Anatomy of upper and lower Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Brachioradialis (Innervation)
Extensor Digitorum (Innervation)
Extensor Indicis (innervation)
Supraspinatus muscle (Origin)
Supraspinous fossa
Extensor Digiti Minimi (Innervation)
Abductor Pollicis Longus (Innervation)
Hip adduction
adductors, L2/3, Obturator
Musculocutaneous Nerve (C5-6)coracoid process-->mid shaft of humerusflexes shoulder and adducts armresists shoulder dislocation
Suprascapular Nerve (C4-6)Supraspinous fossa--> superior greater tubercle of humerusAbduct arm first 90, rotator cuff
O: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
In: Lateral surface of olecranon process (same as triceps)
Inn: Radial nerve
Rhomboid Major (Action)
Adduction of scapula
Biceps Brachii Short Head (Innervation)
Infraspinatus (insertion)
Greater tubercle of humerus
Knee extension
quads, L3/4, (++reflex), femoral
ORIGINMedial three quarters of infraspinous fossa of scapula and fibrous intermuscular septa INSERTIONMiddle facet of greater tuberosity of humerus and capsule of shoulder joint ACTIONLaterally rotates arm and stabilizes shoulder joint NERVESuprascapular nerve (C5, 6 ) (from upper trunk)
ORIGINCoracoid process of scapula with biceps brachii INSERTIONUpper half medial border of humerus ACTIONFlexes and weakly adducts arm NERVEMusculocutaneous nerve (C5, 6, 7) (from lateral cord)
Brachial Artery
Inferior Teres Major-->Radial/Ulnar bifurcationBranches: Profunda brachial artery, muscular/collateral branches around elbow
Biceps Brachii
Musculocutaneous (C5,C6)short head: coracoid process, long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula--> radial tuberosityflexes elbow, long head flexes arm, strong supinator when arm is flexedLong head runs through bicipital groove-->can be used to locate rotator cuff
Reflex Tendons
Biceps (C6, musculocutaneous)Triceps (C7, C8, radial)Brachioradialis (C6, superficial radial)
Dermatomes of Hand
C6-ThumbC7- MiddleC8- Pinkie
Radial Nerve
C5-T1, posterior cordBEASTSuperficial: Brachioradialis, ECRL, sensory dorsal handDeep: Extensors, Abductor Pollicus Longus, Supinator(penetrates) Upper: TricepsTriangular interval with profunda brachial artery
O: UPPER lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
In: Styloid process of radius
Inn: Radial nerve
Abductor Pollicis Longus (Action)
abduct the thumb
Latissimus Dorsi (insertion)
Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Triceps Brachii Long Head (Innervation)
Radial Nerve
Ventral rami involved in elbow flexion
Large, rectangular carpal that seems to stand on its short end. Middle carpal of the distal row. Medial to the trapezoid and lateral to the hamate.Articulates with the third metacarpal.
ORIGINUpper two thirds of lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus and lateral intermuscular septum INSERTIONBase of styloid process of radius ACTIONFlexes arm at elbow and brings forearm into midprone position NERVERadial nerve (C5, 6)
Pectoralis Minor
Medial Pectoral Nerve (C8-T1)ribs 3-5-->coracoid processDraws scapula forward, medially, downward
Shoulder Dystocia
Vaginal DeliveryUpper fibers of brachial plexus-->proximal weakness
Circumflex Scapular Artery
From Subscapular ArteryCourse: Posteriorly through triangular/unnamed spaceSupplies: Infraspinous fossa, collateral circulation of scapularAnastomoses with Dorsal Scapular and Suprascapular
Internal Thoracic Artery
From SubclavianCourse: descends medially to breastSupplies: breast
Dorsal Scapular Nerve
C5 (root)Rhomboids, Levator Scapulae
Rhomboid Minor
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5)Nuchal ligament, C7-T1--> medial end of scapular spineRetract scapula, rotate to depress glenoid cavity
Golfer's Elbow
overuse of flexors, medial epicondylitis
Degenerative joint disease of the wristTreatment: Surgical fusion of carpal bones
Pronator teres
O: Superficial - medial supracondylar ridge of humerus, medial epicondyle. Deep - coronoid process of ulna
In: Middle lateral radius
 Inn: Median nerve
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (Action)
Extend and Adduct wrist
Deltoid (Action)
Flex, extend, medial and lateral rotation, and abduct shoulder
Rami (spinal nerve) level of abduction of the shoulder
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
paralysis of thenar muscles-ape thumbsensory loss on 3.5 fingers, palmar surface, and dorsal surface from tips of finger to PIP joing
Median nerve paralysis-hand
thenar muscle paralysis (recurrent median nerve) = ape thumb (external rotation and adduction)
14 long bones making up the fingers/digits of the upper limb.Consist of proximal, middle, and distal phalanges, with the exception of the pollex which has no middle phalanx.Proximal phalanges articulate with metacarpals and middle phalanges. Middle phalanges articulate with proximal and distal phalanges. Distal phalanges articulate with middle phalanges. (Exception: pollex. Distal and proximal phalanges articulate).
Radial Groove
Line running obliquely down the posterior aspect of the humerus's shaft.Marks the course of the radial nerve.
ORIGINCommon extensor origin on anterior aspect of lateral epicondyle of humerus INSERTIONExtensor expansion of little finger-usually two tendons which are joined by a slip from extensor digitorum at metacarpophalangeal joint ACTIONExtends all joints of little finger NERVEPosterior interosseous nerve (C7, 8)
Flexor pollicis brevis
Recurrent Median Nerve (C8)Thenar MuscleFlexor reticulum--> lateral base of PP of thumbHelps with positioning, secondary to flexor pollicis longusFlexes and adducts thumb
Lateral Thoracic Artery
From: 2nd stage AxillaryCourse: lateral border Pec MinorSupplies: Pec Major, Pec Minor, Serratus Anterior, Lateral Mammary arteries
Dupuytren Contracture
Connective tissue contracts and scars, palmar aponeurosis becomes hyperplastic-->pulls ring and little fingers downrequires surgery to fix, smokers/diabetics more at risk
Fracture of Clavicle
Upward displacement of proximal portion by sternocleidomastoid muscle and displacement of coracoclavicular ligament, downward displacement of distal by deltoid/gravityCauses: breeched birth, pressing against pubis symphysisEffects: injury to brachial plexus, hemorrhage of subclavian vein, thrombosis of subclavian vein-->pulmonary embolism
Levator Scapulae
Dorsal Scapular Nerve (C5), Cervical Nerve (C3-4)C1-C4-->medial border of the scapula, superior angle to the spineelevates scapula, rotates glenoid cavity inferiorly
Extensor Indicis
O: Distal posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
In: Extensor expansions of 2nd digit
Inn: Posterior interosseous nerve
Triceps Brachii Long Head (Insertion)
Olecranon process of ulna
Teres Minor (Action)
Lateral rotation of arm at shoulder
Deep Posterior forearm muscles
Supinator, Abductor pollicis longus, ext. pollicis brevis, ext. pollicis longus, ext. indicis propius
Klumpke Palsy
Lower Trunk Injuries: Trauma to the upper trunk (C8, T1) by forceful hyperabduction and traction of upper limb.
Coronoid Process (Ulna)
Jutting process anterior and inferior to the olecranon process of the ulna. Grips the trochlea of the humerus.
Intertubercular Groove/Intertubercular Sulcus (Humerus)
Groove between the lesser and greater tubercles of the humerus which guides a tendon of the biceps muscle of the arm to its attachment point at the rim of the glenoid cavity.
Skier's Thumb (Gamekeeper's thumb)
Cause: Hyperabduction of ThumbEffect: Tear UCL of thumb MP joint-->separates from thumb--> Stener lesion- UCL lodged superficial and proximal to Adductor Aponeurosis, Severe case--> avulsion fracture of metacarpal
triangular space
teres major, teres minor, long head tricepscontains circumflex scapular artery
Wrist drop
Sign of radial nerve injury--> can't extend wrist/fingersHigh lesion: curled up triceps as well (supinator dead but can supinate with bicep)Low lesion: Policeman's tip
Medial Pectoral Nerve
C8-T1, medial cordPectoralis Major and Minor
Bicipetal aponeurosis
Grace a Dieu: Bicipetal aponeurosis in cubital fossa protects median nerve/brachial artery in venipuncture/bloodletting
O: INFERIOR lip of crest of spine of scapula, acromion, lateral third of clavicle (SAC)
In: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Inn: Axillary nerve
Biceps Brachii Long Head (Action)
Flex and supinate at elbow
Intrinsic muscles of the thumb
Opponens Pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi brevis, oppponens digiti minimi, lumbricals
Referred pain of angina
via sympathetics arising from T1-T5, and leaving symp chain from C1-T4. ischemia = pain at C1-T5 levels
Surgical Neck of the Humerus
Constriction below the bulbous proximal end of the humerus.
Superior and Inferior Ulnar Collateral Arteries
From Brachial ArterySupplies: collateral circulation of elbow joint, Medial arm musclesI Am Pretty Smart: Inferior collateral goes with Anterior recurrent, Posterior recurrent goes with Superior collateral
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Deep branch of Ulnar Nerve (T1)Hypothenar MuscleHook of Hamate and Flexor retinaculum-->medial base of PP of 5th digitFlexes PP of 5th digit
a broad, flat muscle on each side of the upper and back part of the neck, shoulders, and back, the action of which raises, or rotates, or draws back the shoulders, and pulls the head backward or to one side.
ulnar nerve route
from C8- T1, to the medial cord, passes through the intramuscular septum, the arcade of struthers, retrocondrayl groove, cubital tunnel, through the two head of the flexor carpi ulnaris, gets to the wrist, then enters the ulnar tunnel (Guyon's tunnel) then innervates the pinky and the adjacent side of the ring finger
Proximal Radioulnar Joint
Point where the head of the radius articulates with the radial notch of the ulna.
PTS (Pronator Teres Syndrome)
Entrapment of median nerve between two heads of pronator teres-->similar symptoms to carpal tunnelOften found in bodybuilders due to steroids
Cutaneous Innervation of Hand
Median: Palm and nail beds 1-3, Radial: Dorsal 1-3 and anatomical snuffboxUlnar: 4-5
origins of the Biceps brachii muscle
short head: coracoid processlong head: supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
Causalgia = pain from hyperstimulate nerves that travel w/blood vessels and follow sympatheticsSympathetic Effects of anesthesia?
knock out sensory neurons in ganglion, but also knock out some of symp chain = 1)dilation (flushed skin), 2)sweat glands (dry skin), 3)erector pili muscles (no goosebumps); (sometimes constricted pupil and sunken eyeball = Horner's syndrome)
What are the muscles of the posterior Deep Forearm Muscles
1. Supinator2. Abductor Pollicis Longus3. Extensor Pollicis Brevis4. Extensor Pollicis Longus5. Extensor indicis
Medial cord gives rise to
the Ulnar nerve and part of the median nerve (the other part coming from the lateral cord)
Ulnar nerve innervation in the forearm
flecor carpi ulnaris, and half of the flexor digitorum profundus
Ulnar nerve motor innervation in the hand
comes form the deep branch of the ulnar nerve; innervates the opponens digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, adductor pollicis muscle, VIP: DORSAL AND PALMAR INTEROSSEOUS muscles
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