Terms Definitions
ancient babylonians
515 BCE
Second Temple built
An explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible); critical analysis of a text.
toledot formula
generation, to give birth
Commander under David, kills Absalom
The theory and methodology of interpretation, especially of a scriptural text; the branch of theology that deals with principles of exegesis.
Can have many meanings. Usually thought of as common sense, but the HB usually refers to it as knowledge and insight into the divine plan
Benedict Spinoza
Philosopher 1632-1677, influenced by rationalism; not just believing rabbis and priests opinions. one of the first to take this approach
judgeIsrael becomes good again to defeat an enemy story with bargaining with god for victory, and daughter dies because of it.
succeeds Elijah as prophet annoints Jehu and helps coup against Ahab and Jezebel
means "divine justice" used with reference to literature that deals with the problem of human suffering, especially the suffering of the innocent
Herman Gunkel
German Protestant old testament scholar, noted for his contribution to form criticism and the study of oral tradition in biblical texts
Casuistic Law
Case by case laws "If.....then....". For example, when are you allowed to kill? Is killing for protection ok? Rather than the law "thou shalt not murder".
a word of Greek origin meaning "gathering together", used of religious assemblies of Jews and the buildings in which these assemblies took place.
An ecstatic prophet of 6th century whose prophecies are found in the book of Ezekiel, one of the first deported in the Babylonian Exile, Ezekiel's symbolic eating of a scroll of lamentation illustrates the need for Israel to write down their traditions now that they are in exile and assimilation is a danger. His call narrative illustrates that God is moveable and not chained to Jerusalem. His story gives scholars insight into the emotion and religious state of the exiles.
The Canaanite storm god, defeats Sea and Death in Ugaritic myth, worship of Baal is condemed
the king of Assyria during King Hezekiah's reign of Judah. Demands tribute from Judah but Hezekiah refuses. Hezekiah prays to Yhwh and an Angel comes and destroys the enemy and forcing Sennacherib to withdraw.
foreign queen of King Ahaz, evil, fought with Elijah, 1 & 2 Kings
e.g, waste and empty. Two words referring to one concept
rapes Tamar. David doesn't punish him. sets off Absalom
Longest story in Bible, very developed characterShephard, Patriarch, King, Lover and Divine Elect (chosen by god like Joseph)
Jewish sect (subdivision of Jews) of that produced the Dead Sea Scrolls
Jean Astruc
Professor medicine. Used an approach called the documentary hypothese to theorize that Genesis was composed based on several sources or manuscript traditions
Sent by King Balak to curse the Israelites but God forbids him to do so. An angel blocks his donkey's path on the way and ends up blessing Israel rather than cursing them.
Allegorical Interpretation
An approach assuming that the authors of a text intended something other than what was litereally expressed. Ex: Song of Songs
The younger son of Joseph, found in Genesis, who becomes the eponymous ancestor for the northern kingdom. The northern kingdom is often referred to as Ephraim.
Masoretic Text
the traditional medieval text of the Hebrew Bible
A term which arose in the Persian period, of Greek origins, which referes to the the area of Judah. The term Yehudi actually meant an inhabitant of Yehud, or Judah, but came to mean Jew.
High Place
places of worship on elevated ground, usually thought of in the context of idol worship of Asherah or Baal, such as when the Israelites built high places to worship Baal (in Jeremiah) but also built to woship YHWH (alter of the Aquedah in Genesis on Mt. Moriah)
when man tries to be divine and fails
A genre of literature in which details concerning the end-time are revealed by a heavenly messenger or angel. 
Deuteronomistic Histories
Martin Noth argued in 1943 that Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings are one literary unit.form a narrativ history of Israel in the Promised Land
Book of the Covenant
(Exodus) Also referred to Covenant Code. These writings contained "case law" and was written in the form of "If (this happens)..., then (this is the consequence or specific restitution)" Example: Case of the goring ox. Includes Ten Commandments and addresses laws of worship, morality, and civil life
One of the sons of Gideon, kills all his brothers except Jotham to take the throne, killed by a nameless foreign woman with a stone
King of Judah who appears in 2 Kings, son of Ahaz, ruled just before the Assyrian conquest of the North, emphasized exclusive YHWHism by tearing down other alters to leave Jerusalem as the only place of worship, listened to Isaiah and trusted in God by withholding tribute from Assyrian king Sennacherib and Jerusalem ended up being spared (spured confidence in Jerusalem's eternal nature)
a prophet of the time just before the down fall of Israel in 722 BCE, wife was Gomer
Jeremiah's Temple Sermon
couters the idea that the temple cannot be destroyed, Jermiah is instructed to stand in the entrance to the temple and to proclaim the condition for Israel's continues occupation of the promised land. He says that the preservation of Israel is not through the temple alone, but through the actions and obedience of the people.
Qumran scrolls
dead sea scrolls, found in caves near qumran. have an extra scroll of psalms. 1000+ years older than the Aleppo Codex
Dead Sea Scrolls
Ancient manuscripts found in caves on the western side of the Dead Sea in 1948. some are the oldest surviving manuscripts of Biblical books. as early as 3rd century BC.
Table of Nations
Extensive list of descendants of Noah appearing in Genesis 10 of the Hebrew Bible which represents a ethnology from an Iron Age Levantine persepective
Elijah the Tishbite
A prophet during the reign of King Ahab in the 9th century BCE whose story is found in 1 and 2 Kings, an example of a "charismatic" prophet, Elijah's struggles with King Ahab and Jezebel are reminiscent of Nathan's Parable and Samuel's warnings against kingship
oracle against the nations
a genre in apocalyptic literature to describe Yahweh's judgment on foreign nations
Mount Gerizim/Mount Ebal (Deut. 27-28)
In Deuteronomy an instruction is given to build an altar on Mount Ebal to make peace offerings on the altar, eat there, and write the words of this law on the stone.
An instruction immediately subsequent to this orders that, once this is done, the Israelites should split into two groups, one to stay on Mount Ebal and pronounce curses, while the other goes to Mount Gerizim and pronounces blessings. The tribes of Simeon, of Levi, of Judah, of Issachar, of Joseph, and of Benjamin were to be sent to Gerizim, while those of Reuben, of Gad, of Asher, of Zebulun, of Dan, and of Naphtali, were to remain on Ebal.
The text goes on to list twelve curses, which were to be pronounced by the Levite priesthood and answered by the people with Amen.These curses heavily resemble laws (eg cursed be he who removes his neighbour's landmark).
Book of the Twelve
The term for the writings of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew Bible; Hosea-Malachi. At the end in Christian canons and in the middle in Jewish
Confessions of Jeremiah
The parts of the book of Jeremiah in which he laments to God the difficulties he experienced as a prophet. 
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