Health 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
akciğer
lung
cardi
heart
only
nur
tranquilizante
tranquilizer
herni-
rupture
la tosse
cough
der Krebs
cancer
infarto
heart attack
pyr-(o)
heat, fever
la pillola/compressa
the pill
fracture
a broken bone
un rhume
a cold
estar enfermo/a
to be sick
androgenic steroids
increased male characteristics
Gohnorrhea
symptoms: 2-5 days
 
Women: not develop symptoms
Men: discharge
 
teated with anti-biotics
VITAMIN K
DOES:-imp in blood clottingFOOD:-dairy, grain, fruit, leafy veggies
Sarcoma
Cancers of the connective tissues
diaphragm
muscle that causes you to breathe
entrainement continu
faire de l'exercice sans repos
ABCD
A- asymmetry
B- border; irregualr and ragged
C- color, pigmentation not uniform
D-diameter; greater the 6mill.
Concept
a primary element of a theory
enamel
a strong covering that protects the crown
Leukoplakia
white leathey spots inside of the mouthpre-cancerous lesions 
period of life between infancy and adolesence
child
specialized cells that make up the nervous system
neuron
___ health policy has no probationary period and little underwriting.
Group
throbbing
to beat with increased force or rapidity, as the heart under the influence of emotion or excitement; palpitate.
home
a house, apartment, or other shelter that is the usual residence of a person, family, or household.
the soft tissue that fills the spaces inside bones
Marrow
the process by which the body takes in and uses these nutrients
Nutrition
aids children through immunization programs, day-care and health centers, school food programs, and the training of nurses and teachers
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
Arterial Bleeding
describes as a powerful stream of blood spraying out of an open wound.
Phases of MATCH
Phase 1 – health goals selection
Phase 2 – intervention planning
Phase 3 – development
Phase 4 – implementation
Phase 5 – evaluation
Contagious
Disease can be spread from one person to another
responsible for actions that you can control
Somatic Nervous System
Name 3 environmental risk factors.
radiation from the sun,polluted water,loud noise
______________ refers to a consistently elevated blood pressure.
Hypertension. Throughout the body, hypertension makes arteries and arterioles become less elastic and thus incapable of dilating (expanding) under a heavy workload. Brittle, calcified blood vessels can burst unexpectedly and produce serious strokes, kidney failure, or retinal hemorrhage. It also appears that blood and fat clots are more easily formed and dislodged in a vascular system affected by hypertension. Hypertension can be a cause of heart attacks.
underweight
a condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for their height
Relapse
to begin using a drug again after you have stopped it for a while
What are the 6 main anxiety disorders?
Simple phobia: most common(spiders)Social phobia: fear of embarassment(public speaking)Panic disorder: unexpected surges in anxiety rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, & feeling losing control. Fear of being in a place you cant escape-can lead to houseboundGeneralized Anxiety disorder: worries have taken over their lives-goes in cicles-always nervousOCD: obsessions are reaccurent & unwanted-convulsions r hard to resist Ex: Washing handsPTSD: frequent nightmares/memories-Ex: Rape/Combat
Food guide pyramid
a guide for making healtful daily food choices
supports programs that prevent and treat mental illness and substance abuse
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
_________s are a group of hydrocarbons causing a great deal of concern because of their presence in the water supply.
PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). PCBs are, on the basis of their chemical structure, very stable, heat-resistant compounds that have been used extensively in transformers and electrical capacitors. In many areas of the country, discarded electrical equipment has broken open and released PCBs into the surrounding water supply. In lab animals, PCBs produce liver and kidney damage, gastric and reproductive disorders, skin lesions, and tumors.
MEATS/BEANS Go lean when consuming protein
-choose low fat meats-bake, broil, or grill-vary-5 1/2 oz daily
Drug deactivation involves the process of the drug ceasing to have an effect. This can happen in two ways. One common known way is through the urine. The other way a drug can cease effects involves a chemical change. The chemical change is the most co
Define tolerance and explain the three possible reasons it develops.
Young _______________ is a time of major transitions for people.
Adulthood. In their late teens or early twenties, most young people become independent. They often live away from their parents for the first time. They have new responsibilities to a job or to advanced education. Some young adults choose to marry while others choose to live alone or with friends. For many young adults, the new choices and feelings of independence can be both exciting and frightening.
The body is protected by two types or components of defenses. _______________ defenses are first-line defenses, since they physically separate the internal body from the external environment.
Mechanical. Included among these are the skin, the mucous membranes that line the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, earwax, the tiny hairs and cilia that filter incoming air, and even tears. These defenses serve as a shield against foreign materials that may contain pathogenic agents. These defenses can be weakened, however, as is done when tobacco smoke kills the cilia that protect the airway or when contact lenses decrease tearing, leading to irritation and eye infection.
Aneurysm
Cerebrovascular Disease
 
blood vessel balloons out
 
presses on nerves/brain structures
During painful leg-strengthening exercise following knee surgery, marvin continued to tell himself, "it hurts, but this must be done if i am to walk with out a limp." he was using the cognitive strategy of .........
redefinition.
hardiness
cluster of stress-buffering traits consisting of commitment, challenges, and control
The continuous interactions and adjustments b/t a person and the environment are called ...
transactions
This is the fight-flight hormone
Cortisol
thyroid gland
helps regulate growth and metabolism
Hypochondriasis
Excessive preoccupation or worry about having a serious illness
Characterized by fears that minor bodily symptoms may indicate a serious illness, constant self-examination and self-diagnosis, and a preoccupation with one's body
Comes from greek words hypo and chondros (Below cartilage of the breast bone) coined by Hippocrates. Depression and anxiety causes their problems
disease 
physical findings and symptoms that form a definable disease entity
throughout her pregnancy, karla has taken natural childbirth classes where she ahs learned breathing techniques to use during labor. She has engaged in _________ control.
Behavioral
the physiological portion of the rsponse to stress is called
reactivity
Toxoplasmosis
OOI - Protozoan Infection
 
goes to brain, dilerium, confusion
 
rampant in cat feces
These kind of lymphocites produce antibodies, protein molecules that attach themselves to foreign agents and mark them for destruction:
B-Cells
Experimental Stressor
noxious stimuli presented in the confines of a lab
cytokines
proteins produced by immune cells that act on other cells to regulate immunity
behavioral genetics
studies of identical twins raised together to identical twins raised apart
Gate Control Theory
Physiological mechanism by which psychological factors can affect the experience of pain. Neural gate can open and close thereby modulating pain. Gate is located in the spinal cord. Summation of pain
animism
The belief that every movement (of living or nonliving objects) is caused by animating spirits
biopsychosocial model
a model that requires that psychological and social factors be included in any attempt to understand symptoms and the experience of illness
Patient centered role
physician takes less controlling role-ask open ended questions, avoid using medical jargon, usually women physicians use this
Even effective interventions to stop problem drikign have about a __________ % drop out rate and a ________ % relapse among those who successfully finish the program
50, 50
Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
problem with coronary arteries
(angina, myocardial infarction, primary cardiac arrest)
This release of this catecholmine is for energy levels, and experience of anxiety and anger and arousal and viligance
Norepinephrine
What term describes the physiological preparation of animals to deal with any attack, which includes for example, increased heart rate, deepening of respiraction, dilation of pupils, and increase in release of glucose from the liver?
Fight-or-Flight Response
The secretion of CRF triggers the pituitary gland to release this hormone into the blood stream:
ACTH
Who believes that explanatory style can be changed such that we can learn to acquire more positive based belief systems that would change the way we perceive and interpret stress or challenging events?
Martin Seligman
resilence
the ability of some children to spring back from somtimes overwhelming stressors
tumor cells grow more rapidly in animals that are induced to stressors, and immunosuppression has beeen linked to divorce, unemployment, etc
psychoneuroimmunology evidence
Conflicting Goals
Simultaneous activation of two or more incompatible goals
I want to go the movies but I also want to save money
Approach- Avoidance conflict
longitudinal study 
compares subjects on one or more variables over time
How do you measure mortality rate?
number dead/population size
utilization delay
the tiem after deciding to seek medical care untill actually going in to use that health service-perceptions of benefits adn bariers important-delay the shortest for people who were less concerned abou the cost of time had severe pain and felt that their symptoms could be cured
The fact that those individuals who have the highest levels of stress are the people who exhibit the greatest benefits of soical support in terms of their health best supports which mechanism/theory of the relationship b/t social support and health
-buffering hypothesis
Which of the follwing individiuals is most likely to develop coronary heart disease, given current rates of the disease?
joe, black
NAME that GAS stage: Immunity to disease increases in the body maximizes its defences
RESISTANCE STAGE
Who studies how changes in behaviour and lifestyle can potentiate well-being and attenuate psychopathology or organic pathology?
Health Psychologists
Peterson (1984)
Monkey Model (4 total / two groups) subjected to industrial noise

dependant variable was hypertension and they measure auditory function


stress in general can cause changes in your cardiovascular system which can predispose you to hypertension
veins
carry blood back to the heart from the capillaries
glucocorticoid resistance model
says stress interferes with the immune systems sensitivity to the glucocorticoid hormones that normally help control inflammation, which helps explain the roles of stress in disorders such as asthma and arthritis
Resilient Personality
They begin with the end in mind (Purpose-driven)
They feel empowered/sense of control/optimistic
They have a fresh appreciation for life
Symptoms of Depression
Depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, appetite or weight changes, sleep changes, psychomotor agitation or lethargy, fatigue loss of energy, self-loathing, concentration problems, irritability, aches, pains, physical symptoms
conversion hysteria
the phenomenon in which it is believed that unconscious psychological anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms
What is epidemiology?
the study of the occurrence and distribution of diseases and other health related conditions in populations
rational nonadherence
patiens may not adhere to regimen b/c of deliberate reasons based on valid reasons-cognitive and emotional factors and self efficacy andsocial support play a role
Both Royce and Harlan have strong biological predispositions for coronary heart disease (CHD). Royce has a supportive network of friends and family, a successful career, and is financially well-off. Harlan has very few close friends, has been unable to
the Diathesis-stress model
Second grader Sam left a tack on his teacher's chair. When Sam's teacher sat on the tack, she felt a sharp pain in a very specific area of her fanny. Based on this, waht type of fiber is most likely to have sent the signal of pain?
a-delta
The Immune System is made up of three types of specialized white blood cells known as:
Lymphocites
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase Atherosclerosis in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
5 functions of coping

Lazarus & Cohen
1. Reduce harmful environmental conditions and enhance the likelihood of recovery.

2. Tolerate/adjust to - events


3. maintain + self image (+ self talk)


4. Maintain emotional equilibrium


5. Continue emotional & satisfying relationships with others
Cytotoxic cells, helper t cells, suppressor t cells
three types of t cells
Competition of Cues hypothesis
Awareness of symptoms varies as a function of competing stimuli to process
Inward and outward focus of attention
What does psychosomatic medicine do?
Looks at how psychological factors lead to health problems
patient centered approach to healthcare
the behavioral style of some physicians in which their interactions encourage patients to share information and participate in medical decisions
you call your boss to let her know you won't be in today because you ahve hte flu. You stay home where you take hte appropriate medicines, rest, and drink plenty of fluids. Your behaviors are examples of _____________ behaviors.
sick-role
How does both immediate and long-term stress on physical health effect lymphocyte production?
It decreases lymphocyte production
SAM system- sympatho adreno medullary system
causes the flight or fight response
What is seeking social support?
Turning to others for comfort and aid
factors that contribute to the trend of under medicating
-fear of addiction-underestimation of patient pain-overestimation of pain by patient
Monique decides to talk to her best friend, jen, to get her opinion about what she should do about her lump. Jen tells her that she ahd a lump like Monique's a couple of years ago and it turned out that it was no big deal. Jen's doctor had tolder her to
her lay referral system.
What are the three sanitation triumphs that the US has had in the 20th century?
1. Clean water2. Waste disposal3. Personal Hygiene (soap)
Which statement best summarizes the impact of hypnosis in pain control?
regardless of wether a person received hypnosi or relaxation therapy, persons who are high in hypnotic suggestibility benefit the most.
Gallup Youth Survey: What do we need?
Need to be trusted
Need to believe life is meaningful
Need to feel safe and secure where they live and go school
Need to be understood and loved
 
A person who has a body mass index of ________________ is considred underweight.
less than 19 kg/m2
What are the four core assumptions of the Health Belief model?
1. Feels susceptible to a negative health condition2. Believes that the health problem is enough to warrant action.3. Perceives a benefit from taking action4. Can overcome barriers to take action
Claudia goes to the university health center complaining of a sore throat and headache. A blood test reveals that her white blood cell count is high, and a throat culture revelas a streptococcus infection. Which of hte following is true?
the results of the blood test and throat culture are signs of illness.
The decline researches have found in Type A behaviors in old age is most likely due ot
the earlier ages of death for type A individuals
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Term:
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