spindle
Horse, cattle, and goats
Thoracic limb
Triceps branchii
Fixator
Prevents a muscle from movingex: flexion at elbow = rhomboids
tranversus abdominus
lower ribs and pubis/iliac crest/compresses abdominal cavity
zygomaticus
zygomatic bone/skin and muscle at corner of lips/raises corner of mouth
Skeletal Muscle
Attaches to bones, striated, voluntary, able to regenerate
Four Characteristics of Muscle
Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility, Elasticity
CIRCULAR MUSCLES
EX- ORBICULARIS ORIS  AROUND THE MOUTH
SOMETIMES CALLED SPHINCTERS
CIRCLE  
osteon
 
basic functional unit of mature bone
within osteocytes; arranged in concentric layers around central canal
22-100 um in diameter
contains blood vessels that supply osteon
volkmanns canals extend perpendicular to surface
 
Purpose of contraction/relaxation in skeletal muscles
locomotion and respiration
where are Cardiac muscles located?
in the heart
flexor carpi ulnaris
distal humerus and posterior ulna/carpals of wrist and fifth metacarpal/flexes wrist and abducts hand
Muscle fibers contract when stimulated by a...
Motor Neuron
Synaptic End Bulbs
Contain vesicles filled with acetylcholine (ACh). Terminals end with Synaptic End Bulbs
During strenuous exercise, what must be made to sustain muscle action?
New ATP
What are muscle groups that help stabilize the origin of the agonist?
Fixators
Muscles need what to contract?
ATP and Calcium
levator scapula, name origin and action
transverse process
 
elevates scapula 
Location of smooth muscles
Internal organs, blood vessels, eye.
extensor digitorum longus
proximal tibia and radius/distal toes 2-5/extends toes and dorsiflexes foot
What has longer lasting, but slower starting contractions? Smooth Muscle or Skeletal Muscle?
Smooth Muscle
The prime mover is another name for the....
Agonist
Recruitment
The process in which the number of active motor units increases
BICEPS BRACHII
ACT AS A PRIME MOVER DURING THE FLEXION OF THE FOREARM
an example of a short bone would be?
wrist bone
acting on the stifle joint
extensors
Quadriceps
-rectus femoris-vastus medialis -Vastus lateralis- vastus intermedius
Prime Mover/ Agonist
Muscle that produces the most force during the actionex: flexion at elbow = brachiallis
Muscle Tone
The small number of motor units that are involuntary activited, even when the entire muscle isn't contracting
A lever...
1. is a rigid structure that moves about a fixed point 2. provides mechanical advantage when a small effort can move a large load
Oxygen Debt
an added amount of O~2 taken after strenuous activity
PARALLE MUSCLE      
LONG
EX- SARTORIUS MUSCLE OF THE LEG 
serratus anterior, name origin and action
upper 8-9 ribs
 
protraction of scapula 
What muscles act on the Shoulder girdle
Trapezius, Rhomboideus, serratus ventralis, Extensors, flexors, adductors, abductors,
There are 3 sources of ATP:
Creatine Phosphate, Glycoysis, Aerobic Cellular Respiration
give the definition of origin?
place of muscle attatchment- the more stationary point or proximal bone
Muscle attachments the origin of a tendon
is less mobile attachment
(fixed)
Aerobic Cellular Respiration
A series of reactions that uses O~2 to release more energy from glucose
how does the nerve supply affect cardiac muscles
modifies activity, not necessary for function
Firing a neuron will cause...
every muscle in that motor unit to contract at once
baseball wind up is what action and uses what two muscles?
external rotation and uses the supraspinatus and teres minor
How do the amount of motor units relate to whether the muscle needs fine/powerful small/large movements?
Muscles that control fine, small movements have many motor units, innervate less than 10 fibers
After ATP binds to the ATP-binding sites...
ATPase cleaves PO from ATP, and the energy gets transferred to the myosin head
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