Hebrew Bible Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Sheol
underworld
722 BCE
Assyria conqures Israel
Pilgrimage Festival
Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot.
Anthropomorphism
Attribution of human motivation, characteristics, or behavior to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena
David's Wives
Michal, Abigail, and Bathsheba
Decalogue
Another name for the Ten Commandments
Mashal/Proverb
Hebrew for "comaprison" or "parable", a part of wisdom literature in which the author takes short, usually very concise, statements and uses them to teach or make a point. Sometimes they speak metaphorically
Aramiac
A language originating in Syria, became widespread in the second half of the first millenium BCE, parts of Daniel and Ezra, lanaguage of the Assyrian Empire and became widespread because of deportation/assimilation
Jonathon
Saul's sonFriend of Davidhelps David escape when Saul tries to kill him
Megiddo
major city in northern Israel, strategic site for many battles. aka Armageddon in apocalyptic literature, site of the final battle between good and evil
Succession Narrative
originally independent source that incorporated into the Deuteronomistic History that related how Solomon eventually succeeded David on the throne.
Exposition
Provide background and inform readers about plot, character, setting, theme, ect.
"Holocaust"/Burnt Offering
A "whole offering", or "burnt offering", is a type of Biblical sacrifice, specifically an animal sacrifice in which the entire sacrifice is completely burnt. This form of sacrifice, in which no meat was left over for anyone, was seen as the greatest form of sacrifice and was the form of sacrifice permitted by Judaism to be given at the Temple by Jews and non-Jews.
The animals, having first been checked to ensure they were free from disease and unblemished (a requirement of the sacrifice), were brought to the north side of the altar, and killed by either the offerer, or a kohen (priest). The animal's blood was carefully collected by kohens and sprinkled around the altar. Unless the animal was a bird, its corpse was flayed, the skin given to the priest (who was permitted to keep it). In later times more powerful priests forcibly took possession of the skins from the lesser priests, and it was decreed that the skins should be sold, with the proceeds being given to the Temple in Jerusalem. The flesh of the animal was divided according to detailed instructions given by the Talmud, and would then be placed on the wood on the altar (which was constantly on fire due the large number of sacrifices carried out daily), and slowly burnt. After the flesh (including any horns and goat's beards) had been reduced to ashes, usually the following morning, the ashes were taken by the priest to a ritually clean location outside the sanctuary, and dumped there.
Solomon
King of Israel following David, who prayed for wisdom at Gibeon, and was granted it by God. Credited with the building of the first temple in Jerusalem. Solomon ultimately falls into idolatry because of his foreign wife. His idolatry leads to the split of the kingdom into the north and the south.
Adonijah
1Kings, A son of David, proclaimed himself king as David was dying but Nathan had David give orders that Solomon (younger than Adonijah), should inherit the throne, made a second attempt after Solomon had taken the throne
Naomi
Ruth's mother-in-law found in the book of Ruth, her sons and husbands die but she organizes the courtship/marriage of Ruth and Boaz, Ruth's son Obed is later attributed to Naomi, explination for David's mixed ancestry
Septuagint
The ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures, made beginning in the third century BCE. Includes a different version of the Hebrew Bible, including extra texts and alteration of texts in the Bible.
theogony
begetting of the g-ds, happens in enuma elish before the creation of humanity
Atrahasis
one of the Babylonian accounts of creation; begins before the creation of humans
Gideon
sent by God saves Israel from Midianite invadersHe tears down his fathers temple because it was dedicated to the god Baalstory of man's dream that a loaf of bread knocked down Midian tent- Israel will winGod found men for his army by asking them to drink in a river and anyone who cupped their hands he sent homeleads men in trickster move to surround midianite camp and make lots of noise in middle of night and when the midians wake they are frantic and slay each other
Moabites
Israel's nieghbors east of the Dead Sea. they are the "sons of Moab", offspring of Lot
Diaspora
the exile from Judah to Babylonia because of the Babylonian conquest. It was a good strategy so that the people won't ban together and continue to fit against the new regime, but instead intermarry with Babylonians.
Aleppo Codex
medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible that was written in the 10th century CE
Complaint Stories
The Israelites encounter a bit of adversity so they blame Moses and Aaron. When they get in the desert they keep on saying they would rather be back in Egypt. Ex: People complain that the water is bitter so God gives Moses a stick to throw in the water and it makes it sweeter.
Cosmic mountain
refers to Zion, the mountain in Jerusalem, which was home to the Temple
Shechem/Schechem Assembly
where Rehoboam is anointed king of Israel. There is also where Jeroboam and the assembly of Israel confronts Rehoboam and where Rehoboam eventually rejects Jeroboam and the assembly, ultimately leading to the split of Israel into the northern and southern kingdoms.
Enkidu
A character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the wild man created by the gods to distract Gilgamesh from antisocial activities. Gilgamesh and Enkidu become friends and Enkidu's death motivates Gilgamesh to seek immortality.
Mount Moriah
mountain of the Aquedah, where Abraham nearly sacrifices Isaac, at the command of God in Genesis.
Nebuchadnezzar/Nebuchadrezzar
A babylonian king of the 6th century BCE, conquers Jerusalem and Judah, destroys the temple, God's power over foreign kings is shown in his dreams and the illness YHWH inflicted on him for his arrogance
Jean Astruc
1735 observed multiple names for G-d (YHVH, Elohim, Adonay)
United Monarchy
ten norther tribes if Israel and southern tribe of Judah were united unde the rule of David and his son Solomon, both of whom are called the "kind of Israel". When Solomon died in 928 BC the united kingdom of Israel was slit into the N. kingdom of Israel and the S. kingdom of Israel.
Jeroboam 2
to distinguish new kingdom, he erects altars and shrines to golden calves throughout N. lands prophet warns that Israel will lose control of promise land bc of the golden calves
Vassal/Suzerainty Treaties
God's Covenant is more like an ancient suzerainty treaty.
That is a treaty made by a powerful king with his weak neighbor where the strong king offers his protection, imposes his governing, and demands whatever he pleases from the weak king. The weak king has a choice:
He can surrender to the control of the strong king and enjoy his protection, Or, he can refuse and suffer the consequences. What he cannot do is renegotiate the terms of the treaty or covenant.
Samaria Ostraca
a particular ink used to write on various pottery shards that were found in Samaria. Though these pottery finds are minor, they remain among some of the earliest of the archaeological discoveries of ancient Hebrew writing - dating to around 785 BCE.
Ahab
A king of Judah who worshiped Baal and was in constant conflict with the prophet Elijah, kills the family of Nabath for his vineyards (reminiscent of Samuel's warnings and Nathan's parable of the rich man who takes from the poor)
Mesha Stele/Moabite Stone
large stone commistioned by King Moab which details the capture of Israelites in the 9th century (reigns of Ahab and Omri), can be compared to other texts/documents to cooroborate the Bible's claims, confirms the relationship between Moab and Israel seen in 2 Kings for the most part
Nathan's Parable
2 Samuel, Nathan tells this parable to David after he commits adultery with Bathseeba. After hearing the parable, David condemns one of the characters of the parable to death, Because of David's sin, the child born to him from his adultery shall die. This is significant because it represents God's sovereignty over the monarchy, the collapse of David's family (rebellion, rape)
Abimelech
Gideon's son who rules as king, but is a terrible tyrant dies when a woman throws a millistone at his head


“Take your son, your favored one,
Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a
burnt offering on one of the heights that I will point out to you” (Gen 22:2)





This passage indicates increasing tension, Issac is the son whom Abraham's life is centered upon, and whom Abraham loves. Abraham is being tested to sacrifice Isaac, if he did not love Isaac so much it would not be such a test.
Babylonian Empire
: An empire which arose after the fall of the Assyrian Empire in the late 7th century and kept power until Babylon was conquered by the Persian Empire under Cyrus II in 539 BCE. Babylon invaded Judah twice: in 597 and 587-586 (when the temple was destroyed).
son of man
phrase that in the H.B. means human being. It is used of someone who is given universal rule. the identity of this person is disputed
Hubris
term used when man tries to get to the level of god
The Sin of Jeroboam
in 1Kings, Jeroboam, the first king of the Northern Kingdom of Israel after the split, was worried that if the people of Israel continued going to Jerusalem, in Judah, to worship, that they would revert their allegiance to Rehoboam, Solomon's son. He therefore built two large golden calves, and set up altars in the northern kingdom, and then appointed priests that were not from the tribe of Levi.
servant of songs
in 2nd Isaiah a group of four poems that speak of a servant of Yahweh
Ancient One/Ancient of Days
a term refered to in Daniel 7 in a vision, refers to YHWH's everlasting kingship
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