anatomy lab quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Prophase.
femoral
thigh
Synarthroses
immovable joints
Musculocutaneous nerve
BrachialisOrigin
Jugular notch
Sternum
Radial notch
Ulna
Inferior angle
Scapula
antecubital
front of elbow
Teres minorAction
External rotation
Centriole
Chromosome distribution during mitosis
Number of Thoracic Vertebrae
13
wrist and finger flexors
Neuropraxia
Endoplasmic Recticulum
Provides attachment for ribosomes.
Basilar
artery that supplies the cerebellum
Fossa
shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
Rhomboid minor
ligamentum nuchae; spinous processes of vertebrae C7 and T1
 
Medial border of scapula
 
Elevates scapula; acts with pectoralis minor to inferiorly rotate scapula; also retracts scapula
Action of serratus posterior inferior
Rib depression

visceral pleura.

The outermost covering of the lungs
is the
SupraspinatusInsertion
superior facet of greater tuberosity of humerus
Nasopharnyx
Superiour part of the pharnyx, which lies posteriorly to the nose and extends inferiorly to the soft platate. I parellel to the oropharnyx and meet the pharnyx in the same spot as the oropharnyx.
Ventral Body Cavity
Houses internal organs, collectively called the visceral organs.
Neural Spine
Extends dorsally from the dorsal surface of the neural arch as an attachment site for muscles
respiratory rate
number of breaths taken per minute
Supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Biceps Brachii (long head)Insertion

left vs right:

conoid tubercle is inferior on lateral end. this is a left clavicle.
 
sternal end.
Brachioradialis
O- The lateral border of the distal end of the humerus 
I- the styloid process of the radius
A- flexes forearm at elbow joint
Renal Tubules
From the renal corpuscle the filtrate moves through the three parts of the tubules' proximinal and distal convulated tubules, and the loop of henle. Here the filtrate eventually becomes urine.
Cell Membrane
Delimits cell and controls passage of materials in and out of the cell.
Innervation of Levator Scapulae
C3-C4 Dorsal Scapular nerve (C5)
Lobes supplied by the posterior cerebral arteries
medial of:temporal occipital
Elbow flexion, Forearm supination, Shoulder flexion
Biceps Brachii (long head)Innervation
In general, the origin of a muscle is the more ____________ point of muscle attachment.
fixed
Minor Calyx
The urine which is formed in the nephrons flows into these. They are a funnel or cup-like structure which then drains urine into the Major Calyx.
Attachments of Latissimus Dorsi
O: Spinous process of T7-sacrum, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, ribs 10-12I: Intertubercular groove of humerus
Triceps (lateral head)Origin
posterior surface of lateral border of humerus
Internal and External Anal Sphincters
Function in the process of defectation, in the anus.
Rhomboid Minor Insertion
medial border of scapula at level of spine
What is the lamina?
- dorsal part of arch- contains the spinous process
What is the name for the cavity in a vertebra through which the spinal cord passes?
Vertabrai Foreman
What is the vertebral formula for the dog?
C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd20
What do the intervertebral foramina do?
allow for passage of spinal nerves and vessels
the origin and insertion of the superficial pectoral muscles are:
origin = ..insertion = crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus
Arm
Brachial
Cheek
Buccal
Groin
Inguinal
Mouth
Oral
Thigh
Femoral
A)    Lysosome
Digestion
A)    Peroxisomes
Digestion; detoxification
A)    Mitochondria
Cell respiration
A)    Centrioles
Forms mitotic spindle
A)    Endocrine gland
Ductless gland
1.      Which vertebrae possesses the dens?
Axis
1.      What substance gives cartilage its strength?
Collagen
1.      Most connective tissue is innervated (T or F)  2.      Most connective tissue is vascularized (T or F)  
T, T
A)    Erythrocyte
– red blood cell
1.      Does the hyoid articulate with other bones?
No
Where would you find transitional epithelium?
Bladder
1.      Are ribs attached to the xiphoid process?
No
1.      Does spongy bone contain osteons?  Haversian canals?
No; no
1.      What type of connective tissue is found in membrane capsules surrounding organs?
Dense irregular
A)    Golgi bodies
Processes, sorts, packages and delivers proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane and forms lysosomes and secretory vesicles.
A)    Lamellae
– concentric layers of matrix in bone
A)    Oblique plane
Plane that passes through the structure at an angle between the traverse plane and either a sagittal or frontal plane
A)    Cytology
Chemical and microscopic study of cell structure
A)    Midsagittal plane
Vertical plane that passes directly through the midline of the structure
A)    Pathological anatomy
Study of structural changes associated with disease
1.      Define canaliculi
Canals connecting lacunae with each other and the central canals; conduit system for nutrient and waste transport.
1.      Define lamellae
Concentric rings of hard, calcified matrix
1.      Name the three types of fibers that are found in the connective tissue matrix.
Collagen, elastic, reticular
1. What are intercalated discs?
Connections between cardiac muscle cells that contain adhering and gap junctions
A)    Lacunae
spaces in cartilage and bone where the cells reside
1.      Define resolution
The ability to distinguish between two points
What is the matrix composed of?      
Ground substances and fibers
1.      Define parfocal
Lens that stay in focus when magnification or focal length is changed.
1.      What is a fissure?
Narrow, cleft-like open between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
1.      Define articular cartilage
Cartilage that covers the epiphyses; reduces friction at the joint
What ground substance provides for support & adhesiveness in the skin?   
Chondrotin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and keratin sulfate
A)    Systemic anatomy
Study of specific systems of the body (i.e. reproductive)
1.      What lens do you always start with when you are examining a specimen with the microscope.
Scanning or lowest power
1.      What is the significance of the crista galli of the ethmoid bone?
Attachment points for the brain membranes (meninges)
1.      What are alveolar processes?  Where do you  find them?
Sockets for teeth; maxillae and mandible
1.      What is a tight junction?
Water tight connection between 2 adjacent cell membranes
1.      Name the 4 zones of the epiphyseal plate
Resting, proliferating, hiertrophic, calcified
1.      Name the stages of the cell cycle.  During what stage is DNA replicated?
G1, S, G2, Mitosis; S phase
1.      Name the 4 types of bone cells & list their function or characteristics
Osteoprogenitor cells – develop into osteoblasts, mitotically active;Osteoblasts – secrete collagen, no mitotic ability;Osteocytes – mature bone cells, maintain daily metabolic activity;Osteoclasts – modified monocytes that breakdown and resorb bone
1.      Name the bones of the face?
Nasal (2), maxillas (2), zygomatic (2), mandible, lacrimal (2), palatine (2), inferior nasal conchae (2), vomer
How do you determine the overall magnification of a microscope?
Ocular lens power x objective lens power.
Caudal/Inferior
Below/lower
Buccal
Cheek
Intermediat
In between
Ipsilateral
same side as
lateral
toward the side
Masseter
Origin: zygomatic arch
Insertion: Mandibular ramus and mandibular angle
Action: elevates mandible
Lateral
Away from the midline
Supine
face up laying down
Longissimus
Origin: transverse processes of C4-L5
 
Insertion: mastoid process of the temporal bone
 
Action: extends vertebral column, laterally flexes vertebral column
Trapezius
Origin: occipital bone, spinous processes of C7-T12
Insertion: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, spine of scapula, acromion process of scapula
Action: elevates scapula, depresses scapula, rotates scapula, adducts scapula
 
Sartorius
Origin: anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: medial tibia
Action: flexes thigh at hip, rotates thigh laterally, flexes leg at knee, rotates knee medially
 
Distal
further away from he trunk
rectus femoris
 
origin: anterior inferior iliac spine
insertion: tibial tuberosity and patella
action: flex the thigh and extend the leg(as in kicking)
Internal Intercostals
Promotes forced expiration by decreasing the width and volume of the thorax.
Biceps femoris: long head
Origin: ischial tuberosity
 
Insertion: head of the fibula, lateral condyle of the tibia
 
Action: extends thigh at hip, flexes leg at knee, rotates leg laterally
Rhomboid Major
Origin: spinous processes of T2-T5
Insertion: vertebral border of the scapular
Action: adducts scapula, downwardly rotates scapula
Coracobrachialis
Origin: coracoid process of the scapula
Insertion: medial humerus
Action: flexes arm at shoulder, adducts arm
Anatomic Position
Front facing towards the viewer
pectoralis major
origin: clavicle, sternum and the cartilage of the first 6 ribs
insertion: greater tubercle
action: flex, adduct, and rotate the arm
gastrocnemius
 
origin: lateral and medial condyles of the femur
insertion: calcaneus (via the calcaneal tendon)
action: plantarflex the foot and flex the leg
 
Extensor Digitorium
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the humerusInsertion: 2nd-5th mid-phalangesAction: extends the phalanges
Adductor Group
Origin: Ischium and pubic boneInsertion: Linea AsperaAction: adduct, flex, rotate the thigh
Gluteus medius
Origin: lateral surface of the ilium
 
Insertion: greater trochanter of the femur
 
Action: abducts thigh, rotates thigh medially
Extensor digitorum
Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Insertion: distal phalanges of 2nd to 5th digit
Action: extends distal interphalangeal joints, extends hand at wrist
Which system includes the heart?
The cardiovascular system
tibialis anterior
 
origin: lateral condyle and body of the tibia
insertion: 1st metatarsal and tarsal bones
action: dorsi-flex and invert the foot
Iliopsoas
Origin: Iliac fossa and the bodies and discs of vertebrae T12-all lumbarInsertion: Lesser trochanterAction: Major flexor of thigh, and flexes trunk on thigh
Tibialis Anterior
Origin: Lateral condyle and body of the tibiaInsertion: 1st metatarsal and tarsal bonesAction: dorsi-flex and invert the foot
Adductor magnus
Origin: inferior ramus of the pubis, ischial ramus, ischial tuberosity
 
Insertion: linea aspera of the femur
 
Action: adducts thigh, rotates thigh laterally, flexes thigh at hip
Frontal Plane
divides the body into dorsal and ventral (back and front, or posterior and anterior) portions.
Which system provides support and levers on which the muscular system act?
The muscular system
Linea alba
a narrow band of tendon along the mid-line of the trunk, extending from xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis.
Triceps Surae
This is actually 2 muscles that shape the sural (calf) region and share a common insertion on the calcanues via the calcaneal tendon:Gastrocnemius:Origin: Lateral and medial condyles of the femurInsertion: Calcaneus (via the calcaneal tendon)Action: Plantarflex the foot and flex the legSoleus:Origin: Head of the fibula, and the medial, proximal tibiaInsertion: Calcaneus Action: plantarflex the foot (most important walking muscle)
Extensor digitorum longus
Origin: lateral condyle of the tibia, proximal fibula, interosseous membrane
 
Insertion: middle and distal phalanges of 2nd-5th digits
 
Action: extends 2nd-5th distal interphalangeal joints
Elastic connective tissue is in nature...
very wavy and stretchy.
Which system(s) facilitate conception and childbearing?
The Lymphatic/immunity and urinary systems
Which system is damaged when you cut your finger or get a severe sunburn?
The integumentary system
soleus (this muscle lies beneath, and is shaped similar to the gastrocnemius)
origin: head of the fibula and the medial, proximal tibia
insertion: calcaneus (via the calcaneal tendon)
action: plantarflex the foot (most important walking muscle)
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Term:
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