Hebrew Bible Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Urim and Thummim
manifestation of a g-d
father of david, 1 samuel
the beginning, introducing a story
festival commemorating the deliverance of the Jews by Esther and Mordecai from the plot of the Persian official Haman
Personal interpretation of a text (especially of the Bible) using your own ideas.
o The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation.
the attempted reconciliation or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion.
literary device whereby the ending corresponds to the beginning
woman who when Canaanite general, Sisera seeks refuge with, invites him in, but kills him by hammering a peg into his skull
Julius Wellhausen
German biblical scholar and orientalist. Best known for his detailed synthesis of existing views on the origins of the first 5 books of the Old Testament. He was to place the development of these books into historical and social context
Apodictic Law
"Thou shalt" The strongest possible command. Unique to Israel. No rationale or explanation. "Because I said so"
Gomer bat-Diblaim
the sexually-immoral wife of the prophet Hosea, their marriage is a symbol of the relationship between YHWH and Israel, with Gomer being unfaithful Israel.
Hebrew for "annointed one", used to refer to past and present kings who have been annointed in the Hebrew Bible, Christians use it to mean a future divinely sent leader
Assyrian Empire
This empire flourished primarily in the 9th century BCE and loses power in the 7th century. The northern tribes were absorbed into it for disobedience in 722 BCE. Judah later becomes Assyria's vassal as a result of the Syro-Epramite Crisis under King Ahaz. Isaiah was the active prophet during the crisis.
Form criticism
treats stories of Genesis like folklore and paid little attention to the major sources, although he did not deny their existence
appointed by God to tell Ninevah people of future destruction because of their wickednesshe was afraid to, so hid from God on a shipthen a storm occured and seamen threw him off to stop the storm (appease God)Jonah was swallowed by a big fish for three days and then vomited on the ground he finally delivered the message people prayed to be saved and God saved themJonah was pissed that they were save, but God told him that non Jews can be important toocomparison to some plant that he didn't care for but comforted Jonah... weird
Nazirite. Has crazy abilities bc god loves himuses jawbone of a donkey to kill 1000 Phillistine menLoves Delilah, a phillistine woman, but she is urged by phillistine officers to discover Samsons secret source of powerHe final tells her it's his hair and she cuts it off, but in prison it grows back and then he knocks down a temple killing Phillistine rulers
tribe that rapes this concubine and then gets destroyed when the man/lover of the concubine takes 12 pieces of her body and sends them to the other tribes to illustrate Israel's corruption, so then the other tribes kill 25,000 Benjamites
Ancient port city in the Eastern Mediterranean where important tablets were discovered in 1929
Qumran Scrolls
Collection of 972 documents, including texts from the hebrew bible found in 11 caves around the ruins of the ancient settlement of Quamran
Moses gave orders to kill all the idolaters, yet Zimri openly defied Moses and publicly showed his opinion to those standing at the Tabernacle entrance. In a moment of great strength born of holy zeal, Phinehas went after them and ran them through with a spear simultaneously while they were apparently in coitus. He thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them had already perished. (Numbers 25) God noticed that Phinehas showed loyalty and bravery for God. God decided not to destroy all of the children of Israel in anger because Phinehas had made atonement for their sins. God declared that Phinehas and his sons sons for all eternity, to receive divine recognition for this; a Covenant of Peace and the Covenant of an everlasting hereditary Priesthood.
David's brother who taunts him when he comes to the battle in 1 Samuel Chpt 17
- Prophet raised in the tabernacle by Eli. His call narrative is of Yhwh calling to him in his sleep. The news Yhwh gives Samuel is tragic and tells of the falls of Eli's family due to Eli's two wicked sons. Samuel later becomes a Judge and a leader of Israel. When Israel eventually calls for a king, Samuel anoints Saul and then later anoints the future king David. Samuel is a prophet of mixed interests and types: He has his hand in politics, making him a political prophet, and yet his is a judge and works closely with the King, making him Courtly as well.
David's wife, of the lineage of Saul, the union ties David to Saul's line because old tribal laws say a son-in-law can succeed a king without heir, but this could be seen as David continuing Saul's line so he and Michal never had children
Latter Prophets
in Jewish tradition, the second part of the prophets, comprising the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel and the book of the Twelve (Minor Prophets)
Epic of Gilgamesh
the Mesopotamian epic which details the story of Gilgamesh and his friend Enkidu.
the Satan
The "accuser", and antagonist in Job. Is actually depicted as the prosecutor of sorts in the royal court of Yhwh. Attempts to disprove YHWH's claim of Job's pioty, saying that people are only pious when Yhwh gives them a good life. The satan then puts Job to the test, with rules from Yhwh about what pains he can inflict upon Job. The satan has later been depicted as Satan, or the Devil - which is actually a miss translation of the text. The satan is simply doing his job in Job.
Naboth's Vineyard
A vineyard which King Ahab desired, when he was refused Jezebel falsely accused Naboth and had him killed so Ahab could get the vineyard, reminiscent of Samuel's warnings about kingship, God curses Ahab and Jezebel
Enuma Elish
great work of near eastern literature; a creation story celebrating the rise of Marduk, G-d of babylon
Isaiah Apocalypse
chapters 24-27 which are an early example of apocalyptic literature
to use two words linked by a conjunction to express a single complex idea
Josiah's Reform
Josiah was king of Judah. Tore down shrines and idols because of book of law; encouraged worship of only God; reinstated Passover. Vigorous reform movement.
Josiah, king of Judah, began the reform after an old "Book of the Law" was discovered in the Temple during repair work. Determined to call the people back to the Covenant they had broken by insisting on strict adherence to the extensive code of laws.
750-740 BCE when N and S in peace +renewed Judean prosperity and Assyria not a threat, the first of the writing prophets, the beginning of classical prophecy (at people, not a king), preaches at the shrine of Bethel, theme of confounding expectations, he critiques the social, political, and religious establishment, chosen as a herdsman
Behemoth and Leviathan
Forms of the primeval sea-monster who was the adversary of a deity before creation, and is ultimately defeated. They are the forms of the chaos deity destroyed by the storm-god in the battle before creation.
A character in the book of Judges who becomes a model for ideal Isrealite kingship. He disassembles an alter of Baal and leads a victorious battle, but humbly declines kingship. After he dies, his son Abimelech kills all his brothers but one and takes the throne, Gideon's story show the Deutoeronomistic Historian's ambivalence on kingship
Babylonian Exile
The deportation of a large number of Judeans to Babylon from 597-537 BCE.The exile provided the need to write down the Israelite traditions and stories to keep them preserved while in exile. It also changed Israelite theology. Before the exile they believed that YHWH lived in the eternal Solomonic Temple, but when it was destroyed they were forced to change their beliefs and worship a moveable/unconfinable God.
Aleppo Codex
kept by the Jewish community of Aleppo in Syria for centuries, dates from early 10th century CE, 1/4 of it was lost in a fire in 1948 and the rest remains in Jerusalem today
covenant lawsuit
genre used by the prophets in which Israel is put on trial by Yahweh for having violated its covenant with him
term used for the authors of the boks of Chronicles and the books of Ezra and Nehemiah
Sitz im Leben
A german phrase that roughly translate to \"setting in life\", there is no text without context
Psalm 137
This is a Psalm written by a Jewish exile lamenting over the state of Jerusalem and the Jewish people. This is one of the only psalms that can be easily dated due to the events that surround it and its context. This psalm addresses the question of how can the exiles still continue to worship Yahweh when they are in a foreign land and when Yahweh has doomed them to such a destiny. This is when the religion of ancient Israel starts to become Judaism, which is the focus of this and following chapters
God Knows
by Heller. makes fun of David, God is kind of Autocratic. David is angry with God at some points
Holiness Code (H)
The Holiness Code is a term used in biblical criticism to refer to Leviticus 17-26, and is so called due to its highly repeated use of the word Holy. Biblical scholars have regarded it as a distinct unit and have noted that the style is noticeably different from the main body of Leviticus: unlike the remainder of Leviticus, the many laws of the Holiness Code are expressed very closely packed together, and very briefly. According to the documentary hypothesis, the Holiness Code represents an earlier text that was edited and incorporated into the priestly source and the Torah as a whole. The Holiness Code also uses a noticeably different choice of vocabulary, repeating phrases such as I, The LORD, am holy, I am the LORD, and I the LORD, which sanctify..., an unusually large number of times. Additionally, Leviticus 17 begins with This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded, saying.., and Leviticus 26 strongly resembles the conclusion of a law code, despite the presence of further laws afterward, such as at Leviticus 27, giving the Holiness Code the appearance of a single distinct unit.
Song of Songs/Song of Solomon
a short book (usually excluded from the Christian canons) that deals with two lovers, and there sexual activity that is shown through obvious metaphors. The song was originally attributed to being written by Solomon, but the language appears to be after his time, and the author distinguishes between his vineyard and Solomon's, an example of how historical context defines how symbols are interpreted and how the secular view sometimes dissapears from theological views
S. kingdom of Judah
the kingdom that after the death of Solomon in the late tenth century BC continued to be ruled by the Davidic dynasty with its captured in Jerusalem, until it was captured by the Babylonians in 586 BC
Hebrew for "lawsuit"
hinting at future events
Literally mean "scattering" or "dispersion", used to refer to exiles from Judah to Babylonia in the early sixth century BCE and later refers to any Jews living outside of Israel.
Table of nations
descendants of noah
festival comemorating the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem in 164 BC
The Biblical "archenemies" of Israel, many skirmishes are detailed in the text such as in Judges between Samson and the Philistines and David vs. Goliath, God rewards Israelite faithfulness with victories= conditional Sinai covenant
A central Mesopotamian city-state of the land of Sumer in the Epic of Gilgamesh. It is believed to be the biblical Erech. It was one of the first cities, and also a force of urbanization, moving from agricultural towns to more complex cities.
the shadowy underworld counterpart of the Greek Hades
transformation of Near Eastern culture and society by Greek ideas, especially after the conquest of the Near East by Alexander the Great
David's great gma, lineage is important.was a moabite, intermarried with an Israelite living in Moav. When he dies, she cleaves with her faith and moves with her mother in law to Israel. Famous line: "Your people are my people, your god my god"In israel they are poor, but then she marries rich judge BoazSet up for eventual lineage between Ruth and David. celebration of an outsider "convert" choosing to join Israel bc it underlines the value of Israelite religion and culture. Israel is so good that even enemies want to join. Parallels RahabShe is also a trickster and sneaks into Boaz's bed bc he is wealthy and also bc Levirate says that she needs to marry a relative (Boaz is relative) to have a son that will carry on her dead hubby's name.
series of solemn agreements believed to exist between God and the Israelites
how the story ends (funeral, wedding)
A mental representation of the meaning or significance of something; an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.
Former Prophets
In Jewish tradition, the first division of the Prophets, or Neviim, comprising the books of Joshua-1 and 2 Kings
the moveable chariot seen by Ezekiel in a vision, symbolizes the moveable nature of YHWH; no longer rooted to Jerusalem and the Temple
book of sorrowful poems attributed to Jeremiah "weeping prophet" purpose: express despair and teach God's people that disobedience to the Lord results in immediate suffering and distress
Masoretic Text
traditional medieval texts of the bible
A portable sanctuary in which the Jews carried the Ark of the Covenant on their exodus/
A short pithy saying, often in poetry. All of the proverbs fall into two categories: ones that express some insight about human experience and those that have a religious dimension. Seen primarily in the book of Proverbs. The Book of Proverbs testifies to some of the ideals of ancient Israel law and of the teachings of the prophets concerning social justice.
A kind of ceremonial apron worn by priests of YHWH, detailed in Exodus.
The main protagonist in the book of Daniel, who was one of the Babylonian exiles and became a prominent member of the royal court for his dream interpretations.
The hero of the Mesopotamian epic the Epic of Gilgamesh, who befriends Enkidu, and ultimately meets Utnapishtim in his search for immortality.
A son of David, muders his half brother Amnon to avenge his raping their sister Tamar in 2 samuel
Ruth the Moabite
The widowed daughter-in-law of Naomi. Returns to Judah with Naomi and eventually marries Boaz and becomes a great grandmother to David. Provides us with another instance where foreign women help Israel in the Hebrew Bible.
the daughter of David, raped by her half brother Amnon. Avenged by his murder at the hands of Absalom. 2 samuel
Hezekiah's Tunnel
Water conduit aka "Siloam Tunnel" to divert the city's main source of water from the Gihon Spring to the city of David; earliest modern discoveries in Jerusalem; over 1700 ft long; city's water system was protected from enemy attack or poison
Septuagint (LXX)
means 70- a greek composition of scriptures
the child whose birth and early life were signs from God to Ahaz, kind of Judah, during the SyroEphraimite War. probably a child of the prophet Isaiah and his wife who was also a prophet.
Davidic covenant
the covenant between Yahweh and David which guaranteed the divine protection of the dynasty that David founded and of Jerusalem, its capital city
Centralization of Worship
Ark moved from Shiloh to Jerusalem under David
The first king of Israel. But he loses favor with Yhwh, and is eventually killed and succeeded by David.Saul is anointed by Samuel to be king, and Yhwh seems to give consent, and yet Saul is anointed because Israel demands a king.
Second Isaiah/Deutero-Isaiah
chapters 40-55 of the book of Isiah, dated to the mid-sixth century BCE. Though the text is included in the same book, the times in which Second Isaiah varies greatly from first and third Isaiah, more hopeful than first Isaish, very concerned with convincing people of the New Exodus, foreign pwrs as an intrument of YHWHs punishment
Maccabean Revolt
168 BCE, the Jews in Jerusalem had been left relatively free to practice their religion, but in the early second century one of the Seleucids, Antiocus IV Epiphanes, tried to restrict the practice of Judaism and to impose Greek religion and culture on the Jews. Under the Maccabees a successful revolt was launched, and a semiautonomous kingdom was established in the region now called Judea
Covenant Lawsuit (rib)
an element of prophetic literature in which YHWH as the suzerain sues Israel for breach of contract, specifically the Sinai covenant. It can be broken in several ways, including making foreign alliances and worshiping other gods. Punishment is given in the form of exile from the Promised Land. Covenant Lawsuit is found especially in the book of Hosea.
The wife of Uriah. David has an affair with her and she becomes pregnant. Uriah is sent to the frontlines of war to be killed so David can take Bathsheba as his own wife.Because of his sin with Bathsheba, David becomes passive in punishing his children's sins, such as the rape of Tamar. Shows an example of abuse of a monarch's power, first alluded to in Samuel's warning against kingship.
Woman Wisdom
the depiction of the quality f wisdom as a goddess who is the companion of Yahweh
name of vizier of a king in 5th Dynasty Egypt. collection of wise sayings 1500 years before Solomon
Queen Jezebel
begins campaign to murder all of Gods prophetsgets killed by dogs in street
Diaspora novella/story
a story which is longer than a short story but shorter than a novel that teaches Jews how to live in Diaspora. The book of Esther is one example.
Antiochus IV/Antiochus Epiphanes
Ruled the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century, appears in the final chapters of Daniel and is the point when his prophecies begin to be innacurate
Apology genre
genre of the bible that is not an apology, but is an explanation for why things were the way they were. Justifications
Inviolability of Jerusalem
The idea that YHWH is present in the Temple and thus, it is eternal and so is its city. Isaish was a proponent of this idea, Jeremiah (Temple Sermon) was against it

“The two of them were naked, the
man and his wife, yet they felt no shame” (Gen 2:25)

being ashamed of being naked shows their innocence and ignorance

innocence and ignorance contrasts with the shrewd, mischievous, dangerous snake

snake will later tempt them into losing their innocence and ignorance

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