Heredity Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Organisms appearance
chromosome duplication
segment repeated
ratios or percents
Barr body
unexpressed X chromosome
error in homologous chromosome separation
Turner's syndrome; sterile, no puberty
the trait that is expressed.
homozygous dominant
both traits are AA
centromeres divide, chromatids pull apart no more sister chromatids.
inherited lysosomal storage disorder, prevalent in Oshkenazi Jews, Fatty material supposed to be broken down by lysosome disorder, excess fatty material bocks pathway for nerve transmission.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Autosomal Recessive. Inability to break down the amino acid phenylalanine. Requires elimination of phenylalamine from diet, otherwise serious mental retardation will occur.
Likelihood that a particular event will happen. Commonly used in genetics.
piece chromosome is lost (Cri-du-chat with chromosome 5)
both alleles express themselves fully in a heterozygous organism
Alternative phenotypes to the wild type
The genetic makeup of an organism
allele(gene)is located on a sex chromosome and it will be more common in one sex. it is usually on the X chromosonme and more common in males than in females.barr bodies- tightly coiled Xchromosome in females-inactive X chromosome. Calico cats- usually on fmelas. yellow and black allesles on X cchromosome- Female has 2 X
DNA and proteins loosely arranged, cant pick out DNA
specialized structure in a eukaryotic cell that carries out a specific function. I.e.-mitochondria-releases energy from nutrients, participates in cell death.
chromosomes line up along equatorial plate.
the act or process of reproducing.
sickle cells anemia
common recessive disease,occurs as result of improper amino acid substitution during translation of hemoglobin
family trees used to discribe the genetic relationships within a family
incomplete dominance
the heterozygous genotype produces and intermediate phenotype rather then the dominant phenotype; neither allele dominates the other
Two separate genes control one trait but one gene masks the expression of the other gene.
Genetic Mosaic
An individual with somatic regions that are genetically different from each other
Turner syndrome
nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes. Only affects women. When a female has 1 X, but not a second one. have physical deformities and are sterile
A cross that tracks the inheritance pattern of a single character
Huntingtons Disease
Degenerative breakdown of the nervous system
incomplete dominance
one allele(gene) is not completely dominant over another resulting in a blending of traits
kintechore spindle fibers
attach microtubules, shortening and breaking off/reeling in.
homologous chromosome
chromosomes with the same gene sequence.
having two identical alleles of a gene.
the science of heredity, dealing with characteristics of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment
monohybrid cross
cross that involves a single character in which both parents are heterozygous. gives a 3:1 phenotype ration in the offspring
law of segregation
every organism carries alleles for each trait and the members of the pair segregate during the formation of gametes
multiple alleles
traits that involve more than two alleles like blood type
The ability of one single gene to affect an organism in several or many ways. Marfan Syndrome.
Dominant Trait
Trait observed when at least one dominant allele for each characteristic is inherideted.
polygenic traits
traits affected by more than one gene
the trait that is there, but isn't expressed if paired up with a dominant allele.
Sex linked dominant
All females descending from the affected males have the disease
a unit of inheritance that usually is directly responsible for one trait of character. each individual has 2 genes for each trait, one from each parent.
The different forms a gene may have for a trait
cytoskeleton function
a framework of protein tubules and rods that supports the cell and gives it a distinctive form.
any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation.
messenger rna
a single-stranded molecule of RNA that is synthesized in the nucleus from a DNA template and then enters the cytoplasm, where its genetic code specifies the amino acid sequence for protein synthesis.
Turner's Syndrome
XO 45 chromosomes due to missing sex chromosome. Small stature, female.
a fraction of the body cells have an extra or missing chromosome
autosomal chromosome
one that is not directly involved in determining gender
Gene Mapping
An ordered list of genetic loci along a chromosome
multifactorial traits
more then one pair of genes plus environment
somatic cell
a non-sex cell, with 23 chromosomes in humans
multiple alleles
three or more alleles for a gene as blood type as skin color
germinal cell
egg or sperm cell which have one copy of the genome.
Internal factors ref. Cell growth
cyclins, and kinases turns on genes that trigger mitosis.
What are P (parental) generation, F1 (first filial) generation, and F2(second filial) generation?
1. P (parental) generation- The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance.
2. F1 (first filial) generation- The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses.
3. F2 (second filial) generation- Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype is the genetic make up of an organism. Phenotype is an organism's traits.
genetically different
P generation
the parents
a chromosome tip.
a genetically inherited characteristic that differs from person to person
Carry two different alleles (heterozygous)
allele frequency for the dominant
A variant of a character
sac containing digestive enzymes, degrades debris, recycles cell contents.
mitosis stage which replicated chromosomes line up along equatorial plate
FIN-cell divides into 2 cells
Chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual (22 pairs of autosomes)
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Sex-Linked Recessive. Progressive weakening of muscle control and loss of coordination.
frequency of homozygous recessive
q2 [q squared]
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA.
An offspring whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote
DNA structure
double helix with sugar9deoxyribose), and phosphate and nitrogen bases(adenine, thymine, guaneine, and cytosine) pairing AT and GC.
The trait that seems to disappear
two associated globular subunits of RNA and protein, scaffold and catalyst for protein synthesis.
porous sac containing DNA, separates DNA within a cell.
the transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring: it is dependent upon the segregation and recombination of genes during meiosis and fertilization and results in the genesis of a new individual similar to others of its kind but exhibiting
downs syndrome
trisomy 21, three 21 chromosomes, cause by nondisjunction, leads to mental and physical retardation
second generation of an offspring or the second filial generation in a genetic cross
Inheritance controlled by a gene on the x chromosome (sex chromosome) IE Color blindness
Any changes in the genome. Generally, but not always, recessive.
the phenotypic ratio of a dihybrid cross [2 heterozygous alleles]
heterozygous (hybrid)
if the two alleles are different
a charge that organizes chromosomes in relation to number, size, and type
A single individual organism that is genetically identical to another organism or lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells.
Wild Type
Most common phenotype in the population
Autosomal Dominant
No carriers or skiping of generations
monohybrid cross
a cross involving only one trait.
polar spindle fibers
don't actually attach, facilitates separation of chromosomes, egg shape
signal transduction
Molecules on the plasma membrane assess, transmit, and amplify incoming messages to the cells interior
having identical pairs of genes for any given pair of hereditary characteristics.
a sudden departure from the parent type in one or more heritable characteristics, caused by a change in a gene or a chromosome.
autosomal chromosomes
a chromosome that is not directly involved in determining gender
mutant phenotypes
traits that are different from the normal
Marfan Syndrome
A single defective gene results in abnormalities of the eyes, the skeleton, and the great blood vessels.
Tay-Sachs Disease
Autosomal Recessive. Onset is early in life and is caused by lack of the enzyme necessary to break down lipids needed for normal brain function. It is common in Ashkenazi Jews and results in seizures, blindness, and early death.
Trisonomy 13
Patau Syndrome; problems in brain and circulation
homozygous dominant
the inheritance of 2 dominant alleles. The dominant allele is then expressed.
the location of a gene on a chromosome
a 19th century monk who worked with pea plants. is known as the "father of genetics." is credited for coming up with the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment
One part of a chromosome is attached to another part of a different chromosome
Pure Bred
An organism that always produces the same traits in its offspring
linked genes
lie on the same chromosome but dont follow mendels law of independant assortment caused by crossing over
Sickle Cell Disease
Autosomal Recessive. A mutation in the gene for hemoglobin results in deformed red blood cells. Carriers of the sickle cell trait are resistant to malaria.
chromosomal translocation
one piece of chromosome is attached to another (chronis myelogenous leukemia with chromosomes 22 and 9)
What are alleles?
Alternative versions of a gene that produces distinguishable phenotype effects.
Law of Independent Assortment
Observed with dihybrid crosses or crosses b/w 2 different characters; alleles asort independently from each other
what is signal transduction
molecules on the plasma membrane assess, transmit, and amplify incoming messages to the interior.
sikle cell
causes blood cells to form in a sickle shape
homozygous (pure)
if both of the given alleles are the same
a form of cell death that is a normal part of growth and development
Why is DNA replication necessary?
To make enough DNA for cell division so daughter cells have the correct amount of DNA, genes, and chromosomes.
What is a monohybrid cross and how many squares are in the Punnett square?
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. 4 squares.
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