Anatomy II 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Atypical ribs
1,2,10,11,12
Iliacus
Iliac crestSacrum
Arthrology
study of arthrons/joints
Pedicle

Foot-like, stem-like, stalk-like
Anterior portion of vertebral arch
Comes from vertebral body
 
 
Hyperkyphotic
Increased posterior curveHunchback
Classifications of Scoliosis
MagnitudeLocationDirectionEtiologyNonstructural ScoliosisStructural Scoliosis
Middle Scalene
First Rib
Photoreceptors
Rods and Cones
Floating ribs
vertebral ribsribs 11,12
Subclavian Artery
Segmental Arteries:vertebral arteryascending cervical arterydeep cervical artery
characteristics of "living" bone
healremodelage
Cranium
Skull minus the mandible
Hypolordotic
Decreased anterior curveMilitary Neck
Rectus Capitis Anterior
Lateral Mass
Kyphosis
Humpback or hunchback conditionClassically any deviation of curve toward posterior.
Quadratus Lumborum
Stabilizes 12th rib
Coccyx

Greek: Cuckoo’s bill or beak
Usually up to 5 segments
True Ribs
Costa veraeribs 1-7vertebrosternal ribs
Types of variation
Sexual Dimorphism
Ontogenetic Variation
Geographic or Population based variation
Idiosyncratic variation
Internal Carotid Arterybranches through carotid canal
Petrosal division
Tunnels/passageways
Foramen: completely penetrates thin bone ex. foramen ovale/sphenoid; Canal: passageway with length ex. vidian canalMeatus: blind ended passageway ex. internal accoustic meatus/temporal boneFissure: slit like opening between 2 or more bones
Synovial fluid
yellow-white, viscous, slightly alkaline, salty taste.low volume in joints; consists of fats, salts, albumins, and hyaluronate. It is both a dialystate and a transudate
Facial skeleton/splanchnocranium
14 bones:unpaired-vomer and mandiblepaired-nasal, lacrimal, palatine, maxilla, zygomatic, and inferior nasal concha bones
Depolarization
involves altering the normal electrical change on either side of the plasma membrane of a neuron.
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curve deviation coupled with axial rotation.
Neurohormones
Slow, but wide spread influence.
Neuromodulators
Slower acting than transmitters, larger area.
Flat facets
ex. articular facets in thoracics
Nonaxial synovial joints
exhibit only translational movement.arthroidal=plane gliding
Articular cartilage
specialized hyaline cartilageLacks a true perichondrium
Weeping theory
Non articulatingfluid is expressed from the cartilage during compression and combines with the synovial fluid
Sutura notha
False suturesResult of endochondral ossificationlack of interlocking bones
Malocclusion
abnormal alignment of teeth during clusure of the mouth may cause TMJ syndome which may result in atlant-occipital subluxation
postzygapophysis
Inferior articular process when joined in a vertebral couple
Ground substance
rich in glycosaminoglycans (linear, nonbranching, repeating disaccharide units).
Longest Transvers process among the Lumbars
L3
Cervical vertebral body with greatest frequency of osteophyts
C5-C6
Centrum
Primary center of ossification; formed when cartilage template is penetrated by blood vessels
Thoracic

Thoracic – breast plate or chest
Dorsal – back or posterior
12 vertebrae

 
 
Joint classification of the zygapophysis
diarthrosis arthrodia
Heteroropic bone
Formed from cells within nonbone-related tissues.Ex. pineal gland, heart, other ligaments
Lumbar Multifidus
reversed order of the origin-insertionInnervation is segmental
Hump/Hunchback
Increased poserior curve in the thoracic region.KyphosisHyperkyphotic
Intertransversarii function
proprioceptive transducers to regulate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture
Exteroreceptors
Found and associated with organism's surface. Two Types:General or cutaneous sense organsSpecial sense receptors
Sacralization of L5
L5 fused to sacrum.
Terminal ossicle
persistence of the subdental synchondrosis beyond age 12
Spinalis Thoracis
Spinous Processes of T11-L2Not involved in low back pain
Unipolar Neurons
Identified (most common) during embryogenesis
Branches of External Carotid A.
SALFOPISSuperior thyroidAscending pharyngealLingualFacialOccipitalPosterior auricularInternal maxillarySuperficial temporal
Diarthrosis trochoid
Pivot joint Ex. proximal radio-ulnar joint, median atlanto-axial joint
Synovial villi
finger like extensions of synovial membraneIncrease the surface area available for secretion-absorption phenomena.Increase with age.
Diarthrosis enarthrosis/cotyloid/spheroidal
ball and socketEx. femur acetabulum, humerous and glenoid cavity of scapula
Diarthrosis ellipsoidal
knuckle like male surface, ellipsoidal female surface.Ex. radiacarpal, metacarpo-phalangeal, metatarso-phalangeal, atlanto-occipital
Viscoelastic property
cartilage more slowly returns to initial volume after compression
Biaxial synovial joints
two independent planes of movementflexion-extension combined with adduction-abduction.Bicondylar, ellipsoidal, and sellar
Posterior fonanelle
located between forming parietal and occipital bones. Lamda is the adult remnant
Endochondral ossification
Bone developes within cartilage. Most of the skeleton and some bones of the skull
Synarthrosis
two or more bony surfaces are connected by a thin layer of dense connective tissue. No joint cavity exists.
Intramembranous ossification
bone formation when bone develops within the primitive connective tissue.Most bones of the skull develop this way.
Cauda equina
collection of nerve roots below L1Latin: horse's tail
Ligamentum Flavum
Primary ligament of the lamina, attaches laminae of a vertebral couple together.
Shingling
Normal overlapping of laminae seen on an A-P X-ray
Angle of the Transverse process
Cervical: anterolateralThoracic: PosterolateralLumbar: Lateral
amorpous matrix
bone cells and embedded into.contains ground substance, collogen fibers, and various minerals
Diarthrosis, 4 consistent features
articular/fibrous capsule, synovial membrane, two or more articular cartilage surfaces, and synovial fluid
Multipolar Neurons
Associated with motor neurons. Multiple projections.
Risser Sign
Used to test for skeletal maturity.
Lumbarization of S1
Squaring of the vertebral body
Lordotic
Normal anterior curve of cervical and lumbar reegions
Bifid spinous process
typical of caucasion population, not the African American population
Apophysis
Another name for process. ie spinous process vs. spinous apophysis
Accessory ligaments
may accompany the capsular ligament as part of the firbrous capsule. Will be intracapsular ligaments or extracapsular ligaments
Flat Bones
Thin layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two thin layers of compact bone.Ex. parietal bone, the sternum, and the blade of the scapula
Type I articular mechanoreceptors
Ruffini endingsFound in superficial layer of fibrous capsule. Encapsulatedmonitor joint at restmost numerous in the cervical zygopophyseal joints
Three modifications to articular synovial membrane
synovial villi,articular fat pads,synovial menisci and intra-articular discs
Formation of Epiphyseal Rim
Epiphysial Plate: 7-9 years old
 
Epiphysial Ring: 12 years old
 
Epiphysial Rim: 15 years old
 
Example of an ampiarthrosis synchondrosis (cartilage) joint
Three classifications of synovial membranes
articular, bursal, and vaginal
Type II articular mechanoreceptors
Pacinian corpusclesdeeper strata of the fibrous capsulemoniter joint during normal range of motionmost numerous in the cervical region
Synarthrosis Sutura Squamous/Squamous Suture
overlap, but not interlockingEx: tempero-parietal suture
Space that is likely a potential space
subdural space
Paranasal Bones/Pneumatic Bones
Ex. the temporal bone, frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, and sphenoid
Cruciate anastomosis
last arterial vasa corona and a continuation of the anterior spinal artery past the conus medularis appear as a cross.Another is located on the femur
Lymph capillaries
begin as blind ended sacshave a greater luminal diamerter than blood capilariesvariable lumenal diameterlayerd plexus arrangement
Accessopry bone
formed from the periosteum of existing boneEx. Para-articular process and bony spurs
Boundary theory
some synovial fluid is absorbed onto the cartilage surface and is never removed, like oil on a windsheild.
Cervical Kyphosis
a primary curve between O and C1
Primary curve
The Embryo's C-shaped curve with the convexity facing forward. Persists as the thoracic and pelvic/sacrococcygeal curve.
Only muscle to be innervated by dorsal and ventral rami
Intertransversarii
Idiopathic Scoliosis
Most scoliosis. Unique to individual. "Unknown Etiology"1-4%
Subdental Synchondrosis
the centers for the odontoid process are bilateral and appear during the last trimester. Ossification progresses downward from the dens and upward from the centrum.
Proteoglycans
consist of a core protein and about 30 glycosaminoglycansProvide a network for water retention
the outer layer of the intervertebral disc possesses which articular receptors?
All of them
Fluid in each of the Spaces
Epidural Space: Interstitial FluidSubdural Space: serous fluidSubarachnoid Space: Cerebrospinal fluid
Ligaments contained in the epidural space
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, Ligamentum flavum, Hoffman ligaments
Coccygeal medullary vestige
site of attachment for the filum terminale externum.
3 regions of the sternum
manubrim sterni, gladiolus (corpus sterni), and xiphoid process
diploe
The spongy bone of flat bones in the skull.
Internal Carotid Arterybranches in the cervical region
There are none! haha
The Inferior boundary of the IVF
The superior vertebral notch
Greatest range of motion in the cervical vertebrae
C5-C6 vertebral couple
Muscles attaching to the posterior tubercle in the cervical vertebrae
Splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scalene, posterior scalene, rotators,posterior intertransversarii
Joint surfaces on typical cervical vertebral body
10Superior epiphyseal rim-4Inferior epiphyseal rim-4Cancelous-2 (1 superior 1 inferior)
7 Cervicals in all mammals except:
2-MA-3

two-toed sloth (6)
Manatee (6)
Ant Bear (8)
three-toed sloth (9)
Cervicalization of T1
Rib may be short or absent.Facet orientations are possible.Up to 28% of the population.
Coccygealization of S5
S5 segment is seperated from the sacrum and may be fused to the coccyx.
Sacralization of Co1
Co1 is prematurely fused to the sacrum
Dorsalization of C7
The addition of ribs to C7.Cervical rib is associated with chromosome karyotype abnormalities is infants.Usually Asympromatic.Female Proclivity.superior A. facet may be BUL instead of BUM48%
Filum terminale Internum
When the neural tissue of the spinal cord terminates (at L1) the pia mater collapses to form this small thread.
Long bones
The length of the bone is greater the the breadth. Ex. bones of the extremities except the carpals and tarsals
Segmental artery from Axillary artery
Highest (supreme or superior) thoracic artery (T1, maybe T2)
Synarthrosis Sutura Serrate/Serrate Suture
Edges of bones shaped like saw.Ex: sagital suture, metopic suture
Development of the lumbar curve
Crawling puts tension on the unsupported lumbar region pulling it forward causing "swayback". Muscles develop to compensate for "swayback".Intervertebral disc space is increased along the anterior margin.Walking further promotes muscle developments and intervertebral disc height differences.
dural cul de sac
At the vertebral foramen of S2 the dura and arachnoid maters fuse, forming this structure.
Joints of the typical cervical vertebrae
Uncinate process and lateral groove form joint of Lushka, a modifies diarthrosis sellar joint (2)The ALL, anterior lip, and anterior groove: amphiarthrosis syndesmosisPLL, posterior lip, posterior groove: amphiarthrosis syndesmosisIntervertebral disc:Ampiarthrosis Symphysis
Rectus Capitis posterior minor
attachment to the spinal dura and the atlanto-occipital interspace
The 4 posterior boundaries of the IVF
The postzygapophysis of the vertebra aboveThe prezygapophysis of the vertebrae belowThe capsular ligament of the zygapophysisThe Ligamentum Flavum
Shift in the Nucleus Pulposus
Shifts position at the L4 level during formation of the lumbar curve.
Sulcus for the ventral (primary) ramus of a cervical spinal nerve
Formed along the top of the costotranseverse bar
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