hematology lab test Flashcards

Hemoglobin
Terms Definitions
Agglutinin?
antibodies
Agglutunogens
Another word for "antigen"
Basophilia
an increase in basophils
Normal value for MCHC?
32-38%
Normal value Glucose?
60-120 mg/dl
Low number of lymphocytes
Lymphopenia
Increased amount of neutrophils
Neutrophilia
Decreased WBC, increased lymphocytes
Mononucleosis
Neutrophilia
Increase in Neutrophils.
Increase from Mature cells called: shift to the right
Increase from Immature cells: shift to the left.
Main function of WBC's
Fight infection
A smaller than normal RBC
Microcyte
Disease associated with increased atypical lymphocytes
Mononucleosis
Increased WBC, increased neutrophils
Bacterial Infection
The smallest of the WBC's
Lymphocyte
Normal Value for Hematocrit?
Men: 45-47%

Women: 42-44%
Hematocrit
this word means "to seperate blood" which is the mechanism of the test. this test determines the RBC mass by measuring space occupied by packed RBC's. whole blood is put in a test tube spinned on a centerfuge to seperate plasma from the packed RBC's. The result of just the RBC's not plasma are expressed as the percentage of RBC's in a volume of whole blood.
Which Rh factor is most abundant?
Rh+
Glucogon
accelerates the hydrolysis of glycogen into glucose within the liver. SO it INCREASES glucose level.
Name for increase concentration for Hemoglobin?
Hyperchromia
Leukocytosis
elevated WBC count above normal. (usually caused by elevation of only one type of WBC rather than a proportional elevation in all types of WBC's)
Function of a Basophils
(Granulocytes)().5-1%)
*least numerous
*ground peper stain purple

Function:
now completely known although they are considered to be phagocytic and they do secrete heparin, histamine, serotonin.
Causes of Eosinophilia
Parasitic infections:
1. tapeworm
2. roundworm
3. trichinosis
(not only do allergy cause incras)
Others:
1. Addison's dx
2. subacute infections
3. chronic skin infections ie. psoriasis
4. GI dx ie. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's dx
Normal Hct level in adult males
42-52%
RBC with normal color is called
Normochromic
Main constituent of red blood cells
Hgb
4 examples of poikilocytosis:
Sickle Cell
Stomatocytes
Target Cells
Helmet Cells
Anisocytosis can indicate:
Thalassemia or Liver Disease
Cholesterol
a steroid lipid, exists in plasma, muscle, RBC's, and cell membrane and is used by the body to form steroid hormones,bile salt and cell membr.
*Chemically, it exixt in both a FREE and BOUND to other chemical states.

*high levels is associated with atherosclerosis, and coronary artery dx.
thrombocytopenia
reduction in the number of platelets. Most commom cause of bleeding disorders. Bleeding is usually from capillaries.
Normal diff count values:
Neutrophils: 50-60% (most numerous)
Lymphocytes: 20-40&
Monocytes: 2-6%
Eosinophils: 1-4%
Basophils: 0.5-1%
Increased eosinophils can mean
Parasites or Allergic Reaction
Myelogenous leukemia has more of {what type of white cell} than normal?
Basophil
Color of the cytoplasm of a lymphocyte
Blue
An increase in the number of WBC's
Leukocytosis
platelets:
the smallest cells in the blood. they are formed in the red bone marrow an some are stored in the spleen. They are disk-like shapes, contains no hemoblobin, and are essential for the coagulation of blood and in maintenance of hemostasis.
Normal value: 200,000-300,000 in 1ml.
lest abundant blood type in USA is
AB type
Hemolytic anemia
RBC's are breaking down in the bloodstream.
What are the most rarest blood type?
Type AB
Neutrophils has different names according to it's maturity.
Mature: polymorphonuclear neutrophils, PMNs, polys, or segs.

Immature: stabs, bands, or juvs. (nucleus has not assumed the lobed shapes)
Anemia?
a condition in which there is a reduction in the number of circulating RBC's in the amount of hemoglobin, and or in the volume of packed cells (hematocrit) resulting in an decreased ability to transport oxygen..
When oxygen is bound with hemoglobin what color is the blood?
Bright red
When carbon dioxide is bounded with hemoglobin what color is the blood?
Dark red
Blood Glucose
purpose: to detect any disorder of glucose metabolism, mainly diabetes and it is used as an aid in DM management.
granulocytic (myeloid) leukemia?
presence of abnormal granulocytes or other cells of bone marrow.
Hct is ______ the amount of Hgb
3 times
What does a Hypochromic RBC indicate:
pale (low hgb)
On a CBC what should the Platelets level be:
150,000-400,000/mm3
What does a Hyperchromic RBC indicate:
dark (high hgb)
Causes of Anemias?
there are different types of anemias that it depends wether is associted with hemorrhage, iron or vitamin deficiencies, bone marrow disorders, spleen disorders, or genetic disorders associted with hemoglobin production.
Hemoglobin names for their normal contents:
macrochromic, microchromic, or normochromic.
Name the 3 granulocytes in WBC's?
1. Neutorphils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
How to calculate MCV?
MCV (cu. micrometers)=

hematocrit x 10
----------------------
RBC count (millins/mm3)
What are the two hormones that regulate blood glucose concentration?
1. Glocogon
2. Insulin
Glucose is formed by.....
1. digestion of carbohydrates
2. convertion of glycogen into glucose.
A disease where there is a large number of RBC's and high Hct
Polycythemia Vera
On a CBC what should the MCV range be:
82-98
What type of RBC inclusion is common in pernicious anemia?
Howell-Jolly Bodies
WBC that is elevated during a parasitic infection
Eosinophils (or basophils)
Where are RBC's made in the body?
Bone Marrow (myeloid tissue)
Neutrophils granules:
* Do not absorb Wright stain so will not see the granules. This is how it got it's name "NEUTRAL".
* Their nucleus is multi-lobed. (2-5 lobes)
* Lobes shape vary
Blood types:
1. type A
2. type B
3. type AB
4. type O (Universal donor)
Hgb is ______ the amount of Hct
1/3 (plus or -3)
RBC indices that measure the average volume of a red blood cell
MCV (Mean Cell Volume)
Causes of Hypochromia
(low levels Hemoglobin)
Anemia is the most common cause.

Others:
1. hyperthyroidism
2. cirrhosis of the liver
3. hemorrhage
4. leukemia
5. others
WBC Count:
is a test in which the total number of leukocytes present in each cubic millimeter of blood is determined.
Function of a Neutrophil
They are the bodies most numerous and most important type of WBC's in the body's reaction to inflammation!

*primary defense against microbial invasion through the process of phagocytosis.

*can cause some damage to body tissue by their release of enzymes and edogenous pyrogens (chemicals made by the body causing fever).
What is the name for decrease level of RBC count?
oligocythemia

*associated with Anemia
What causes an increase of monocytes (monocytosis)?
Causes:
1. acute infectious tuberculosis
2. mononucleosis
3. bacterial endocarditis and others
RBC's names for their normal size or abnormal size:
(large, small, normal)
macrocytic, microcytic, normacytic.
The globin portion of Hgb is made of _______
4 protein chains
Agglutinin type (antibodies)
1. B
2. A
3. Neither A or B
4. A and B
On a CBC what should the MCH range be:
26-34 (MCH=Mean Cell Hemoglobin)
What can also cause hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose level)?
1. Cushing's dx
2. acute stress (MI or severe infections like meningitis).
3. pituitary adenoma(resulting in an increase GH levels).
4. hyperthyroidism
5. adenoma of the pancreas (causing excessive glucose secreation).
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Term:
Definition:
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