Anatomy Lectures Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fertilized egg
exaggarated thoracic curvature
degenerative joint disease
surgically removes testes
stiffness of a joint
basipodium, metapodium and acropodium
What innervates the limbs?
Ventral Rami!
Fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane.
severe pain in joint
arthralgia( arthrodynia)
any disease affecting a joint
Prostatic urethra
passes through prostate gland
what holds the vertebral column together
________ cells are myelinated cells in the PNS
the functional units of hereditary, instructions manuals for protein synthesis. Genes are a length of DNA that has codes for making protein
Epidermis layers· From deep to superficial:"Bad Skin Gets Little Calluses"
The formation of complex substances from simpler forms
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process:
The appendicular has how many bones
boney or cartilaginous growth in,or on, a tendon
What surrounds several mscle fibers and is continuous with the peritendineum?
Enhances BMR (basometabolic rate- rate calories burned), Controls the testes descent, stimulates spermatogenesis (spermatids), promotes secondary sex (ex. pubic, axillary, facial hair, bigger body) characteristics annd reproductive organ development.
middle portion of uterus, implantation occurs here.
how does the thoracic curvature curve?
concave anteriorly
The ___________ muscles are responsible for elevation of the scapula.
Trapezius (superior)levator scapulae
Pre-synaptic fibers travel in _______________ communicans.Post-synaptic fibers travel in _____________communicans.
WHITE ramusGREY ramus
what is the primary source of progesterone/estrogens
Skull BonesSTEP OFf my skull"STEP OF 6 "· The 6 skull bones are:
What type of membrane proteins attach to membrane surface?
Plaques of adjoining cells are joined by proteins called…
What type of junction holds epithelial cells together?
Which tissue is derived from epithelial cells that sank below the surface during development?
glandular epithelium
Inferior end of sternum (Ossifies around age 40)
Xiphoid Process
The ‘shaft’ or body of a bone; The long, cylindrical, main portion of the bone:
How many bones does the appendicular skeleton have?
In anatomical position, is the ulna lateral or medial?
Which type of fibers supply the neuromuscular and neurotendinous spindles and other receptors?
What type of ossification do sutures develop by?
IUD intrauterine device
placed in uterus, prevents implantation
No menstrual cycle. Causes could be poor diet, stress, before puberty, ovary dysfunction
expulsion of secondary oocyte from the Graafian follicle and ovary

•What are the sympathetic fibers and sensory fibers passing through the cilliary ganglion?

•Some sympathetic fibers passing through the long ciliary nerves pass through the ciliary ganglion but are not relayed in this. Similarly some Sensory fibers pass through this ganglion without relaying to the nasociliary nerve.

–It contains only the cell bodies of the parasympathetic neurons.
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the brachioradialis and supinator.
radial nerve
male cells go through which type of meiosis?
dominant allele
always express their information to a degree ex) B - brown eyes
What is the division of the nucleus during cell division?
What is the slick lining of hollow organs?
How many parts is the thoracic cavity divided into?
Nasal Septum?
It separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils
The sternum, ribs and scapula are examples of what type of bone?
flat bones
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane:
What type of bone is generally small and seed shaped?
With what do the metacarpals articulate distally?
the proximal phalanges
What anchors the periosteum to the bone?
Sharpey Fibers
Follicle stimulating hormone
Produced by anterior pituitary gland. Initiates the development of primordial follicles (puberty)
Primary oocytes
formed from oogonia during meiosis I- stops in prophase I. Found inside primordial follicle (2 million at birth - 400,000 at puberty). At puberty, follicle stimulating hormones continues oogenesis. Primordial follicles grow and develop into primary follicles with this... Zona pellucida also surrounds it. Primary follicles grow into secondary follicles - antrum forms.

•What muscles are involved in pure depression?

–Inferior rectus: depression and extorsion

–Superior oblique: depression and intorsion. Torsion movements of these two muscles get cancelled and it results in pure depression.
Anteriorly in the shoulder, there are__________ to provide stability.
glenohumeral ligaments (intrinsic ligaments)
A GSE can go out: the _____ramus (to intrensic back muscles)the ______ramus (to any skeletal muscle in body wall or limbs)
prostatic urethra
comes out of the urinary gland. only carries urine
5 effects of estrogen
1. increase in thickness of endometrium (layer of functionalis)2. increase in vascularization3. increase in formation of nurtritive gland4. increase in receptors for other female hormones5. increase in # receptors w/i brain such as serotonin.
Which tissue type is responsible for passage of materials by passive diffusion and filtration and secretes lubricating substances in serosa.
simple squamous epithelium
What is the name of the process by which molecules move from a region where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated?
What is the name of the cell that fights diseases by moving through tissue to reach infection sites?
What is the process in which plasma proteins bind to certain molecules?
receptor-mediated endocytosis
Do the lower limbs have more or less freedom of movement than the upper?
What is the name of the lateral, stick like bone of the leg?
Which pelvis is inferior to the pelvic brim and forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs?
true pelvis
Besides sutures, what are two other forms of fibrous joints?
Syndesmosis and Gomphosis
Pneumocytes type I
thin cells that line the alveolar wall. Most gas exchange between alveolar air and the blood takes place in these cells. (Diffusion; allows O2 in/out and CO2)

•How is phrenic nerve block performed?

•Phrenic nerve block: The anesthetic (e.g., for a lung operation) is injected around the nerve where it lies on the anterior surface of the middle third of the scalenus anterior.

•For longer period of paralysis (e.g., during repair of diaphragmatic hernia), the Phrenic nerve crush (with forceps) is performed. If an accessory Phrenic nerve is present, it must also be crushed.

•Why do the superior and inferior rectus muscles have three actions each?

•Superior and inferior rectus muscles lie in the long axis of the orbit and not in the long axis of the eyeball.

–The long axis of the eyeball is not in the long axis of the orbit. The orbit looks forwards and laterally while the eyeball looks directly forwards.  This is responsible for the superior and inferior recti muscles to cross 3 axes as they pass from the common tendinous ring to the eyeball. Therefore each of these muscles has 3 actions.
The sac of dura mater and arachnoid end at ________.
S2 vertebral level
When does the hypothalamus start sending gonatropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)?
at the time of puberty
Which part of an animal cell is responsible for the production of steroids and lipids for the plasma membrane?
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
On which bone is the only example of a trochanter found?
What is the name of the deep cup that holds the head of the femur?
Bony Thorax?
1. Forms the framework of the chest 2. Components of the bony thorax (Thoracic vertebrae – posteriorly, ribs – laterally, sternum and costal cartilage – anteriorly) 3. Protects thoracic organs 4. Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs 5. Provides attachment sites for muscles
Pelvis shape
flat in cat and flared more in the dog
3 to 4 inch tube - extends from uterus to outside of body. Has rugae. Functions in birth, menstration, sexual intercourse. Its epithelial cells produce mucous to aid intercourse. Mucous is acidic and kills sperm.
What are the origin, insertion, innervation and action of the stylohyoid bone?
Origin: Styloid process of temporal bone
Insertion: Body of hyoid bone
Innervation: Facial nerve
Action: Elevates and retracts hyoid bone thereby elongating floor of mouth 

•What are the contents of the digastric triangle?

•Contents of the triangle are:

•Facial vein

•Submandibular gland

•Deep group of submandibular lymph nodes

•Facial artery

•(Note: the Facial artery deeply grooves the posterior border of the submandibular gland and later lies between the gland and mandible before it winds around the lower border of the body of the mandible. Facial vein lies superficial to the submandibular gland)

•Submental vessels

•Nerve to mylohyoid

•Mylohyoid vessels

•Hypoglossal nerve

•Veins accompanying hypoglossal nerve

•What is the lacrimal gland?

•It is a serous gland secreting tears or lacrimal fluid

•It is located in the Lacrimal fossa on the anterosuperolateral part of the orbit

•It has two parts- Larger Orbital part and smaller Palpebral part

•The two parts are separated by the lateral border of the Levator palpebrae superioris and are continuous with each other lateral to the muscle.

•Orbital part lies between the lacrimal fossa and the levator palpebrae superioris

•Palpebral part lies between the levator palpebrae superioris and the conjunctiva

•There are 8-20 ducts issued from the palpebral part and they open into the superior conjunctival fornix.
The most probable place to dislocate the shoulder is _______. THis is because ___________>
INFERIORLY:THere is no inferior border protecting the shoulder
3 stages of labor
1. Early labor, the longest part, the starting and ending of dilation2. delivery3. afterbirth, seperation of placenta
Seven cervical vertebrae (C1 – C7)
Smallest and lightest vertebrae (they support the least load)
By the age of ten, what is the upper-lower body ratio?
1 to 1
Cells involved in bone repair process
osteogenic bones of the periosteum, osteoblasts and undifferentiated bone marrow cells

•What are the relations of the hypoglossal nerve?

•It passes forwards between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artery and crosses horizontally across the internal carotid and external carotid arteries below the level of the posterior belly of digastric muscle. It crosses superficial to the hyoglossus muscle and later supplies all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue except palatoglossus muscle.
•It carries C1 fibers and these fibers leave the hypoglossal nerve as the superior root of ansa cervicalis and nerves to thyrohyoid and geniohyoid.
•Hypoglossal nerve in the neck crosses superficial to 4 arteries:
•Origin of the occipital artery
•Internal carotid artery
•External carotid artery
•Loop of the lingual artery

•What are the three axes of the eyeball and what are the movements associated with each?

•The movements take place around 3 primary axes which pass through the centre of movement at right angle to each other.

•Vertical axis- around which the centre of the cornea & visual axis moves laterally ( abduction) or medially (adduction).

•2. Transverse axis- around which the centre of the cornea moves up(elevation) or down ( depression)

•3. Anteroposterior axis- around which so-called “wheel rotation” takes place, better defined as intorsion or extorsion as the twelve 0' clock on the cornea moves nasally (intorsion) or temporally (extorsion).
what causes the natural curvatures int he vertebral column
variations in the thickness or intervertebral discs
THe dorsal roots are ________.The ventral roots are _______.
Sensory Motor (movers are at the front ;) )
What are the tissue types that bone contains?
bone, nervous, cartilage and ET
In describing the foot of a thoracic limb (distal to the antebrachial carpal joint), what directional terms should be used? What about in a pelvic limb?
thoracic limb - dorsal, palmarpelvic limb - dorsal, plantar
What is the muscle of the posterior triangle of neck?
Inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle
"crack" in the ventral part of cross section of s.c. 'hole' running through middle of cross section of s.c. (see 8.3.06 lecture slide 12)
What is a noncongruent joint?
Two sides of bones don't match up with each other as in the condyles of the femor and tibia. COndlye over condyle.
How do you tell if shoulder is dislocated?
Pec major pulls it forward (if inferior dislocation) into subcoracoid. If head of humerus below coracoid process, it's dislocated.
What is the definition of pronation? Of suppination?
- pronation is rotation of a limb so that palmar or plantar surfaces faces ventral- suppination is rotation of limb so that palmar or plantar surfaces faces up ("soup-inate)
What is the danger of occluding the great anterior segmental medulary a.?
If blood supply to cord is cut off for too long, the patient may become paraplegic. f.y.i. it is necessary in some surgical procedures to clamp aorta, which cuts off this blood supply
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