Anatomy flash Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hill, glue
separate, secrete
cule, culus
Pleura (directional)
Thoracic cavity
medial cubital vein
Integumentary (systems)
Skin, hair, nails
Nervous (systems)
Central and peripheral
Cephalic Vein

-From greys.
  The cephalic vein (Fig. 574) begins in the radial part of the dorsal venous net-work and winds upward around the radial border of the forearm, receiving tributaries from both surfaces. Below the front of the elbow it gives off the vena mediana cubiti (median basilic vein), which receives a communicating branch from the deep veins of the forearm and passes across to join the basilic vein. The cephalic vein then ascends in front of the elbow in the groove between the Brachioradialis and the Biceps brachii. It crosses superficial to the musculocutaneous nerve and ascends in the groove along the lateral border of the Biceps brachii. In the upper third of the arm it passes between the Pectoralis major and Deltoideus, where it is accompanied by the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery. It pierces the coracoclavicular fascia and, crossing the axillary artery, ends in the axillary vein just below the clavicle.
Vertebral level of IMA
Rostral (directional terms)
Toward the nose
Cartilagenous Joints
(amphiarthroses) Slight rocking movement. Intervertebral disks symphyses between two halves of pelvis.
Proximal Attachment: Subscapular Fossa (most anterior surface of scapula)
Distal Attachment: Lesser tubercle of humerus
Innervation: Upper and Lower Sub scapular nerves (C5, C6, C7)
Medially rotates arm; as part of rotator cuff, helps hold hear and humerus in glenoid cavity
Prevalence of hernias
10% of population
Nerve root(s) of ilioinguinal nerve
Digestive (systems)
gastrointestinal tube, and accessory digestive organs
Smooth muscle
Non-striated. Internal organs, blood vessels, eyes. Single nuclei, spindle shaped cells, visceral nerve supply.
Fibrous joints
Fibrous(Syntharoses) Immovable. Bones are united by fibrous tissue.
Extensor Digiti Minimi
Posterior Compartment : Superficial
O: Common Extensor Origin (Lateral epicondyle of humerus)
I: Extensor expansion of 5th digit.
N: Deep branch of radial nerve (C7, C8)
A: Extends fifth digit at metacarpophalangeal joint, secondarily at the interpahalangeal joint.
Blind pouch at the ileocecal junction
Location of obturator hernias
At obturator foramen
Vertebral level of superior mesenteric artery
Location of epigastric hernias
At linea alba
Skeletal muscle
Striated, voluntary, moves bones of the skeleton. Multiple nuclei, long thin fiber cells, nerve supply necessary for function.
Deep Venous Palmar Arch
-From wikipedia.
The deep palmar arch is accompanied by a pair of venae comitantes which constitute the deep palmar venous arch. It receives the veins corresponding to the branches of the arterial arch: the palmar metacarpal veins.
From the lateral side of the arch, paired radial veins accompany the radial artery. From the medial side, paired ulnar veins do the same.
Sigmoid mesocolon
Attaches sigmoid colon to posterior body wall
Boundaries of epiploic foramen
Anterior: hepatoduodenal ligament; Posterior: IVC; Superior: caudate lobe of liver; Inferior: duodenum
Mesentery proper
Suspends jejunum and ileum from posterior body wall
Innervation of peritoneum
Parietal innervation: somatic nerves; Visceral innervation: autonomic nerves
Transversalis fascia
Loose connective tissue that separates the peritoneum from the abdominal musculature.
Nerve root(s) of genitofemoral nerve
L1 & L2
Cardiac Muscle
Heat. Pumps blood. single nuclei, slightly striated. cell shapes are branched, nerve supply modifies activity not necessary for function. Involuntary.
Thoracodorsal Artery
Continues the general course of the subscapular artery to the inferior angle of the scapula and supplies adjacent muscles principally the latissimus dorsi. It also participates in the arterial anastomosis around the scapula.   
Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL)
Posterior Compartment (Outcropping of Deep Layer)
O: Posterior Surface of middle third of ulna and interosseous membrane.
I: Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb.
N: Posterior Interosseous nerve (C7, C8)
A: Extends thumb at distal phalanx, as well as MCP, and CMP joints.
Radial Artery
The smaller terminal branch of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. This arteries path is basically a line that runs from the midpoint in the cubital fossa to a point just medial to the styliod process of the radius.   Deep to the brachioradialis most of the way. At the distal forearm it lies just beneath the skin, where it can be palpated for pulse.
Subclavian Nerve
O: Superior Trunk recieves fibers from C5, and C6.
Couse: Descends posterior to clavicle and anterior to brachial blexus qne subclavian artery often giving and accesory root to the phrenis nerve.
Innervates: Subclavius and sternoclavicular joint. Acessory phrenic root innervates diaphragm.
Posterior Interosseous Artery
O: terminal branches of common interosseous artery, between radius and ulna.
Course: Passes posterior aspect of interosseous membrane giving rise to recurrent interosseous artery, runs distally between superifcial and deep extensor muscles supplying both, repalced distally by anterior interosseous artery.

Location of femoral hernias
Below inguinal ligament; Through femoral ring
Arc of Rhiolin
Anastomotic connection between the SMA & the IMA
Shape and length of duodenum
Shape: C-shaped; Length: ~12"
Indication of beginning of rectum
Termination of teniae coli
Coverings of spermatic cord
External spermatic fascia; Cremaster muscle and fascia; Internal spermatic fascia
Site of direct inguinal hernia
Inguinal (Hasselbach's) triangle; Medial to epigastric vessels; Through superficial inguinal ring
Bony boundaries of true pelvis
Posterior: Sacrum; Lateral: Ischiopubic rami, ischial spines
Ulnar Artery
This is a terminal branch of the brachial artery in the cubital fossa. Its pulse can be palpated on the lateral side of the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon, where it lies anterior to the ulnar head. The "ulnar" nerve is on the medial side of the ulnar artery. Branches of this artery participate in the periarticular anastomosis of the elbow. It supplies the medial and central forearm, common flexor sheath and ulnar and median nerves.
Lateral Thoracic Artery
Second Branch of the axillary artery. Descends along the axillary border of pectoralis minor; follows it onto thoracic wall, supplying the lateral aspect of the breast.
Contents of porta hepatis
Portal vein; Hepatic artery; Nerves; Lymphatics; Bile ducts
Soft tissue boundaries of abdominopelvic cavity
Superior: Diaphragm; Inferior: Pelvic diaphragm; Anterior: Abdominal musculature between rib cage and pelvic girdle
Epiploic foramen (Foramen of Winslow)
Communication between main peritoneal cavity and omental bursa
Abdominal structures innervated by vagus
Foregut and midgut; Structures supplied by celiac trunk and SMA
Site of testis development
Urogenital ridge between layers that become transversalis fascia and parietal peritoneum
Boundaries of cystic triangle
Right: cystic duct; Left: common hepatic duct; Superior: liver
Internal abdominal oblique muscle attachments, innervation, blood supply, and action
Origin: Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, lateral ½ of inguinal ligament; Insertion: Inferior borders of ribs 10-12, linea alba, pecten pubis (via conjoint tendon); Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nn., 1st lumbar nn.; Blood supply: Lower 5 intercostal, subcostal, and lumbar arteries; Action: Compress & support abdominal viscera, aid in expiration, flex & rotate trunk
Arteries of the spermatic cord
Cremasteric artery (off inferior epigastric artery); Testicular artery (off aorta); Artery to vas deferens (off inferior vesicular artery)
Location of Spigelian hernias
In posterior rectus sheath below arcuate line
Suprapubic dermatome, vertebral level of iliac crest
Dermatome: L1; Vertebral level: LV4
Saggital plane (directional
Runs length of body, divides left and right parts that are not always equal
muscle origin/insertion
Origin is the more stable end of the muscle attachment. Does not move much when muscle contracts. Insertion undergoes most movement.
Posterior/Anterior Humeral Circumflex Artery
Third branch of the axillary artery, before the subscapular. These encircle the surgical neck of the humerus, the posterior and anterior anastamose with each other. The larger posterior humeral circumflex passes medially through the posterior wall of the axilla via the quadragular space. The smaller anterior branch passes laterally, deep to the corachobrachialis and biceps brachii, it gives off an ascending branch to the shoulder.
Innervations of femoral nerve
Motor to quadriceps muscle; Sensory to anterior and lower medial thigh
Innervations of obturator nerve
Motor to medial thigh muscles; Sensory to overlying skin
Location of cell bodies of least splanchnic nerve
Ventrolateral horn of T12
Location of lumbar hernias
On the back at the lumbar triangle
Site of formation of spleen
Mesoderm (forms like a blood vessel)
Rectus abdominis muscle attachments, innervation, blood supply, and action
Origin: Pubic symphysis, pubic crest; Insertion: Xiphoid process, costal cartilages 5-7; Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nn.; Blood supply: Superior and inferior epigastric arteries; Action: Flexes trunk (lumbar vertebrae), compresses abdominal viscera, aids in expiration
Branches of inferior mesenteric artery
Left colic; Sigmoid colon; Superior rectal
Efferent ductules of the testis
15-20 in number; Continuous with seminiferous tubules; Drain into epididymis
Tributaries of common bile duct
Common hepatic duct & cystic duct
Location and significance of paracolic gutters
Location: along ascending and descending colon and mesentery proper; Significance: right gutter may condutct fluid or infection from hepatorenal recess or omental bursa to pelvis
Sites of portacaval anastomoses
Veins of esophagus above and below diaphragm; Superior rectal and middle/inferior rectal; Veins of falciform ligament/ligamentum teres and tributaries to epigastric;
External abdominal oblique muscle attachments, innervation, and action
Origin: External surfaces of ribs 5-12; Insertion: Linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior ½ of iliac crest; Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nn., subcostal nn.; Action: Compress & support abdominal viscera, aid in expiration, flex & rotate trunk
Palmar and Dorsal Carpal branches of the Radial Artery

Participate in the periarticular arterial anastomosis around the wrist by anastamosing with the corresponding branches of the ulnar artery and terminal branches of the anterior and posterior interosseous arteries, forming palmar and doral carpal arches.
Main ducts of the biliary tree
Common hepatic duct; Cystic duct; Common bile duct
Attachments and contents of lienorenal ligament
Attachments: hilum of spleen and kidney/posterior body wall; Contents: splenic vessels, tip of pancreatic tail
Other three structures of the spermatic cord
Pampiniform plexus of veins (drains the testes & gives rise to the testicular vein); Ductus deferens: most posterior structure in spermatic cord; Lymphatics: parallel veinous drainage to posterior abdominal wall
Tributaries of the inferior mesenteric vein
Left colic, sigmoid, superior rectal veins
Afferent and efferent limbs of knee jerk reflex
Afferent: femoral nerve; Efferent: femoral nerve
Boundaries of caudate lobe of liver
Inferior vena cava; Porta hepatis; Ligamentum venosum/lesser omentum
Hepatopancreatic ampulla (Ampulla of Vater)
Site of drainage into 2nd part of duodenum of the main pancreatic duct & common bile duct
Structures in the nutcracker formed by the SMA
Left renal vein; Uncinate process of pancreas; 3rd part of duodenum
How might an abnormalities in an animal's anatomy or physiology have a negative impact on on it's health and well-being
The various parts of the body must work together in near-perfect harmony to maintain the life and well-being of an animal.  Life is not simple and health is not automatic.
Medial Cutaneous Nerve of the Arm
O: Side branch of medial chord: C8 and T1
Course: Smallest nerve of the plexus; runs along medial side of axillary and brachial veins; communicates with intercostobrachial nerve.
Innervates: Skin of medial side of the arm as far as the medial epicondyle of the humerus and olecranon of ulna
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