anatomy J1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Posterior
Back
Sulcus
groove
Inferior
Lower
Superior
Higher
pruritis
itching
Fissure
deep groove
Line
self - explanitory???
alopecia
(Baldness) skin loss
Epicondyle
area surrounding the condyle's
Meatus
a natural body opening/canal
papule
palpable skin lesion of
Annular
circular shaped skin lesion
Superficial
Closer to the outermost layer
Ipsilateral
same side of the body
Proximal
closer to the body center
pustule
elevated cavity containing thick turbid fluid, acne
maceration
softening of tissue by soaking
impetigo
moist, thin-roofed vesicles within thin, erythematous base. rupture to form thick honey-colored crusts. contagious bacterial infection of skin; most common in infants and children
polycyclic lesion
annular lesions grow together
diabetic retinopahy
microaneurysms: microaneurysms are round puctate red dots that are localized dilatations of a small vessel. their edges are smooth and discrete. the vessel itself is too small to view with the opthalmoscope; only the associated red dots are seen. this occurs with diabetes.
keloid
hypertrophic scar, elevated beyond site of original injury
Confluent
skin lesions that run together
Process
Structure that protrudes from its originating surface
Tubercle
smaller raised portion of a bone
psoriasis
scaly erythematous patch, with silvery scales on top. usually on scalp, outside of elbows and knees, ow back, and angogenital area.
periorbital edema
lids are swollen and puffy
Bulla
elevated cavity containing free fluid larger than 1 cm in diameter
gyrate shaped lesion
twisted, coiled, spiral, snakelike
acrochordons
aging (skin tags), overgrowths of normal skin
conjuctivis
purulent discharge cause by chemical irrantant. can be from viral, bacteria, allergy, chem. preauricular lymph node if often swollen and painful
pseudostrabismus
appearance of strabismus because of epicanthic folds but is normal for a young child. when the inside parts of the eye skin is larger than normal
pterygium
trianglular opaque wing of bulbar conjuctiva overgrows toward the center of the cornea. looks membranous, translucent, and yellow to white, usually invades from nasal side. from being in hot climate for long periods of time
exophthalmos
protruding eyes. is a forward displacement of the eyeballs and widened papebral fissures.
iritis
circumcorneal redness: deep dull red halo around the iris and cornea. red is around iris, instead of prominent at the periphery as in conjuctivitis
nevus
(mole) circumscribed skin lesion due to excess melanocytes
vesicle
elevated cavity containing free fluid up to 1 cm diameter, chicken pox
rinne test
compares air conduction and bone conduction sound. place stem of vibrating tuning fork on the persons mastoid process. AC>BC. 2:1
subconjuctival hemorrhage
red patch on the sclera, subconjuctival hemorrhage looks alarming, but not usually serious.
acute glaucoma
narrow- angle glaucoma shows a circumcorneal redness around the iris w/ around the iris with dilated pupil. pupil os oval, dilated, cornea looks steamy.
dilated and fixed pupils
mydriasis, stimulation of SNS
Conjuctiva
palppebral (lines the lids and is clear with many blood vessels Bulbar- overlays the eyeball with white sclera showing through
senile lentigines
commonly called liver spots, small flat brown macules
mongolian spot
in infant's skin: common in hyperpigmentation in black, asian, hispanic
milia
infant; tiny white papules on cheeks, forehead, nose and chin
malignant melanoma
half these lesions arise from preexisting nevi. usually brown; can be tan, black, pink-red, purple, or mixed pigmentation. often irregular or notched borders. may have scaling, flaking, oozing texture. common locations are on the trunk and back in men and women, on the legs in women, and on the palms, soles of feet, and the nails in blacks.
excoriation
self-inflicted abrasion on skin due to scratching
Crest
peak of a ridge on a bony structure
red reflex
caused by the reflection of your opthalmoscope light off the inner retina. keep sight of the red reflex, and steadily move closer to the eye.
H. horners sydrom
unilateral, small, regular pupil does react to light and accommodation. occurs w/ norner's syndrome, a lesion of the sympathetic nerve. also note ptosis and absense of sweat on same side
corneal abrasion
result of blunt eye injury but irregular ridges usually visible only when flourescein stain reveals yellow-green branching. top layer of cornea removed from scratching.
external canal inspection
note any redness and swelling, lesions, foreign bodies, or discharge. if any discharge is present, note color and odor. Redness: otitis external.
normal alignment of the ear = ___ degrees
ten
seborrheic karatosis
aging; dark greasy and "stuck on" trunk, face, hands. do not become cancerous
physiologic jaundice
infant; yellowing of skin sclera and mucous membranes b/c an increase in the number of RBC that hemolyze
purpura
red-purple skin lesion due to blood in tissues from breaks in blood vessels
chalazion
beady nodule protruding on the lid, it is an infection or retention cyst of a meibomian gland.
a test for accommodation, the person focuses on a distant object,t hen shifts the gaze to a near object about 6 inch. away. at near distance, you would expect the pupils to ______ and the axes of the eyes to ________
constrict, converge
enlarged tongue occurs with _____, _____, _____, a small tongue accompanies ______. dry tongue accompanies _____, with deep vertical ____.
mental retardation, acromegaly, hypothyroidism. malnutrition. dehydration, fissures.
sublingual gland
lies within the floor of the mouth under the tongue. has many small openings along the sublingual fold under the tongue
submandibular gland
size of a walnut. lies beneath the mandible at the angle of the jaw.
argyll robertson pupil
no reaction to light, pupil does constrict w/ accommodation. small and irregular bilaterally. occurs w/ CNS syphilis, brain tumor, chronic alcoholism
narrowed (attenuated) arteries
this is a generalized decrease in diameter. the light reflex also narrows. occurs with hypertension
skin lesions associated with AIDS
epidemic kaposi's sarcoma: patch stage: aggressive form of kaposi's sarcoma- mistaken for bruises or nevi. Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma: advanced disease: violet-colored tumors over the nose and face. epidemic kaposi's sarcoma: plaque stage- raised papules or thickened plaques.
shallow anterior chamber
the iris is pushed anteriorly b/c of increased intraocular pressure.
erythema toxicum
common rash, occurs when baby is in a side lying position. lower half turns red and upper half blanches with demark line down midline. infant
in the oral cavity, the soft tissues atrophy and the epithelium things, especially in the cheek and tongue. this results in loss of ____ ____ with a ____% loss of taste
tast buds, 80.
constricted and fixed pupils
miosis, whith the use of pilocarpine drops for glaucoma treatment
what is the ala?
the lateral outside wing of the nose on either side
thickness of aging adult
with aging, skin looks as thin as parchment and the subcutaneous fat diminishes. thinner skin is evident over the dorsa of the hands
hyperopia: how do we correct it?
farsighted: with a oval shaped lens.
myopia, what's used to correct it?
nearsighted; use a caved in shaped lense
discuss the most common causes of decreased visual function in the older adult
cataract formation, or lens opacity; glaucoma; macular degeneration.
phoria, tropia w/ reference to malalignment of the axis of eyes
phoria- mild weakness, noted only when fusion is blocked. tropia- more severe- constant malalignment of the eyes.
the nasal hairs filter what? the mucous blanket filters what?
coarsest matter from inhaled air, bacteria and dust
function at the brainstem level is binaural interaction which permits what? whats the hearing nerve?
locating the direction of a sound in space as well as identifying the sound. CN VIII
what are the 3 functions of the middle ear?
1. conducts sound vibrations from the outer ear to the central hearing apparatus in the inner ear. 2. protects the inner ear by reducing the amplitude of loud sounds 3. eustachian tube allows equalization of air pressure on each side of the tympanic membrane so that the membrane doesn't rupture.
pull pinna ___ and ___ on an adult and ____ and ___ on a child
up and back, down and out.
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