Health Exam 2 Flashcards

Health Care
Terms Definitions
göğüs
chest
entro
intestine
another
zweiter
rasguño
scratch
gloss-(o)
tongue
il dentifricio
toothpaste
der Apotheker
pharmacist
fallecer
to die
-partum
birth, labor
le carie
tooth decay/caries
mental health
Evaluating infomation
une ordonnance
a perscription
pre-
before, in front of
Americans are fixated with?
self-improvement
minerals
these make my bones hard
8 Minerals
calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium, sulfur, iron
Health System:
perceptions & classifications of health problems, prevention measures, diagnosis, healing, and healers.
food
where the body's energy comes from
nutrients made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are a great source of energy; simple and complex
Carbohydrates
legal document telling how porperty will be distribted
will
pestilence
a deadly or virulent epidemic disease.
puncture
a hole made by a sharp object
phagocytes
white blood cells that ‘eat up’ foreign cells
gymco est pour travailler quoi?
la force musculaire
narrow tube that carries from the body
urethra
Most LTC's have a bed-reservation ___.
How long?
nematode
any unsegmented worm of the phylum Nematoda, having an elongated, cylindrical body; a roundworm.
undefined
The gland that is responsible for releasing growth hormones
a painful irritation of a bursa (a fluid-filled sac that cushions certain joints and tendons)
Bursitis
Nerves that carry messages to your muscles are?
Motor nerves
involves the study and practice of protecting and improving the health of people in a group or community
Public Health
What do most fire methods focus on putting out?
oxygen
Diffusion Theory
An explanation of the adoption of behavior change in a community.
Consumers of a health promotion innovation:
Innovators
Early adopters
Early majority
Late majority
Laggards
There is difference between a heart attack and sudden death
a
includes the bones in your head, your breastbone, your ribs, and the bones in your backbone
Axial Skeleton
Physical Activity
Any form of movement that causes your body to use energy
_____________, or the sharing of living quarters by unmarried people, represents another alternative to marriage.
Cohabitation. Although cohabitation may seem to imply a vision of sexual intimacy between male and female roommates, several forms of shared living arrangements can be viewed as cohabitation. For some couples, cohabitation is only a part-time arrangement for weekends, during summer vacation, or on a variable schedule. Platonic cohabitation can exist without establishing an intimate relationship. Close friends and people of retirement age might be included in a group called cohabitants.
Avg. time of cuts between scences on TV?
2 seconds
faire une analyse de sang
to get blood test (analyze blood)
The most common sexual orientation throughout the world is known as ______________, which refers to an attraction to opposite-gender partners.
Heterosexuality. For reasons related to species survival, heterosexuality has its most basic roots in the biological dimension of human sexuality. Beyond its biological roots, heterosexuality has significant cultural and religious support in virtually every country in the world. Most societies expect men to be attracted to women and women to be attracted to men.
Benefits of Physical Health to Mental/Emotional Health
-can help reduce stress
-streching can relax tense muscles
-can allow you to manage anger in a healthy way
-brighten mood.
-help you feel/look better
-gives you sense of pride/accomlishment.
social inequalities on health-- GENDER
\"women are sicker, but men die quicker\"; women have healthier, less risky behavior, are more likely to seek medical attention, more susceptible to medicalization
_______ _________ is a genetically programmed range of body weight beyond which a person finds it difficult to gain or lose additional weight.
Set point. Traditional theory has suggested that the energy expenditure and energy storage centers of the body possess a genetically programmed awareness of the body’s most physiologically desirable weight. To honor this set point for desirable weight, the body adjusts its baseline use of energy, the basal metabolic rate, upward or downward to accommodate an excessive intake of calories or an inadequate intake of calories.
What is the difference between real and virtual social networks?
Real: Interactions with others and relationships cause great stress. Ex: prejudice, discrimination against minorites, and feeling pressure to assimiliate into mainstream society.Virtual: new technologies can be time savors but increased electronic interactivity (facebook) can waste time and cause stress. Ex: Checking email several times--no messages or pointless messages.
Other than hangovers, what are the major health concerns about alcohol discussed in the textbook?
Alcohol abuse causes many health concerns. Brain damage including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, liver disorders, heart disease, cancer, effects to the immune system, fetal alcohol syndrome are all concerns dealing with alcohol abuse.
According to a 2002 survey on cigarette smoking in the US, ____ percent of Americans smoke.
22.5%. The survey also revealed men (25.2%) were more likely to smoke than women (20%). American Indians and Alaska natives had the highest number of smokers (40.8%) while Asian or Pacific Islanders had the lowest number (13.3%). Blacks (22%) and whites (23%) were about the same. Hispanics reported 16.7%.
benefits are taxable to the employee as income
In the event the Key Employee should become disabled -->
carcin/o
cancer
carcinogen
papilll
nipple
poly
many
-metry
measurement
(suffix)
pseud/o
false
peritine
peritoneum
cholecyst
gallbladder
-scopy
observation
QI
Quality Improvement
eu-
normal, good
(prefix)
gli
glue, gluelike
Ano, procto
anus
blastocyst
hallow structure
cozaar
losartan; hypertension
AMA
Against Medical Advice
COB
coordination of benefits
LMP
last menstrual period
(abbreviation)
auxesis
enlargment or increase
-ectomy
surgical removal of
Papules, Pustules, Nodules
 
1) well defined, elevated, <1cm involving dermis and epidermis
 
Papules
thoracic
pertaining to the chest
trachelectomy
excision of the cervix
Sterility
the ability to reproduce


Sensations—
raw, uninterpreted information collected through sensory organs
PATHOGEN
A MICROORGANISM THAT CAUSES DISEASES
prospective review
reviewing appropriateness and necessity of care provided to patients prior to admin­istration of care.
Immunotherapy
injection of immunoglobulins or antibodies in order to treat disease
frequency
greater-than-normal occurrence in urge to urinate, without increase in total daily volume of urine; frequency is indication of inflammation of bladder or urethra
water
the "essential" nutrient.  "most critical".  About 60% of body weight. 
Gonorrhea
A bacterial sexually transmitted infection that grows and multiplies in warm, moist areas of the reproductive tracts of males and females.
darvocet-N 100
propoxyphene and acetaminophen; pain
"The graphical and mathematical representation of , �The greater this pressure gradient, the faster the flow of gas and the sooner the lungs fill"
Flow=V/T1
CRUCIFEROUS VEGETABLES
VEGETABLES OF THE CABBAGE FAMILY
Pos. symp- Delusions
persecution, grandeur, reference, control or influence, somatic
laryngoscope
instrument used for visual examination of the thorax
trichomoniasis
a sexually transmitted disease caused by a one-cell organism, Trichomonas. It infects the genitourinary tract. Men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. Women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge.
chorion
outermost layer of the fetal membrane
osteoperosis
use high impact workout to reduce
fats also affect:
triglyceride levels, inflammation, heart rhythm, blood pressure, and cacer risk
Blocking out painful thoughts or feelings
repression
Description: Worrying excessively for at least 6 months.Symptoms: Anticipate disaster, overly concerned about health issues, money, family and work problems.
General Anxiety
altoprev, mevacor
generic - lovastatinindication - hyperlipidemia
filter all fluids removing excess water and uneeded byproducts
kidneys
clothing make from sun protective fabrics have...
...UPF rating
Magical Thinking
client believes that his/her thoughts or behaviors have control over specific situations or people
osteoporosis
a condition charactered by a decrease in bone density, producing porus and fragile bones/
pneumothorax
air in the chest (pleural space), which causes collapse of the lung
orthopnea
dyspnea that is worsened by lying flat; patient is able to breath easier when sitting straight up
Organs
Two or more tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions.
5 Civilizations that we see hygeine, exercise, and training appear in literature?
SyriaEgyptMacedoniaArabiaMesopotamia
Health Education
the providing of accurate health information in such a way as to influence people to change attitudes so that they take positive action aout their health
stimulant
speeds up the activities in the central nervous system
the white pre-cancerous spots in your mouth.
Leukoplakia
Refusal/Resistance Skills
Communication strategies that can help you say no when you are urged to take part in behaviors that are unsafe, unhealthful, or that go against your values.
will
a person's intent; which leads to action
phenadoz, phenergan, promethegan
generic - promethazineindication - N/V
rights of the patient
refuse treatment
choose doctor
know side effects
know prognosis(chances of patient living)
alternative treatment
Inguinal Hernia 
Treatment or Prevention
medical treatment and surgery required
basal cell carcinoma
affects the deepest layers of skin
Tactile Hallucinatons
false perceptions of sense of touch, often on or under skin
burn
damage to skin from exposure to open fire, electricity, ultraviolet light, or caustic chemicals
nebulizer
device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving respiratory treatment
rectouterine pouch
pound between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum (Douglas cul-de-sac)
Premenstral Syndrome
A condition occuring among women of reproductive age that includes a group of phsyical,psychological,and behavioral systoms with onset in the menstrual bleeding. Also called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)
3 important polymers for HME
- hydroxypropylcellulose- polyethylene oxide- hydroxypropyl methylcellulose
characteristics of addictive behavior
reinforcement, compulsion, loss of control, escalation, negative consequences. 
any situation that puts a demand on the body or mind
Stressor:
Implantation
The attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.
direct and respectful in the way that one expresses oneself.
assertive
Appetite
A desire, rather than a need, to eat
which one is a challenge a family might face?...a vacation...losing a job...a late dinner
losing a job
Psychosocial Problems with Asthma
POOR SELF ESTEEM,
ANXIETY ABOUT DISEASE AND EXERCISE AT SCHOOL,
FEAR OF BECOMING ILL,
FEAR OF BEING DIFFERENT.
Social Health
Refers to how we act, behave and interact with individuals in relationships
muscular strength
the amount of force a muscle can exert.
pulmonary embolism
blood clot or air bubble in pulmonary artery or one of its branches; may cause infarct in lung tissue
Rotavirus
A virus that is the most common cause of serve diarrhea among children. Diarrhea caused by rotavirus gemerally lasts 2 days,and recovery is full in otherwise healthy children. The rotavirus is generally spread from an infected person's stoold to foods.
t or falsepubic lice can live off the body for up to one week.
false
cardiorespiratory fitness
ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to supply oxygen to skeletal muscles during sustained physical activity.
Goal
A result that a person aims for and works hard to reach.
Parenteral Route
Portal of entry is through the skin via wounds, incisions, injections or bites
What's additive interaction?
2 medicines work together when taken at the same time
characteristics of type A personality
react more explosively to stressors and have difficulty coping
What is the etiology of Hypervolemic Hypernatremia?
Sodium Overload
Increased Cap Hydrostatic Pressure
Nephrotic Syndrome
Decreased Colloid Osm Pressure
management service organization (MSO) 
usually owned by physicians or a hospital and provides practice management (administrative and support) services to individual physician practices.
prepuce
fold of skin near the tip of the penis (foreskin)
chemical purity
- when 99mTc is eluted, it is possible to elute aluminum ion along w 99mTc
resting metabolic rate (RMR)
energy expenditure of the body under BMR conditions plus other daily sedentary activities.
life management skills
the skills that help a person realize his or her potential to be well and enjoy life
How does tobacco use worsen one’s risk for cardiovascular disease?-
***^ blood pressure^ AtherosclerosisDecreases HDLDecreases oxygen to heart***Platelet adhesiveness***Irregular heart rhythmsQuitting after one year: risk of CVD decreases by 50%After 15 years, risk is similar to that of non-smoker***Stroke risk increases also
What laboratory tests are there for simple N&V?
complex?
Simple: NONE
Complex: Electrolyte and Serum Creatinine
frozen section (FS)
thin piece of tissue cut from a frozen specimen for rapid examination under microscope
Stacking steroids means
using three or more kinds of oral or injectable steriods and by altering between cycles of use and nonuse
what are the 6 constructs of the health belief model
perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, self-efficacy
Most commonly used interface to apply NPPV
"nasal mask, full-face mask, mouthpiece"
What is aczone and how does it work?
Topical abx containing dapsone
works by interfering with bactial production of folic acid
the glycemic response is based on
how quickly glucose is absorbed after eating, how high blood glucose levels rise, how quickly it returns to normal
What are the various legal challenges that have been or are before the canadian courts?
Chaoulli & Zelliotis: wait times violates charter of freedoms
Shona Holmes & Lindsay McCreith: right to private care
The influence of intrathoracic pressure, caused by respirations, on pulmonary artery pressure tracing
The baseline of PA pressure tracing shows characteristic respiratory-fluctuations arising from intrathoracic pressure
What are the primary causes of Hyperkalemia?
Increase K in Diet
Dec K excretion (renal failure)
Tubular unresponsiveness to aldosterone
redistribution of K into ECF
US Quality in relation to others
- US has worst rates among developed countries despite double the spending
Factors that increase Paw during PPV
"PIP, PEEP, I:E ratios, f, and inspiratory flow all affect the Paw"
What is the "activation of Prodrugs"? (One of the consequences of drug metabolism.)
A prodrug is a compound that is pharmacologically inactive as administered and then undergoes conversion to its active form within the body.
ABG goal of NPPV for COPD patient with hypercarbia
increasing IPAP increases change in pressure and should increase delivered tidal volume which decreases PaCO2
what should you do is someone talks to you about suicide?
tell them to get help for him/her immediatly
Autistic thinking
Private logic
Disorganized
What type of schizophrenia?-disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect.
7 brain diseases?
-schizophrenia
-bipolar illness
-depression
-OCD
-panic disorder &amp; other anxiety disorders
-alzheimers dz
-parkinson's,huntington's chorea
Cogentin, Artane
Anticholinergics used for schizo?
• Judging
concluding tasks. Accomplish closure. Meets deadlines. Need final decisions.
False Imprisonment?
deliberate &amp; unauthorized confinement of a person by use of verbal or physical means.
-a voluntary pt cannot be restrained.
Axis V?
-Global Assessment of Functioning:looks @ big pic of how person functioning
-uses the GAF scale of 1-100
Order to attend for treatment
Form 14
seizure
c) What if abuse of Benzodiazepines occurs, what is the life threatening side effect of physical withdrawal?
Self injury includes:
cutting, scratching, picking scabs/interfering with wound healing, burning, punching self or objects, bruising or breaking bones, some forms of hair pulling,inserting objects into body openings, infecting oneself
Application of Behavioral Theories?
-behavioral contracts
-point systems(token economies)
-positive reinforcement
-smoking cessation
-weight loss
-systematic desensitization(for phobias)
Effects of excess serotonin?
-sedation
-decr. anxiety
-incr. sleep
-decr sex drive,decr orgasm
-indecision
-craving for sweets and carbs
What is an irresistible, repetitive, irrational impulse to perform an act that is usually contrary to one's ordinary judgments or standards yet results in overt anxiety if not completed.
Compulsion
To appeal to the MHRB
Patient rights 12
Sundowning
The term "sundowning" refers to people who become increasingly confused at the end of the day and into the night. Sundowning isn't a disease, but a symptom that often occurs in people with dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. The cause isn't known. But factors that may aggravate late-day confusion include: Fatigue
Low lighting
Increased shadows
Implosive therapy
Therapy that uses anxiety provoking imagery.
dissociative fugue
type of dissociative disorder: Showing up places w/o knowing how you got there.
delirium & dementia are examples of _________ disorders.
cognitive
Consequences that lead to a decrease in the behavior are called?
punishments.
Nature vs. Nurture?
-thoughts &amp; emotions prod. chemicals
-there is evidence that repeated exposures to inescapable shock prod. neurochemical abnormalities
-so even in situations where environment seems clearly assoc. w/ &quot;mental illness&quot;/behavior there may be assoc biological factors involved
What is a term describing difficulty with stress that causes mild interpersonal disorganization. There is no loss of reality perception; the individual has insight that he or she has a problem?
Neurosis
an irresistable impiulse to perform a certain action
compulsion
SSRIs at low dose to avoid aggitationTCA=Clomipramine (anaframil)
OCD meds?
A borderline personality patient is like a child emotionally and at one particular moment sees one as ________ or _________.
GOOD or EVIL.
Positive Stress
The stress that helps you to accomplish and reach your goals.
Marchman Act?
court ordered eval/tx for acute or chronic alcohol or drug prob. Must meet criteria &amp; is ordered to the hospital for eval for 5 days. If continued stay is needed,petition is filed w/ the court for a hearing.
What are hallucinations?
sensory experiences w/ no external stimuli.
-often assoc w/ psychotic states.
This type of personality disorder has not established self- identity; fears being alone; experiences mood swings over a short period of time; relationships with others reveal rapid shifts from adoring to cruel punishing; impulsiveness
Borderline personality:
What is defined as is a prolonged emotion that affects a person's psyche?
Mood
Supportive Interventions
Aim at dealing with the person's needs for empathetic understanding, such as encouraging the person to identify and discuss feelings, serving as a sounding board for the person, and affirming the person's self worth.
Deferential thinking
Thinking the TV is talking directly to them
Physical Fatigue
Extreme tiredness of the body as a whole.
Define Somatic delusions:
false belief about the functioning of the body.
Milieu Therapy-Cummings &amp; Cummings(1962):
environment might bring about changes in behavior. Environmen manipulated.
Explain the curative factor existential factor.
group provides opportunities for clients to explore meaning of their life and their place in the world.
Which type of delusion is the belief that their thoughts are being removed from their mind?
Thought withdrawal
a mental illness that has no appreant physical cause
functional disorder
2 or more of the characteristic symptoms present for a sygnificant portion of time during a 1 month period. 
Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia?
What causes patients to self-injure?
There is biological, psychological & sociological components.
Mental disorders assoc w/ self mutilation?
-Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse
-Borderline Personality Disorders
-Eating Disorders
-Cognitive Impairment
-OCD
-DID
-Mental Disorders
-Hallucinations and Delusions
Must be given a copy of all forms except Form 1
Patient rights 2
do meds help change their personality?
NO, MEDICATION DOES NOT ALTER PERSONALITY
A client with obsessive-compulsive disorder tells the nurse that he must check the lock on his apartment door 25 times before leaving for an appointment. The nurse knows that this behavior represents the client's attempt to: A. call attention to hi
D Rationale: A compulsion is a repetitive act or impulse. Carrying out a compulsion helps a person to reduce anxiety unconsciously. An obsessive-compulsive client doesn't want to call attention to himself and can't control his thoughts. This client's priority is to reduce anxiety, not maintain the safety of his home.
Which of the following statements describes how elderly clients react to medications?
A. At risk for increased adverse effects
B. Tolerate medication better because they're less active
C. Metabolize medications quickly
D. Need higher doses to respond
A Rationale: As individuals become older, their livers metabolize drugs at a slower rate. Cumulative effects can occur and increase the risk of adverse effects. Elderly clients typically need lower doses not higher. Level of activity typically doesn't affect a person's reaction to medication
What is the focus of Intrapersonal Theory?
focus is on individual,internal constructs/forces of &quot;psyche&quot; &amp; unconsciousness motivation
Negative things that restraints reinforce to pt?
¨Reinforces idea that violence is a valid way of regaining control
¨Reinforces “tough” image
¨May increase likelihood of future violent confrontations
¨Does not teach coping skills for future situations
¨Fosters distrust and malice towards staff
Why does the dementia in Alzheimers occur?
it is progressive deterioration in function d/t neurotransmitter deficiency, the most prevalent form of dementia and is characterized by memory loss, deficits in thought process, and behavioral changes in 4 stages.
s/S of primary dementia of the Alzheimer's type.
slight memory impairment and poor concentration, subtle personality changesand occasional ierritalbe aoutburst and lack of spontaneity
When teaching a client about lithium (Lithobid), the nurse should instruct the client to: A. drink at least six to eight glasses of water per day and to avoid caffeine. B. limit the use of salt in his diet. C. discontinue medicine when feeling better. D.
A Rationale: Caffeine should be avoided because it increases urine output. Clients need to maintain adequate fluid intake to avoid lithium toxicity. Clients should remain on medication even though they're feeling better. Don't limit or increase salt intake because the kidneys will hold onto lithium or excrete it if salt intake varies.
What is the defense mechanism Denial?
an attempt to screen or ignore unacceptable realities by refusing to acknowledge them.
The outcome needed for self-injury patients is:
pt will have no thoughts/urges or acts to self-harm for 48 hrs prior to discharge
23yr old in the manic phase of bipolar disorder is admitted to the facility,. which of the foolowing agenents would be appropriat for this client?a. bupropion (Wellbitrin) and lithium (Lithobid)b. lighium (lithobid) and valproic acid (Depaken
Lithium (Lithobid) and valproic acid (Depakene)Wellburin is an antidepressant.Haloperidol, fluphenazine, clozapine and risperidone are antipsychotic agents.
The nurse notices that a client with obsessive-compulsive disorder washes his hands for long periods each day. How should the nurse respond to this compulsive behavior?
A. By designating times during which the client can focus on the behavior
B. By urgi
A Rationale: The nurse should designate times during which the client can focus on compulsive behavior or obsessive thoughts. Frequency of the compulsive behavior should be reduced gradually, not rapidly. The nurse shouldn't call attention to or prevent the behavior; doing so may cause pain and terror in the client. Encouraging the client to verbalize anxieties may help distract his attention from the compulsive behavior.
Exceptions to the right to refuse tx except in an emergency situation or as permitted by law?
-emergency:client in no cond to exercise judgment
-to avoid serious harm,preserve life.
-when refusing tx endangers life or health of another.
Why does a BPD patient use splitting?
it is a PRIMITIVE DISSOCIATION. That splits into "good" person vs "bad" person. It splits the staff against one another. May split rapidly toward one person (projective identification).
Laboratory work is peresecribed for a client who has been experienceing delusions. When the nurse approaches the clent to obtain a speciment of the the clien's blood, the clent begins to shout, &quot;Your' arll vampires. Let me out of there!&quot; The mos
4 this lets client focus on the emotion underlying the delusion but does not argue with it.
Is sexually promiscuous or has a particular sexual preference
NOT a mental illness 2 - A person who
B.F. Skinner said that all behavior is ____ &amp; can be modified by a ________.
all behavior is learned &amp; can be modified by a system of rewards &amp; punishment.
who is more likely to use self injury, males or females?
females are 3 times as likely, it is in the 15-24 year-old age group
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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