anatomy flash cards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
corono
crown
corni
horn
co
together
de
down
cribri
sieve, strainer
corti
bark, rind
cutane, cuti
skin
crito
to separate
Exocrine
Released through ducts
Extensor Indicis
Posterior Compartment (Deep)
O: Posterior Surface of the distal Third of the Ulna and interosseous membrane.
I: Extensor Expansion of the 2nd Digit.
N: Posterior Interosseous Nerve (C7, C8). Continuation of deep branch of radial nerve.
A: Enables independent extension of second digit, synergist of wrist extension.
Largest lymphatic organ
Spleen
Synovial Joints
(Diarthroses) freely movable.
Ventral (directional)
Toward the body
Tripceps 
Origin
Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula; Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus, superior to radial groove; Medial head: posterior surface of humerus, inferior to radial groove
Insertion
Proximal end of olecranon process of ulna and fascia of forearm
Action
Chief extensor of forearm; long head steadies head of abducted humerus
Innervation
Radial nerve (C6, C7 and C8) (C6, C7, C8)
Arterial Supply
Branches of deep brachial artery
Supinator
Posterior Compartment: (Deep)
O: Lateral epicondyle of the humerus, radial colateral and annular ligaments, supinator fossa, crest of ulna
I: Lateral, posterior and anterior surface of the proximal third of the radius.
N: Deep Branch of Radial Nerve ( C7, C8)
A: Supinates forearm; rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly (if elbow is flexed)
Axillary Vein
The axillary vein (v. axillaris) begins at the lower border of the Teres major, as the continuation of the basilic vein, increases in size as it ascends, and ends at the outer border of the first rib as the subclavian vein. Near the lower border of the Subscapularis it receives the brachial veins and, close to its termination, the cephalic vein; its other tributaries correspond with the branches of the axillary artery. It lies on the medial side of the artery, which it partly overlaps; between the two vessels are the medial cord of the brachial plexus, the median, the ulnar, and the medial anterior thoracic nerves. It is provided with a pair of valves opposite the lower border of the Subscapularis; valves are also found at the ends of the cephalic and subscapular veins.
Visceral peritoneum
Covers intra-abdominal organs.
Caudal (directional terms)
Toward the tail
Proximal (directional)
Toward the body (extremity)
Latissumus Dorsi
 
Origin
Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs
Insertion
Floor of intertubercular groove of humerus
Action
Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus; raises body toward arms during climbing
Innervation
Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, and C8) (C6, C7, C8)
Arterial Supply
 
Thoracodorsal artery
Deltoid
Proximal Attachment: Lateral third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula 
Lateral Attachment: Deltoid tuberosity of Humerus.
 
Innervation: Axillary Nerve (c5, c6)
 
Flexes, Extends and abducts the arm
 
 
Acquired inguinal hernia
Direct inguinal hernia
Vertebral level of renal arteries
LV2
Congenital inguinal hernia
Indirect inguinal hernia
Reproductive (systems)
Male and female reproductive structures
Lateral (directional)
Away from the median plane
Glycolysis
Converts glucose into lactate or pyruvate and releases a small amount of ATP
Pronator Teres
From UW radiology atlas
Anterior Compartment (Superficial)
O: Medial Epicondyle of the humerus and coronoid process of ulna.
I: Middle of the lateral surface of the radius
N: Median Nerve (C6, C7)
A: Pronates and flexes the forearm at elbow
Brachial Veins
From the Wiki.
In human anatomy, the brachial veins are venae comitantes of the brachial artery in the arm proper. Because they are deep to muscle, they are considered deep veins. Their course is that of the brachial artery (in reverse): they begin where radial veins and ulnar veins join (corresponding to the bifurcation of the brachial artery). They end at the inferior border of the teres major muscle. At this point, the brachial veins join the basilic vein to form the axillary vein.
 
Pronator Quadratus
Anterior Compartment Deep
O: Distal quarter of the anterior surface of the ulna
I: Distal Quarter of anterior Surface of the radius
N: Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8, T1)
A: Pronaters forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together.
 
Transverse mesocolon
Suspends transverse colon from posterior body wall
Organ(s) supplied by right gastric artery
Stomach
Most common type of hernia
Inguinal hernia
Coracho Brachialis
Origin
Tip of coracoid process of scapula
Insertion
Middle third of medial surface of humerus
Action
Helps to flex and adduct arm
Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, C6 and C7) (C5, C6, C7)
Arterial Supply
Muscular branches of brachial artery
 
Upper Subscapular
 
 
O: Side branch of posterior cord, recieving branches only from C5
Course: Passes posteriorly, entering subscapularis directly
Innervates: Superior portion of subscapularis 
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU)
Anterior Compartment Superficial
One of the 1 & 1/2 exepctions to the rule of medial nerve innervation of the flexors.
O: Medial Epicondyle of the humerus, common flexor origin.
I: Pisiform bone (as a sessamoid) hook of hamate bone and 5th metacarpal bone.
N: Ulnar Nerve (C7 and C8)
A: Flexes and adducts hand (at wrist)
 
Teres Minor
Proximal Attachment: Middle part of lateral border of scapula
 
Distal Attachment: Inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
 
Innervation: Axillary Nerve ( C5, C6)
 
Laterally rotates arm; and acts with rotator cuff muscles
 
 
Thoracoacromial Artery
Origin: First Branch of Axillary Artery (one of two)
 Course: Curls around superomedial border of pectoralis minor; then passes between it and pectoralis major to thoracic wall. Helps supply 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces and superior part of serratus anterior.
 
Ventral splanchnic arteries
Celiac trunk; Superior mesenteric artery; Inferior mesenteric artery
Epididymis
Used for sperm storage; Drains into vas deferens
Tunica albuginea
Dense white covering forming the capsule of the testis
Falciform ligament
Derivative of ventral mesentery; Free edge contains ligamentum teres (obliterated left umbilical vein), paraumbilical veins; Splits to form left triangular ligament and right coronary ligament
Endocrine
Released into blood to be delivered to organs
According to the principles of bilateral symmetry, single structures in the body are located on or near which anatomaical plane of reference?
The median plane.
Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL)
Posterior Compartment (outcropping of deep layer)
O: Posterior Surface of proximal halves of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane.
I: Base 1st metacarpal
N: Posterior Interossseous Nerve (C7, C8)
A: Abducts thumb and extends it at carpometacarpal joint. 
Medial Pectoral Nerve
(in pic the medial anterior thoracic)
O:Side branch of medial cord, recieving fibers from C8,T1.
Course: Passes axillary artery and vein; then pierces pec minor and enters deep surfaces of pectoralis major; Inspite of its name it lies lateral to the lacteral pec. major nerve.
Innervates: Pec mino and sternocostal part of pec major.
Subscapular Artery:
Largest and final branch of the axillary artery (diameter) but the shortest in length. Descends along the lateral border of the subscapularis on the posterior axillary wall, divides into the circumflex scapular and thoracodorsal arteries.
Radial Nerve
O: Larger terminal branch of posterior cord (largest branch of plexus) receving fibers from C5-T1.
 
Course: Exits axillary fossa posterior to axillary artery; passes posterior to humerus in radial groove with deep brachial artery between lateral and medial heads of triceps; perforates lateral intermuscular septum; enters cubital fossa dividing into superficial (cutaneous) and deep (motor) radial nerves.
 
Innervates: All muscles of posterior compartments of arm and forearm; skin of posterior inferolateral arm, posterior forearm, and dorsum of hand lateral to axial line of digit 4.
Location and significance of paraduodenal recesses (fossae)
Location: around duodenojejunal junction; Significance: potential site for herniation, IMV often found in margin of left paraduodenal recess
Actions of inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Anterior & posterior branches anastomose with anterior & posterior branches of superior pancreaticoduodenal artery
Name of varicose of falciform/teres & epigastric anastomosis
Caput Medusae
Nerve root(s) of lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
L2 & L3
Nerve root(s) of obturator nerve
L2, L3, & L4
Vasculature of Camper’s fascia
Veins: Superficial circumflex iliac, external pudendal, superficial epigastric, tributaries to paraumbilical
Plasmalemma or plasma membrane
membrane that separates cells from their environment
Circumflex Scapular Branch Artery
Branches of subscapular artery and curves around the lateral border to enter infraspinous fossa, anastomosing (joining) with the suprascapular artery. 
Internal Thoracic Artery
Origin: inferior surface of the first part of the Subclavian Artery.
 
Course: Descends, inclining anteromedially, posterior end of clavicle and  first costal cartilage; enters thorax to descend in parasternal plane; gives rise to perforating branches, anterior intercostal, musculophenic, and superior epigastric arteries.
Subclavian Artery

receive blood from the top (arch) of the aorta. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax.
On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the arch of aorta.
On the right side of the body, the subclavian arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery (trunk) when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery.
The usual branches of the subclavian on both sides of the body are the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery, the thyrocervical trunk, the costocervical trunk and the dorsal scapular artery. The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib.
(wiki pedia)
Transversus abdominis muscle attachments, innervation, blood supply, and action
Origin: Internal surfaces of costal cartilages 7-12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament; Insertion: Linea alba with aponeurosis of IAO, pubic crest, pecten pubis (via conjoint tendon); Innervation: Thoracoabdominal nn., 1st lumbar nn.; Blood supply: Lower 5 intercostal, subcostal, and lumbar arteries; Action: Compress & support abdominal viscera, aid in expiration
Tributaries of the splenic vein
Radicles from spleen; Left gastroepiploic, short gastric veins; Inferior mesenteric vein (usually)
Dermatome of umbilicus, vertebral level of umbilicus
Dermatome: T10; Vertebral level: LV4
Peritoneal relationships of parts of colon
Vermiform appendix: Intraperitoneal; Cecum: Intraperitoneal; Ascending colon: Secondarily retroperitoneal; Transverse colon: Intraperitoneal; Descending colon: Secondarily retroperitoneal; Sigmoid colon: Intraperitoneal; Rectum: Extraperitoneal
Branches of common hepatic artery
Gastroduodenal, proper hepatic, & right gastric
Function of lumbosacral trunk
Connects lumbar plexus with sacral plexus
Location and significance of subphrenic recess
Location: beneath the diaphragm, anterior & superior to liver; Significance: 2nd most infected abdominal space
Innervations of iliohypogastric nerve (L1)
Upper gluteal region; Lateral abdominal muscles; Sensory to suprapubic region
Location of deep inguinal ring
Location: lateral to epigastric vessels
Abdominal origin of internal spermatic fascia, and structure formed
Origin: Transversalis fascia; Structure: Deep inguinal ring
Abdominal origin of cremaster muscle and fascia
Origin: Internal abdominal oblique
Facing a cat head on, is it's left ear on your left or right side?
Right
Anterior Interosseous Artery
One of the terminal branches of the interosseous between the radius and ulna. Runs along the anterior aspect of the interosseous (io) membrane with the eponymous nerve. At the proximal border of the pronator quadratus, dives through the io membrane to join the superior ulnar collateral artery.
 
-Couldn't find a good picture, in this one the "volar interosseous"
Location of indirect inguinal hernia
Lateral to epigastric vessels; Through deep inguinal ring
Abdominal origin of external spermatic fascia, and structure formed
Origin: External abdominal oblique; Structure: Superficial inguinal ring
Areas drained by superior mesenteric vein
Stomach (via right gastroepiploic vein); Head of pancreas & duodenum; Jejunum; Ileum; Cecum; Appendix; Ascending colon; All or most of transverse colon
Location of perineal hernias
Through or between muscles of the pelvic diaphragm
Distinctive characteristics of the ileum
Short vasa recta; Many arterial arcades; More fat in the mesentery; Many solitary lymph nodules (Peyer's patches)
Demarcation of anatomical lobes of liver
Falciform ligament; Fissures for ligamentum teres and ligamentum venosum
Arteries between IAO & transversus abdominis
Inferior intercostal aa.; Subcostal a.; Lumbar a.; Deep circumflex iliac a. (branch of external iliac a.)
Suture anchor sites during inguinal hernia repair
Pectineal (Cooper's) ligament and/or Inguinal (Poupart's) ligament
Attachments and function of phrenicocolic ligament
Attachments: left colic flexure and diaphragm; Function: support spleen
Superior Ulnar Collateral Artery
Arises from the medial aspect of the brachial artery near the middle of the humerus, and accompanies the ulnar nerve posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Here it anastamoses with the posterior ulnar recurrent artery and the inferior ulnar collateral artery.
 
 
 
Anterior Compartment of Forearm
The 8 flexors and pronators of the forearm. Originate on the common flexor tendon of the medial epicondyle of the humerus, innervated by the median nerve, except for 1 1/2 exceptions: the ulnar portion of the flexor digitorum profundus and the flexor carpi ulnaris.
 5 Superficial : Pronator Teres, Flexor Carpi Radialis, Palmaris Longus, Flexor Carpi Ulnaris, Flexor Digitorum Superficialis. 
3 Deep: Flexor Digitorum Profundus, Flexor Pollicis Longus, Pronator Quadratus
(Deep layer not pictures)
 
Organs supplied by left gastric artery
Esophagus - via esophageal branches; Stomach - via dorsal & ventral branches; Liver - via accessory (aberrant) left hepatic
Peritoneal relationships of parts of duodenum
1st Part: Intraperitoneal; 2nd Part: Secondarily retroperitoneal; 3rd Part: Secondarily retroperitoneal; 4th Part: Intraperitoneal
What are the 4 basic tissue that make up an animals body?
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
Name and symptom(s) of varicose of esophageal anastomosis
Esophageal varix; Necrotic blood in stool
Blood supply to lesser curvature of stomach
Right (off of proper or common hepatic) & left gastric artery (off of celiac trunk)
what is the difference between a cell, a tissue, an organ and a system in an animals body?
a cell is the smallest sudivision capable of life. Tissues are groups of cells. Organs are groups of tissues that work together for a common purpose and systems are groups of organs involved in a common set of activities.
costa
rib
cleido
clavicle
crani
helmet
cysto
bladder
cle
little
Peritoneum (directional)
abdomen
cnemo
lower leg
Profunda Brachii Artery
 
 
 

 
Brachioradialis
Posterior Compartment (Superficial)
O: Supraepicondylar Ridge of Humerus
I: Lateral Distal Radius, next to Styloid Process
Nerve: Radial (C5, +C6+, C7)
Action: Flexor of forearm, best when arm is mid pronated (normal position)
Skeletal (systems)
Bones and joint
Aconeus
Posterior Compatment (Level???? Clinically oriented does not consider this a foarearm muscle, rather an arm)
O: Lateral Epicondyle of the humerus
i: Lateral surface of the olecranon and superior part of the posterior part surface of the ulna.
N: Raidal Nerve (C7, C8, T1)
A: Assists triceps in extending forearm; stabilizes elbow joint. May abduct ulna during during pronation.
Supraspinatus
Proximal Attachment: supraspinous fossa of the scapula
Distal: Superior facet of greater tubercle of the humerus
 
Innervation: Suprascapular Nerve (C5, C6)
 
Initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm and acts with rotator cuff muscles.
 
Infraspinatus
Proximal Attachment: infraspinous fossa of the scapula
 
Distal Attachment: Middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
 
Innervation: Suprascapular Nerve C5, or C6
 
Laterally rotates arm and acts with the rotator cuff. This muscle is tested by holding arm at side, flexing elbow and and laterally rotating forearm.
 
 
 

 
 
Medial (directional)
Toward the median plane
Cranial (directional terms)
Toward the head
Muscular (systems)
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Extensor Digitorum
Posterior Compartment : Superficial
O: Common Extensor Origin (Lateral Epicondyle of the Humerus)
I: Extensor expansion of medial 4 digits.
N: Deep Branch of Radial Nerve
A: Extends medial 4 digits mostly at metacarpophalangeal joint, also at interphalangeal joint. 
Pec Major


Origin
Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial half of clavicle; Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior six costal cartilages, and aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
Insertion
Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus
Action
Adducts and medially rotates humerus; draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly; Acting alone: clavicular head flexes humerus and sternocostal head extends it
Innervation
Lateral and medial pectoral nerves; clavicular head (C5 and C6, sternocostal head (C7, C8, and T1) (C5, C6, C7, C8, T1)
Arterial Supply
pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial trunk
 
Nerve root(s) of iliohypogastric nerve
L1
Pyloric sphincter
Controls influx into duodenum
Vertebral level of celiac trunk
TV12
Distal (directional)
Away from the body (extremity)
Homeostasis
the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium in the body.
Median Nerve
Origin
Lateral Root: a terminal branch of lateral (C6, C7)
Medial Root: a terminal branch of medial chord  (C8, T1)
So just: C6-T1
Course: Runs lateral to axillary artery; descends through arm adjacent to brachial artery, with nerve gradually crossing anterior to artery to lie medial to artery in cubital fossa
Innervates: Muscles of anterior forearm compartment (except for the flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus), five intrinisic muscles in thenar (thumb) half of palm and palmar skin
Arterial supply of the foregut
Celiac trunk
Layers of the scrotum
Skin; Dartos tunic
Number of parasympathetic nerves in the body wall, blood vessels, and extremities
Zero
Processus vaginalis
Outpocketing of peritoneum into scrotum preceding descent of the testis
Deep (directional)
(Internal) toward the center whole or body part
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS)
Anterior Compartment Intermediate Layer
O: Two heads: Humeroulnar head (Medial epicondyle and coronoid process
Radial Head (Superior hald of anterior border)
I: Shafts of middle phalances of medial four digits.
N: Median Nerve C7 C8 T1
A: Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joints of middle four digits; acting more strongly, it flexes proximal phalanges at the MCP joints.
Suprascapular Nerve
O: Supeior Trunk, recieving fibers from C5 and C6
Course: Passes laterally across lateral cervical region  (posterior traingle of the neck), superior to brachial plexus, then though scapular notch inferior to superior transverse scapular ligament
Innervates: Supraspinatus and infraspinatus and gleno humeral joint.
 
Suprascapular Artery
Origin:  Thyrocervical (or as a direct branch of the subclavian)
 
Course: Passes Inferolaterally crossing anterior scalene muscle, phrenic nerve, subclavian artery, and brachial plexus running laterally posterior and parallel to clavicle; next it passes over transverse scapular ligament to supraspinous fossa; then lateral to scapular spine )deep to acromoin) to infraspinous fossa on posterior surface of scapula.
 
Arterial supply of the midgut
Superior mesenteric artery
Innervation of the liver
Sympathetics from T7-9; Parasympathetics from vagal trunks
Branches of superior mesenteric artery
Inferior pancreaticoduodenal; Intestinal branches; Colic
Arterial supply of the hindgut
Inferior mesenteric artery
Medial umbilical ligaments
Paired structures; Formed by peritoneal coverings of right and left umbilical arteries; Run from superior aspect of bladder to umbilicus; Proximal part of arteries are patent, give rise to superior vesicle arteries
Lateral umbilical ligaments
Paired structures; Formed by peritoneal coverings of inferior epigastric vessels deep to the rectus abdominis
Ascites
Excess fluid in abdominal cavity; may be removed by paracentesis
Nerve root(s) of lumbosacral trunk
L4 & L5
Dorsal plane
Divides body into dorsal (toward the back) and ventral (toward the body).
Cellular respiration
the oxidation of organic material to yeild energy, carbon dioxide and water.
Deep Interosseous Veins
Follow the epinonymous arteries. In the cubital fossa, these veins unite with the superficial median cubital vein.
Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB)
Posterior Compartment (Outcropping of Deep Layer)
 O: Posterior Surface of distal Third of Radius and interosseous membrane.
I: Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb.
N: Posterior Interosseous Nerve, (C7, C8), continuation of deep branch of radial nerve.
A: Extends thumb at the two closer joints: MCP, and CMC
Lateral Pectoral Nerve
O:
-In this picture the lateral anterior thoracic
Side branch of lateral cord recieving fibers from C5, C6, and C7
Course: Pieres costocoracoid membrane to reach deep surface of pectoral muscles; a communicating branch to the medial pectoral nerve passes anterior to the axillary artery and vein.
Innervates: Pimarly Pec major; but fibers pass to pec major via branch to medial pectoral nerve.
 
Ulnar Nerve
O: Larger Terminal Branch of medial chord, made of T1 and C8
Course: Descends medial arm; passes posterior to medial epucondyle of humerus; then descends ulnar aspect of forearm to hand.
Innervates: Flexor Carpi Ulnaris and ulnar half of flexor digitorum profundus, most intrinsic muscles of the hand, skin of hand medial to axial line of digit 4.
 
Axillary Nerve
O: Terminal Branch of posterior cord, recieving from C5, C6.
Course: Exits Axillary fossa posteriorly, passing through quadrangal space with posterior circumflex humeral artery; gives rise to superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve; then inds around surgical neck of humerus deep to deltoid.
Innervates: Deltoid, teres minor, glenohumeral joint, skin of superolateral arm.
 
Flexor Pollicis Longus (FPL)
Anterior Compartment Deep
O: Anterior surface of the radius and adjacent interosseous membrance
I: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
N: Anterior interosseous nerve from median nerve (C8,T1)
A: Flexes phalanges of 1st digit
Location of renal ganglia
Along renal arteries near kidneys
Major SNS input to renal ganglia
Least splanchnic nerve
Organs supplied by intestinal branches of SMA
Jejunum & Ileum
Hydrocele
Fluid filled remnant of the lumen of the processus vaginalis
Marginal artery (of Drummond)
Anastomotic connection between the colic arteries
Innervations of genitofemoral nerve
Genital branch: cremaster muscle; Femoral branch: sensory to anterosuperior thigh
Nerve root(s) of femoral nerve
L2, L3, & L4
Major SNS input to celiac ganglion
Greater splanchnic nerve
Ligament of Treitz
Suspensory muscle that supports the duodenojejunal flexure
Fascial layers of abdomen
Superficial layer: Camper’s fascia (fatty); Deeper layer: Scarpa’s fascia (membranous)
Median Plane (directional)
aka midsagittal plane. runs down center of body. Divides into right and left equally.
Lower Subscapular Nerve
O: side branch of posterior chord, C6
Course: Passes inferolaterally, deep to subscapular artery and vein.
Innervates: Inferior portion of subscapularis and teres major.
 
Nerve to the left of Latissimus dorsi nerve
 
Axillary Artery
Begins at the lateral border of 1st rib as the continuation of the subclavian artery and ends at the inferior border of the teres major. It has three branches:
 
Between the first rib and the pec minor:
-superior thoracic artery
 
Posterior to the pec minor:
-Acromical artery
-Lateral thoracic
 
Lateral border of the pec minor to the inferior border of teres major
- Subscapular (largest branch)
-Anterior circumflex
-Posterior circumflex humeral arteries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Location of spleen
Behind ribs 9-11 in upper left quadrant
McBurney's point
2/3 the distance from the umbilicus to ASIS
Attachments of greater omentum
Greater curvature of stomach and transverse colon (gastrocolic ligament); Greater curvature of stomach and spleen (gastrolienal ligament); Greater curvature of stomach and diaphragm (gastrophrenic ligament)
Branches of proper hepatic artery
Right hepatic; Left hepatic; Cystic
Innervations of ilioinguinal nerve
Lateral abdominal muscles; Sensory to upper medial thigh, root of penis or mons pubis, anterior scrotum or sup. labia majora
Regions of the stomach
Cardia: joins esophagus; Fundus: most superior part (to left of cardia); Body: major part of stomach; Angular notch: marks junction of body with pyloric region; Pyloric antrum: leads into distal canal and sphincter region
Location of inguinal (Hasselbach's) triangle
Location: medial to epigastric vessels
Transverse Plane (directional)
Plane that runs across the body and divides it into cranial and caudal not always equal
Posterior Compartment of the Forearm
12 extensors and suppinators, all Radial Nerve. 
 3 muscles of the Wrist: Extensors: Carpi Ulnaris, Carpi Radialis Longus, Carpi Radialis Brevis.
 3 muscles of the Fingers: Extensors: Digiti Minimi, Digitorum, Indicis.
3 Muscles of the Thumb: Extensors: Pollicis Longus, Pollicis Brevis, and Abductor Pollicis Longus
3 others: Aconeus, Supinator, Brachioradialis
Brachial Artery
Main blood supply to arm and the main continuation of the the axillary artery.  Starts at the inferior border of the teres major and ends in the cubital fossa opposite the neck of the radius, where, under the bicipital aponeurosis it divides into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Organs supplied by gastroduodenal artery
Stomach - via right gastroepiploic; Duodenum - via supraduodenal & superior pancreaticoduodenal; Pancreas - via superior pancreaticoduodenal
Location of aorticorenal ganglia
Near junction of renal arteries with aorta
Function of gall bladder
Concentrate and store bile produced by liver; Can concentrate 125 mL of bile down to 1mL
Vertebral level and location of pyloric sphincter
Vertebral level: LV1; Location: transpyloric plane
Boundaries of quadrate lobe of liver
Gallbladder; Porta hepatis; Ligamentum teres/lesser omentum
Ligaments formed by external abdominal oblique
Inguinal (Poupart’s) ligament: ASIS to pubic tubercle; Lacunar (Gimbernat’s) ligament: Medial end of inguinal ligament, rolled under deep to spermatic cord; Pectineal (Cooper’s) ligament: Lateral continuation of lacunar ligament along pectineal line of pubis, considered strongest ligament of the body
 
Medial Cutaneous Nerve of Forearm
O: Side Branchs of medial cord; recieveing fibers from C8,T1
Course: Initially runs with ulnar nerve, but pierces deep fascia with basilic vein and enters subcutaneous tissue, dividing into anterior and posterior branches
Innervates: Skin of medial side of forearm as far as distal wrist
 
Radial and Ulnar Veins
Follow the same course as the radial and ulnar arteries, but in pairs.  Unite with each other to form veins to form the brachial vein.
 
 
 
 
Afferent and efferent branches of cremasteric reflex
Afferent: Femoral br. of genitofemoral n. and ilioinguinal n. (L1); Efferent: Genital br. of genitofemoral n. (L1, L2)
Distinctive characteristics of the jejunum
Long vasa recta; Few arterial arcades; Little fat in the mesentery; Few lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches)
Demarcation of functional lobes of liver
The right functional lobe is demarcated from the left lobe by the gallbladder and IVC fossae.
Prevalence of umbilical hernias
14% of all hernias; More common in females (1.7 to 1)
Location of cell bodies of lumbar splanchnics
Intermediolateral horn of lower thoracic and L1 spinal segments
Prevalence of femoral hernias
5% of all hernias; More common in females (1.8 to 1)
What are the basic cellular functions that define life?
carries genetic material that governs it's own development, metabolism and specialization.
Name and symptom(s) of varicose of rectal anastomoses
Hemorrhoids; Shiny red blood in stool
Location of openings of pancreatic and biliary ducts
Duodenal papilla; 2nd part of duodenum
what is the difference between the visceral and parietal layers of pleura and peritoneum?
layer that covers the organs are visceral and layer that lines the cavities are parietal.
Blood supply to greater curvature of stomach
Right (off of gastroduodenal) & left gastroepiploic (off of splenic)
Why must the term rostral be used instead of cranial be used but the term caudal works just fine?
Cranial means towards the head which on upright animals (humans) means tops but on a dog does not refer to the front.
How does each of the anatomical planes of reference divide a cows body?
4 planes of reference that are an iminaginary slice through the body, dividing top, bottom, left right, front back.
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