Anatomy lecture Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Canal-like passageway:
famale gametes
egg cell
overgrowth of bone
corpus luteum produces...
bipennate muscle
common digital extensor
What is an efferent response?
Not supplied with blood vessels.
tumor of immature muscle cells
forms during fetal development. Develops into primary oocytes.
how many cervical certebrae
7 neck vertebrae
There are _____coccygeal vertebrae and ___coccygeal nerves.
4; 1
ovulatory phase
-during days 11-4-release of oocyte-day 14 is ovulation-lutenizing hormone effects peak around day 14-decrease pf estrogens after ovulation
Which body system allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, facial expression, maintains posture and produces heat?
Which connective tissue has tensile strength and the ability to absorb compressive shock?
Which connective tissue withstands tension, provides structural strength and is located in the dermis of the skin, submucosa of the digestive tract and fibrous capsules of joints and organs?
dense irregular
Which connective tissue attaches muscle to bone, attaches bone to bone and withstands great stress in one direction?
dense regular
An angular cut in an edge:
What joint does the superior articulation of the femur and the tibia form?
inflammation of tendon and tendon sheath
What does sarkos mean in greek?
sheath placed over penis prevents sperm from entering vagina
Secondary follicles
develops into single graafian follicle. Has an antral cavity.
cut and tie vas deferens. Sterilization occurs.
Inferior portion of uterus, common cancer site; Pap smear; dysplasia
discrete set of ligaments attaching adjacent borders of the spinous process(very weak)
interspinous ligament
The ___________ muscles are responsible for ADDuction (retraction) of the scapula.
Trapezious (middle)Rhombooid majorRhomboid minor
There are ____ peripheral nerves with C5 fibers.
what tells the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropin?
Which body system picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels, disposes of debris in the lymphatic system, houses white blood cells and mounts attacks against foreign substances in the body?
whip like, highly mobile extensions of apical surface membranes.
What types of cells produce mucin?
goblet cells
Thoracic Vertebrae?
1. Superior articular facet point posteriorly 2. Inferior articular processes point anteriorly (Allows rotation and prevents flexion and extension)
What is another name for spongy bone?
Mature cells that no longer secrete matrix:
inflammation of bony structures of a joint
A fibrocartilage that does not offify, such as the intervertebral joints between the vertebral bodies is called what?
Birth control patch
Time release method of contraception
Inflammation of the bronchus caused by irritants such as smoke, air pollution, or infections. Results in swelling of mucous membrane lining the bronchi, increased mucus production, and decreased movement of mucus by cilia. Diameter is decreased and ventilation is impaired.
how many sacral vertebrae
5 but they are fused
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the biceps brachii and brachialis.
musculocutaneous nerve
the pouch of skin that holds the testes
This cell possesses a long tail for swimming to the egg for fertilization.
What is the name of the hexagonally shaped cells that allow the maximum number of epithelial cells to pack together?
What is the name of the “end caps” on chromosomes?
What is the diffusion of water across a membrane?
Which type of membrane lines hollow organs that open to the surface of the body and consists of an epithelial sheet underlain with a layer of lamina propria?
mucous membrane
Which connective tissue is similar to hyaline cartilage and has more stretchy fibers in the matrix?
elastic cartilage
What bone receives the weight of the body from the femur?
Occipital Markings – External occipital protuberance
site of muscle attachment
Which girdle attaches the upper limbs to the trunk?
pectoral girdle
Which girdle attaches the lower limbs to the trunk?
pelvic girdle
True or false: Both menisci are firmly attached to the joint capsule?
Opening at distal end of the Oviduct or Fallopian tube
Cervical cap
covers the opening of cervix to prevent pregnancy
Roof separates what from the orbit?
The anterior cranial fossa
The __________ nerve pierces the pec. minor and continues to innervate the pec major.
medial pectoral nerve
The long thoracic nerve runs off the ________ root of the ventral rami.
C5,6,& 7
In a lumbar puncture, the ________ is entered (the space between L2 & S2). This space contains the CSF
lumbar cistern
incomplete dominance results in?
a third phenotypeEx) red flower, white flower= pink
What is the study of the structure of the human body?
What is the type of tissue that lines peritoneal, pleural, pericardial cavities and covers visceral organs of those cavities?
Which part of an animal cell holds the DNA?
What type of bones is thin, flat and usually curved?
Which type of fiber supplies the muscle fibers by means of motor endings and has its origin in the alpha motor neuron
Alpha motor fibers
Expiratory reserve volume
amount of air forcefully echaled after tidal air exhalation (1100 mL)

•What innervates the thyrohyoid and the geniohyoid?

•The thyrohyoid is supplied by C1 fibers through the hypoglossal nerve

•The geniohyoid muscle also is supplied by C1 fibers through the hypoglossal nerve but remember that geniohyoid is a suprahyoid muscle (above the level of hyoid bone)

•What is the nerve supply of the lacrimal gland?

•Nerve supply: Parasympathetic pathway: (secretomotor)

•Lacrimatory nucleus (in the pons) → Facial N → Greater superficial petrosal nerve → Nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian N) → Pterygopalatine ganglion (sphenopalatine ganglion)

•Postganglionic fibers: Pterygopalatine ganglion → Communicating branch to the maxillary N → Zygomatic N → communicating branch → Lacrimal N → Lacrimal gland
The _______ forms the foor of the suboccipital triangle and is pierced by the ______ artery.
posterior atlantococipital membrane;vertebral
female cells go through which type of meiosis?
oogenesis or spermatogenesis.
Which type of tissue is located in kidney tubules, secretory portions of small glands and ovary surface?
simple cuboidal epithelium
What are the three broad categories of bone marking?
projections, surfaces, depressions
What are the three types of phalanges?
proximal, middle and distal
Describe articular cavities
Thinner in the center and wider near the periphery(glenoid cavity)
Cresmaster muscle
Attached to top of testes and moves up or down according to the temperature.
What are the origin, insertion, action and innervation of the geniohyoid muscle?

•Origin: inferior mental spine of mandible

•Insertion: Body of hyoid bone

•Innervation: C1 via the hypoglossal nerve

•Action: Pulls hyoid bone anterosuperiorly, shortens floor of mouth and widens pharynx
What structures lie in the median (midline) region of the neck?

•The following structures lie in the anterior median (midline) region of the neck

•Symphysis menti

•Mylohoid muscle & mylohyoid raphe

•Anterior bellies of digastric muscles

•Submental lymph nodes

•Anterior jugular veins

•Hyoid bone

•Thyrohyoid membrane

•Thyroid cartilage

•Cricothyroid ligament

•Cricothyroid muscle

•Cricoid cartilage

•Tracheal rings

•Isthmus of thyroid gland

•Space of Burns (suprasternal space)

•What is related to the lacrimal nerve along its course?

•It enters the orbit through superior orbital fissure. It runs above the lateral rectus to reach the lacrimal gland. It receives postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from the pterygopalatine ganglion through the zygomatic nerve and supplies the lacrimal gland. It ends in the lateral part of the upper eyelid as palpebral branch
Cause of supraspinatus to wear & tear?
Undergoing contraction or excursion, it runs below the acromion and head of humerus Repitition of this causes supraspinatus tendon to tear
what are the two layers of the endometrium?
stratum basale stratum functionalis
The Vertebral Column? Ligamentum Flavum?
A ligament that connects the laminae of two adjacent vertebrae which enhances stability
What are the landmarks for a shoulder tap?
Acromion and Greater Tubercle
Where does the posterior triangle of the neck lie?
It lies posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and on the side of the neck

•What is the levator palpebrae superioris?

•It arises from the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

•It is inserted into the upper eyelid and skin.

–It raises the upper eyelid. It is antagonistic to orbicularis oculi.
The coracohumeral ligament is formed from the ________, and runs _________.
thickening of the superior aspect of the fibrous capsule; superiorly
True/False:GSEs can travel in both dorsal and ventral rami.
TRUE:They can travel in either rami, but only in the ventral ROOT. ROOT AND RAMI ARE DIFFERENT: Roots are either motor or sensory, while rami are mixed.
The Axial Skeleton Throughout Life? Aging of the axial skeleton?
1. Water content of the intervertebral discs decreases 2. By age 55, loss of a few centimeters in height is common 3. Thorax becomes more rigid 4. Bones lose mass with age
what is an example of an intracapsular ligament?
Caudal and Cranial Cruciate ligament
What are the terms anterior/posterior and superior/inferior used for in vet med?
- only for certain structures of the ear and eye

•What forms the apex of the orbit?

·Apex is formed by the optic canal (in the lesser wing of the sphenoid)
The 2 kinds of ganglia are ____ & _______.
Sensory (dorsal) & autonomic (ventral).
What is the term rostral used for?
- used to describe structures of the head only- it means nearer to the tip of the nose
What are the borders of the triangular interval?
Lat. & long head of tricips, teres major (sup. border).
Is the transverse plane of a limb parallel to the transverse plane of the spine?
- NO- transverse planes are planes the transects the long axis- the long axis of a limb is diff from the long axis of the spine (see lec 1 slides)
The site at which a lumbar puncture must be done between ____ & ____.
L2 & S2 (spinal cord ends at L2, subarachnoid space ends at S2)
muscular weakness
three distinct origins
Pain in bone
38 week prenatal period
Type IIB Fibers
fast-twitcy, glycolytic(superficial)
forms placenta and membranes
The external female genitalia, including the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening.
See attached and know parts
softening, absorption and destruction of bony tissue
Chlamydia, AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, hep B or C
primary, secondary, and graafian follicles produce increasing amounts of ...
THe shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket _________ joint.
suspensory ligament
Suspensory ligament describes any ligament that supports a body part, especially an organ
fingerlike extensions that help to increase surface area near ovary (ciliated).
Which body system protects and supports body organs, provides a framework for muscles, forms blood cells and stores minerals?
This tissue type provides tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.
Which connective tissue maintains shape of structure and allows for great flexibility?
elastic cartilage
Narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent:
Sternum Manubrium?
Superior section (Articulates with medial end of clavicles)
Patella shape
tear drop shape in cat
Comma shaped structure. Highly coiled ducts located on the posterior portion of each testis. Main site of spermiogenesis and sperm storage. Emission process begins here.
Moving the uterus to prevent pregnancy
short broad ligaments interconnecting adjacent laminae, supports facet joints, however, elastic enough to allow flexion/extension of vertebral column
ligamentum flavum ligament
SHoulder joint:Ball:________Socket:_________
head of humerusarticulating bones of gleniod fossa
Myelin is a __________substance, which is actually part of the _________.
amnionic fluid
provides: Temp regulation, freedom of movement, and excretion/elimination of wastes.
sex chromoses
genetic structures of cells, there are 46 chromoses
What is the breakdown of complex molecules to simple ones?
Which branch of anatomy is concerned with body structures that can be visualized with x-rays?
Which branch of anatomy traces the structural changes that occur in the body through the life span and the effects of aging?
This tissue type transports gasses and releases wastes.
Paranasal sinuses?
Sinusitis is inflammation of the membrane (allergic)
The hollow cavity filled with yellow marrow (fat cells):
Occipital Markings – Hypoglossal canals
(cranial nerve XII
Occipital Markings – Occipital condyle
Articulate with atlas
Several muscle fibers together are called?
a fascicle
THe medial collateral ligament of the stifle fuses with both the joint capsule and the medial meniscus and is responsible for what type of stability?
reduction of quantity of bone or atrophy of skeleton
Prostate gland
Donut shaped organ. Surrounds urethra, inferior to the bladder. Size of a 50 cent piece. Produces about 30% of the semen. Neutralizes male and female acidity. Contains clotting factors that keep sperm together temporarily. Prominent cancer location.
two, small, oval organs. Functions in oogenesis and hormone production (progesterone and estrogen)
windpipe. Extends from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebrae. 15 - 20 cartilage C shaped rings (to keep open). Also consists of smooth and connective tissues. Its goblet cells produce mucus. Divides to form two smaller tubes called Primary bronchi to the lungs.
What are the suprahyoid muscles?




posterior surface of the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks, saw-tooth shaped, covers posterior part but it is absent on posterolateral part of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs
posterior longitudinal ligament
The deltoid muscle inserts at the ____________.
The longitudinal spinal arteries are small, so they are supplemented by_________.
Segmental medullary arteriesmedullary--medulla (refers to cord)
inner most layer of uterus. this is what the embryo burrow into.
embroytic period
body plan established1st 8 weeks of of pre-natal developmentest trunk mucscles, vert col, spinal cord, brain, digestive, respiratory tubes, serous cavaties, heart, kidneys, gonads, & limbs
What does the last name of tissue describe?
A change in cell size, shape or arrangement due to long term irritation or inflammation.
What is another word for the cutaneous membrane?
Which connective tissue is located in the tendons and ligaments, the aponeuroses and the fascia around muscles?
dense regular
What makes up the posterior half of the foot?
What is another word for the lateral border of the scapula?
The cervical vertebrae of birds has what type of synovial joint?
Saddle joint
Luteinizing hormone or Interstitial cell stimulating hormone
activates interstitial endocrinocytes - testosterone. Controlled by hypothalamus
an out pouching of skin and muscle that contains the testes. Outside of the body cavity so that it can be 3 degrees lower.

•What is the ciliary ganglion?

•It is a peripheral parasympathetic ganglion situated near the apex of the orbit between the optic nerve and lateral rectus muscle. It has sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers in it. But only parasympathetic fibers relay in the ganglion.
THe axillary nerve innervates the _____ & ______.
Teres MINOR & deltoid
meiosis in the female
production of haploid cells aka oocytes or eggs cells.
ovarian follicle
An ovarian follicle is a small sac (cyst) on the ovary. An egg matures inside of the follicle. When the egg is mature, the follicle bursts open and releases the egg.
Elbow joint: radius vs. ulna ends
CRAzy TULips:Capitalum = ULnarTrochlear = RAdius
What is the name of the process of controlled cellular suicide that eliminates cells that are stressed, unneeded, excessive or aged?
What are the strongest parts of the hip bone?
ischial tuberosities
What is the name of a furrow or marked, narrow depression?
What lines a joint capsule?
Fibrous lamina and synovial membrane
What type of joint is between the radius and first row of carpal bones?
ellipsoidal joint

•Are all muscles attached to the mandible innervated by the mandibular nerve?

•Remember that all muscles which are attached to the mandible are supplied by the mandibular nerve branches except the geniohyoid, platysma, buccinator and small origin of superior constrictor of pharynx
What are the origin, insertion, innervation and action of the omohyoid?

•Origin: Superior border of scapula near suprascapular notch

•Insertion: inferior border of hyoid bone

•Innervation: C1-C3 by a branch of ansa cervicalis

•Action: Depresses, retracts, and steadies hyoid bone
The supraspinatus (part of cuff torn most frequently) arises from the _______ & extends ________ to the ___________.
supraspinatus fossa;laterally (post. to the glenohumeral joint);upper fossa of greater tubercle.
The spinal cord receives its blood supply from _______--2 _______& one ______--which are branches of the _________ artery.
3 longitudinal spinal arteries;posterior, anterior;vertebral
The basic structures we share with all other vertebrate animals are the
tube-within-a-tube body plan, bilateral symmetry, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, notochord and vertebrae, segmentation, and pharyngeal pouches.
What is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level?
gross anatomy
Projections that help form joints are?
The pterygoid processes are attachments sites for the pterygoid muscles that close the jaw in chewing.
Where do dorsal and ventral roots connect with each other?
At the spinal nerve

•What are the contents of the submental triangle?

Contents: commencement of the anterior jugular veins and submental lymph nodes

•How does one test the medial rectus muscle?

•Medial rectus: subject is asked to adduct the eye

–Look at the finger at the bridge of the nose
The 3 components of the deltopectoral groove:_________, _________, & ___________.
cephalic vein, thoracoacromial a, lateral pectoral n.
White matter in the cord is_________.
Mylelinated axons ascending to brain or descending to lower levels of the cord.
Which tissue’s function is secretion which is accomplished by glandular cells?
glandular epithelium single cells or a group of cells that secrete substances into ducts, onto a surface, or into the blood.
The Atlas?
1. c1 is termed the atlas 2. Lacks a body and spinous proves 3. Supports the skull (Superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles) 4. Allows flexion and extension of neck (Nodding the head “yes”)
What are the four types of joints?
Synovial, Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Synsarcosis

•How is the cervical plexus formed?

–It is formed by the ventral rami of C1, C2, C3 and C4 roots. Part of the C4 may contribute to the brachial plexus

–It lies deep to the IJV and SCM and anterior to scalenus medius

–C2, C3 and C4 divide into upper and lower branches to form loops.

–C1 does not divide into upper and lower branch

–C1  fibers join the hypoglossal nerve and supply muscles

•What are the boundaries of the digastric triangle?

•The digastric triangle:

•It is also called “submandibular triangle”


•Base is superior. It is formed by the lower border of the mandible and line drawn from it to the mastoid process

•Anteroinferiorly it is bounded by the anterior belly of digastric

•Posteroinferiorly it is bounded by the posterior belly of digastric and stylohyoid muscle

•Apex is formed by the intermediate tendon of digastric muscle at the hyoid bone

•Roof is formed by the following:


•Superficial fascia


•Cervical and Marginal mandibular branches of facial nerve

•Superficial group of submandibular lymph nodes

•Investing layer of deep cervical fascia

•Floor of the triangle is formed by:

•Mylohyoid muscle

•Hyoglossus muscle

•Middle constrictor muscle of the pharynx

•How does one test the superior oblique muscle?

•Superior oblique: it lies in the long axis of the eyeball when the eyeball is adducted. Therefore it has only one action on the adducted eye. That is depression.

–So, this muscle is tested by asking the patient to look at the tip of the nose.
Where are the 3 angles of the scapula?
superior, inferior, lateral (near glenoid fossa)
What are the two theories thought to be attributed to the aging process?
free radical, mitochondrial and genetic theory
What are the five primary functions of bones?
Support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood-cell formation
How many ligaments hold the menisci in place?
Six: cranilateral and craniomedial, caudolateral and caudomedial meniscotibial ligg, transvers ligg. of stifle and meniscofemoral ligament.

•What are the relations of the medial surface of the superficial part of the submandibular gland?


•Nerve to mylohyoid

•Submental vessels


what is the function of the intervertebral discs
acts as a shock absorber, contains fluid (retention overnight results in a slight increase in height, loss due to old age results in reduced height)
The Sphenoid Bone? Consists of a body and three pairs of processes?
Lesser wing, greater wing and pterygold

•What are the branches from the loop between C3 and C4?

•The loop between the C3 and C4 gives the supraclavicular nerves
Autonomic ganglia are unique because____________.
It takes 2 neurons to get from CNS to effector organ with a SYNAPSE in the ganglia.
The rotator cuff is named such because _________ (which joint does it wrap around?).
The 4 muscles form a cuff around the GLENOHUMERAL joint, and thus together rotate the joint.
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