Anatomy of the Muscular system Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mastication
Masseter
elbow joint
synovial
uniaxial
hinge joint 
Flexors
Latissimus dorsi
-infraspinatus
SPIRAL MUSCLES
EX- LATISSIMUS DORSI
Insertion
relatively mobile muscle connection
adductor muscle
pelvis/proximal femur/adducts thigh
fibularis longus
fibula/metatarsal bones/plantar flexes foot and everts foot
Sacroplasmic Reticulum stores what?
Calcium
PENNATE MUSCLE
FEATHER LIKE
THREE CATOGORIES
 
Horse, cattle and goats
Neck
Trapezius muscle
tibialis anterior
proximal tibia/first cuneiform (tarsal) and first metatarsal of foot
Actin = Thin or Thick?
Thin
FASCIA
GENERAL TERM FOR FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE FOUND UNDER THE SKIN AND SURROUNDING MANY DEEPER ORGANS, INCLUDING THE SKELETAL MUSCLE AND BONE
an example of a sesmoid bone?
patella
How are skeletal muscles controlled?
Voluntary (Striated)
Antagonist Pair
Triceps brachii + Brachiallis/Biceps Brachii
platysma
connective tissue covering of superior chest muscles/tissue around mouth/pluls corners of mouth inferiorly
Isometric Contractions
Create tension without shortening muscle
Smooth Muscle
Lines Hollow Structures, Nonstriated, Involuntary, Limited Ability to Regenerate
EPIMYSIUM
COARSE SHEATH COVERING THE MUSCLES AS A WHOLE
TENDON SHEATHS
ENCLOSE CERTAIN TENDONS
MAINLY THOSE OF THE WRIST AND ANKLE 
HAVE A LINING IF SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
MOIST SMOOTH SURFACE ENABLES THE TENDONS TO MOVE EASILY
 
an amphiarthrosis joint is?  
a slightly movable joint
Horse, cattle, and goats
Pelvic limb
Gluteal muscle, hamstring
external obliques
lower eight ribs/iliac crest/ flexes and rotates vertebral column
flexor carpi radialus
distal humerus/second and third metacarpals/flexes wrist and abducts hand
Myoglobin provides ________ with ________
Fiber with Oxygen
Muscle fibers contract when stimulated by a...
Motor Neuron
Synergists
Muscles that help the agonist move more efficiently
HOW MANY SHAPES ARE THERE TO DESCRIBE AND CATERGORIZE  THE SLELETAL MUSCLE
6
infraspinatus, name origin and action
infraspinous fossa
 
lateral or external rotation of the brachium
Features of the Skeletal muscles?
Move bones, generate heat,
What are the functions of the smooth muscles?
Contraction(intrinsic)
Tennis Elbow
Inflammation at the origin of extensor carpi muscles on lateral condyle of humerus.
Recruitment
The process in which the number of active motor units increases
Roughly 1/2 of muscle fibers are what?
Slow Oxidative
rotator cuff is made of what four muscles?
supraspinatus
infraspinatus
teres minor
subscapularis 
How are the skeletal muscles cells shaped
long, thin fibers,
Wave Summation
When a 2nd Stimulus occurs before the muscle relaxes, causing a 2nd contraction that is much stronger than the initial one
Axon Terminals
What the axon divides into after it enters the muscle
what type of joint is held together by fibrous connective tissue and contains no synovial cavity?  
fibrous joints
When stimulated by muscle action potential, pumps release ________ from ____________
Calcium from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
SO TOUGH AND THAT THEY ARE NOT OFTEN TORN, EVEN BY INJURIES FORCEABLE ENOUGH TO BREAK BONES  OR TEAR MUSCLES
TENDONS AND APONNEUROSES
What is the skeletal muscle organization.
they are arranged in bundles surrounded by connective tissue
12-48 hours after you damage your muscles by working out, what happens?
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS)
What happens if someone gets Botulism?
Bacteria gets into the neuromuscular junction, and blocks the release of ACh
Visceral Smooth Muscle Tissue is found where?
Lining hollow organs. It is autorhythmic
After energy gets transferred to the myosin head...
The myosin head binds to myosin-binding sites freed by the increase in calcium
Name two joint of the forelimb and the bones that make it
Elbow joint humerus , radius/ulna
Scuplo-humeral scupla and humerus.
the intrinsic muscles of the hand is innervated by what never?
the ulnar nerve, except for thenar eminence
What does the calcium bind with after it has been released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
The calcium binds with troponin & changes it's shape
Abductors
Deltoideus
aponeroses?
flattened sheetlike tendon
Trapezius
swing scapula forward
COVERS INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS
ENDOMYSIUM
Fascicles
Bundles of muscle fibers
soleus
proximal tibia and fibula/calcaneus/plantar flexes foot
Tendons
Attach muscle to bone
Agonist
muscle directly responsible for producing an action
Acting on the Hip Joint
Flexors
iliopsoas
quadriceps
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, Involuntary, Cannot Regenerate
 FIXATOR
MUSCLES THAT GENERALLY FUNCTION AS JOINT STABILIZERS
an example of a bursa is?
olecranon
Where are Cardiac muscles located
The Heart
biceps brachii
scapula of shoulder girdle/proximal radius/flexes elbow and supinates forearm
biceps femoris
ischial tuberosity/head of fibula/flex knee and extend hip
Cardiac muscle is/isn't stimulated by ACh?
Isn't
Cardiac muscle contracts and relaxes automatically. What is the word used to describe this?
Autorhythmic
SUPERFICIAL FASCIA
FASCIA JUST UNDER THE SKIN (HYPODERMIS)
structure of bone
diaphysis-shaft of a long bone
epiphysis-ends of bone
metaphyses- inbetween diaphysis and epiphysis
articular cartilage- joint cartilage
periosteum-outer linning of a long bone
medullary cavity- cavity which houses blood vessels
endosteum- inner linning of a long bone 
insertion?
more moveable attatchment of a muscle, usually distal
How many Nuclei do skeletal muscles have?
Multiple
rectus abdominus
pubis/sternum and fifth to seventh ribs/flexes vertebral column
What are muscle groups that help stabilize the origin of the agonist?
Fixators
Muscle Action Potential
Muscles contract after recieveing electrical impulse
Creatine produces enough energy for about how long?
15 Seconds
Synaptic End Bulbs
Contain vesicles filled with acetylcholine (ACh). Terminals end with Synaptic End Bulbs
Muscles are not directly attached to bones. What attaches them?
Tendons
BIPENNATE MUSCLES
RECTUS FEMORIS IN THIGH
HAVE DOUBLE FEATHERED ATTACHMENTS OF THE FASCICLES 
trapezius, name origin and action
spinous process
 
elevates lateral angle of scapula,
adducts, elevates, and depresses the scapula 
Example of Sphincter
encircle an opening (striated/ smooth) Eg pyloric sphincter
Acting on the hip
abductors
deep gluteal (gluteus profundus)
Muscular System
Organ system composed of muscles and associated connected tissue
Muscles are innervated with what?
Nervous and Blood Supplies
When you age, does the number of muscle fibers change, or the size of the muscle fibers?
Size
What type of atrophy occurs when muscles are not used for a long time?
Disuse atrophy
what nerve innervates all muscles of the forearm?
the median nerve
Hernia
tear in the muscle wall & organ slips through tear
Fused Tetanus
When a muscle is stimulated for more than 90 seconds
what type of joint is help together by cartilage and contains no synovial cavity?
cartilaginous joint
There are 3 sources of ATP:
Creatine Phosphate, Glycoysis, Aerobic Cellular Respiration
teres minor, name origin and action
axillary border of the scapula superior to the teres major
 
external rotation of the humerus
what are the functions of cardiac muscles?
Contracts intrinsically assisting in cirulation of blood
There are two types of muscle tissue:
Visceral (Single-Unit) Tissue, and Multiunit Tissue
PRIME MOVERS OR AGONIST
WHAT NAME IS USED TO DESCRIBE A MUSCLE THAT DIRECTLY PERSORMS A SPECIFIC MOVEMENT
When nerve impulses reach the axon terminal....
it triggers the release of ACh
How do the amount of motor units relate to whether the muscle needs fine/powerful small/large movements?
Muscles that control fine, small movements have many motor units, innervate less than 10 fibers
the biceps brachii is a flexor compartment muscle, what are the origins of the heads and what are the performing actions?
the origin of the long head; glenoid fossa
                          short head; coracoid process
 
the actions are; supinates forarm, and when supine, also flexes forarm
a diarthrosis is a what type of joint?
a freely movable joint, and also a synovial joint.
/ 98
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online